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Rana, Rima, Zaeem, Razieh Nokhbeh, Barber, K. Suzanne.  2019.  An Assessment of Blockchain Identity Solutions: Minimizing Risk and Liability of Authentication. 2019 IEEE/WIC/ACM International Conference on Web Intelligence (WI). :26–33.
Personally Identifiable Information (PII) is often used to perform authentication and acts as a gateway to personal and organizational information. One weak link in the architecture of identity management services is sufficient to cause exposure and risk identity. Recently, we have witnessed a shift in identity management solutions with the growth of blockchain. Blockchain-the decentralized ledger system-provides a unique answer addressing security and privacy with its embedded immutability. In a blockchain-based identity solution, the user is given the control of his/her identity by storing personal information on his/her device and having the choice of identity verification document used later to create blockchain attestations. Yet, the blockchain technology alone is not enough to produce a better identity solution. The user cannot make informed decisions as to which identity verification document to choose if he/she is not presented with tangible guidelines. In the absence of scientifically created practical guidelines, these solutions and the choices they offer may become overwhelming and even defeat the purpose of providing a more secure identity solution.We analyze different PII options given to users for authentication on current blockchain-based solutions. Based on our Identity Ecosystem model, we evaluate these options and their risk and liability of exposure. Powered by real world data of about 6,000 identity theft and fraud stories, our model recommends some authentication choices and discourages others. Our work paves the way for a truly effective identity solution based on blockchain by helping users make informed decisions and motivating blockchain identity solution providers to introduce better options to their users.
Haddouti, Samia El, Ech-Cherif El Kettani, M. Dafir.  2019.  Analysis of Identity Management Systems Using Blockchain Technology. 2019 International Conference on Advanced Communication Technologies and Networking (CommNet). :1–7.
The emergence of Blockchain technology as the biggest innovations of the 21stcentury, has given rise to new concepts of Identity Management to deal with the privacy and security challenges on the one hand, and to enhance the decentralization and user control in transactions on Blockchain infrastructures on the other hand. This paper investigates and gives analysis of the most popular Identity Management Systems using Blockchain: uPort, Sovrin, and ShoCard. It then evaluates them under a set of features of digital identity that characterizes the successful of an Identity Management solution. The result of the comparative analysis is presented in a concise way to allow readers to find out easily which systems satisfy what requirements in order to select the appropriate one to fit into a specific scenario.
Essaid, Meryam, Kim, DaeYong, Maeng, Soo Hoon, Park, Sejin, Ju, Hong Taek.  2019.  A Collaborative DDoS Mitigation Solution Based on Ethereum Smart Contract and RNN-LSTM. 2019 20th Asia-Pacific Network Operations and Management Symposium (APNOMS). :1–6.
Recently Distributed Denial-of-Service (DDoS) are becoming more and more sophisticated, which makes the existing defence systems not capable of tolerating by themselves against wide-ranging attacks. Thus, collaborative protection mitigation has become a needed alternative to extend defence mechanisms. However, the existing coordinated DDoS mitigation approaches either they require a complex configuration or are highly-priced. Blockchain technology offers a solution that reduces the complexity of signalling DDoS system, as well as a platform where many autonomous systems (Ass) can share hardware resources and defence capabilities for an effective DDoS defence. In this work, we also used a Deep learning DDoS detection system; we identify individual DDoS attack class and also define whether the incoming traffic is legitimate or attack. By classifying the attack traffic flow separately, our proposed mitigation technique could deny only the specific traffic causing the attack, instead of blocking all the traffic coming towards the victim(s).
Wang, Ziyan, Dong, Xinghua, Li, Yi, Fang, Li, Chen, Ping.  2018.  IoT Security Model and Performance Evaluation: A Blockchain Approach. 2018 International Conference on Network Infrastructure and Digital Content (IC-NIDC). :260-264.
It is a research hotspot that using blockchain technology to solve the security problems of the Internet of Things (IoT). Although many related ideas have been proposed, there are very few literatures with theoretical and data support. This paper focuses on the research of model construction and performance evaluation. First, an IoT security model is established based on blockchain and InterPlanetary File System (IPFS). In this model, many security risks of traditional IoT architectures can be avoided, and system performance is significantly improved in distributed large capacity storage, concurrency and query. Secondly, the performance of the proposed model is evaluated through the average latency and throughput, which are meaningful for further research and optimization of this direction. Analysis and test results demonstrate the effectiveness of the blockchain-based security model.
Acharjamayum, Irani, Patgiri, Ripon, Devi, Dhruwajita.  2018.  Blockchain: A Tale of Peer to Peer Security. 2018 IEEE Symposium Series on Computational Intelligence (SSCI). :609-617.

The underlying or core technology of Bitcoin cryptocurrency has become a blessing for human being in this era. Everything is gradually changing to digitization in this today's epoch. Bitcoin creates virtual money using Blockchain that's become popular over the world. Blockchain is a shared public ledger, and it includes all transactions which are confirmed. It is almost impossible to crack the hidden information in the blocks of the Blockchain. However, there are certain security and technical challenges like scalability, privacy leakage, selfish mining, etc. which hampers the wide application of Blockchain. In this paper, we briefly discuss this emerging technology namely Blockchain. In addition, we extrapolate in-depth insight on Blockchain technology.

Liu, Y., Zhang, J., Gao, Q..  2018.  A Blockchain-Based Secure Cloud Files Sharing Scheme with Fine-Grained Access Control. 2018 International Conference on Networking and Network Applications (NaNA). :277-283.

As cloud services greatly facilitate file sharing online, there's been a growing awareness of the security challenges brought by outsourcing data to a third party. Traditionally, the centralized management of cloud service provider brings about safety issues because the third party is only semi-trusted by clients. Besides, it causes trouble for sharing online data conveniently. In this paper, the blockchain technology is utilized for decentralized safety administration and provide more user-friendly service. Apart from that, Ciphertext-Policy Attribute Based Encryption is introduced as an effective tool to realize fine-grained data access control of the stored files. Meanwhile, the security analysis proves the confidentiality and integrity of the data stored in the cloud server. Finally, we evaluate the performance of computation overhead of our system.

Zhang, X., Li, R., Cui, B..  2018.  A security architecture of VANET based on blockchain and mobile edge computing. 2018 1st IEEE International Conference on Hot Information-Centric Networking (HotICN). :258–259.

The development of Vehicular Ad-hoc NETwork (VANET) has brought many conveniences to human beings, but also brings a very prominent security problem. The traditional solution to the security problem is based on centralized approach which requires a trusted central entity which exists a single point of failure problem. Moreover, there is no approach of technical level to ensure security of data. Therefore, this paper proposes a security architecture of VANET based on blockchain and mobile edge computing. The architecture includes three layers, namely perception layer, edge computing layer and service layer. The perception layer ensures the security of VANET data in the transmission process through the blockchain technology. The edge computing layer provides computing resources and edge cloud services to the perception layer. The service layer uses the combination of traditional cloud storage and blockchain to ensure the security of data.

Cui, S., Asghar, M. R., Russello, G..  2018.  Towards Blockchain-Based Scalable and Trustworthy File Sharing. 2018 27th International Conference on Computer Communication and Networks (ICCCN). :1-2.

In blockchain-based systems, malicious behaviour can be detected using auditable information in transactions managed by distributed ledgers. Besides cryptocurrency, blockchain technology has recently been used for other applications, such as file storage. However, most of existing blockchain- based file storage systems can not revoke a user efficiently when multiple users have access to the same file that is encrypted. Actually, they need to update file encryption keys and distribute new keys to remaining users, which significantly increases computation and bandwidth overheads. In this work, we propose a blockchain and proxy re-encryption based design for encrypted file sharing that brings a distributed access control and data management. By combining blockchain with proxy re-encryption, our approach not only ensures confidentiality and integrity of files, but also provides a scalable key management mechanism for file sharing among multiple users. Moreover, by storing encrypted files and related keys in a distributed way, our method can resist collusion attacks between revoked users and distributed proxies.

Keenan, T. P..  2017.  Alice in Blockchains: Surprising Security Pitfalls in PoW and PoS Blockchain Systems. 2017 15th Annual Conference on Privacy, Security and Trust (PST). :400–4002.

If, as most experts agree, the mathematical basis of major blockchain systems is (probably if not provably) sound, why do they have a bad reputation? Human misbehavior (such as failed Bitcoin exchanges) accounts for some of the issues, but there are also deeper and more interesting vulnerabilities here. These include design faults and code-level implementation defects, ecosystem issues (such as wallets), as well as approaches such as the "51% attack" all of which can compromise the integrity of blockchain systems. With particular attention to the emerging non-financial applications of blockchain technology, this paper demonstrates the kinds of attacks that are possible and provides suggestions for minimizing the risks involved.

Magyar, G..  2017.  Blockchain: Solving the Privacy and Research Availability Tradeoff for EHR Data: A New Disruptive Technology in Health Data Management. 2017 IEEE 30th Neumann Colloquium (NC). :000135–000140.

A blockchain powered Health information ecosystem can solve a frequently discussed problem of the lifelong recorded patient health data, which seriously could hurdle the privacy of the patients and the growing data hunger of the research and policy maker institutions. On one side the general availability of the data is vital in emergency situations and supports heavily the different research, population health management and development activities, on the other side using the same data can lead to serious social and ethical problems caused by malicious actors. Currently, the regulation of the privacy data varies all over the world, however underlying principles are always defensive and protective towards patient privacy against general availability. The protective principles cause a defensive, data hiding attitude of the health system developers to avoid breaching the overall law regulations. It makes the policy makers and different - primarily drug - developers to find ways to treat data such a way that lead to ethical and political debates. In our paper we introduce how the blockchain technology can help solving the problem of secure data storing and ensuring data availability at the same time. We use the basic principles of the American HIPAA regulation, which defines the public availability criteria of health data, however the different local regulations may differ significantly. Blockchain's decentralized, intermediary-free, cryptographically secured attributes offer a new way of storing patient data securely and at the same time publicly available in a regulated way, where a well-designed distributed peer-to-peer network incentivize the smooth operation of a full-featured EHR system.

Yue, L., Junqin, H., Shengzhi, Q., Ruijin, W..  2017.  Big Data Model of Security Sharing Based on Blockchain. 2017 3rd International Conference on Big Data Computing and Communications (BIGCOM). :117–121.

The rise of big data age in the Internet has led to the explosive growth of data size. However, trust issue has become the biggest problem of big data, leading to the difficulty in data safe circulation and industry development. The blockchain technology provides a new solution to this problem by combining non-tampering, traceable features with smart contracts that automatically execute default instructions. In this paper, we present a credible big data sharing model based on blockchain technology and smart contract to ensure the safe circulation of data resources.

Alexopoulos, N., Daubert, J., Mühlhäuser, M., Habib, S. M..  2017.  Beyond the Hype: On Using Blockchains in Trust Management for Authentication. 2017 IEEE Trustcom/BigDataSE/ICESS. :546–553.

Trust Management (TM) systems for authentication are vital to the security of online interactions, which are ubiquitous in our everyday lives. Various systems, like the Web PKI (X.509) and PGP's Web of Trust are used to manage trust in this setting. In recent years, blockchain technology has been introduced as a panacea to our security problems, including that of authentication, without sufficient reasoning, as to its merits.In this work, we investigate the merits of using open distributed ledgers (ODLs), such as the one implemented by blockchain technology, for securing TM systems for authentication. We formally model such systems, and explore how blockchain can help mitigate attacks against them. After formal argumentation, we conclude that in the context of Trust Management for authentication, blockchain technology, and ODLs in general, can offer considerable advantages compared to previous approaches. Our analysis is, to the best of our knowledge, the first to formally model and argue about the security of TM systems for authentication, based on blockchain technology. To achieve this result, we first provide an abstract model for TM systems for authentication. Then, we show how this model can be conceptually encoded in a blockchain, by expressing it as a series of state transitions. As a next step, we examine five prevalent attacks on TM systems, and provide evidence that blockchain-based solutions can be beneficial to the security of such systems, by mitigating, or completely negating such attacks.

Kravitz, D. W., Cooper, J..  2017.  Securing user identity and transactions symbiotically: IoT meets blockchain. 2017 Global Internet of Things Summit (GIoTS). :1–6.
Swarms of embedded devices provide new challenges for privacy and security. We propose Permissioned Blockchains as an effective way to secure and manage these systems of systems. A long view of blockchain technology yields several requirements absent in extant blockchain implementations. Our approach to Permissioned Blockchains meets the fundamental requirements for longevity, agility, and incremental adoption. Distributed Identity Management is an inherent feature of our Permissioned Blockchain and provides for resilient user and device identity and attribute management.
Raju, S., Boddepalli, S., Gampa, S., Yan, Q., Deogun, J. S..  2017.  Identity management using blockchain for cognitive cellular networks. 2017 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC). :1–6.
Cloud-centric cognitive cellular networks utilize dynamic spectrum access and opportunistic network access technologies as a means to mitigate spectrum crunch and network demand. However, furnishing a carrier with personally identifiable information for user setup increases the risk of profiling in cognitive cellular networks, wherein users seek secondary access at various times with multiple carriers. Moreover, network access provisioning - assertion, authentication, authorization, and accounting - implemented in conventional cellular networks is inadequate in the cognitive space, as it is neither spontaneous nor scalable. In this paper, we propose a privacy-enhancing user identity management system using blockchain technology which places due importance on both anonymity and attribution, and supports end-to-end management from user assertion to usage billing. The setup enables network access using pseudonymous identities, hindering the reconstruction of a subscriber's identity. Our test results indicate that this approach diminishes access provisioning duration by up to 4x, decreases network signaling traffic by almost 40%, and enables near real-time user billing that may lead to approximately 3x reduction in payments settlement time.
Biswas, K., Muthukkumarasamy, V..  2016.  Securing Smart Cities Using Blockchain Technology. 2016 IEEE 18th International Conference on High Performance Computing and Communications; IEEE 14th International Conference on Smart City; IEEE 2nd International Conference on Data Science and Systems (HPCC/SmartCity/DSS). :1392–1393.

A smart city uses information technology to integrate and manage physical, social, and business infrastructures in order to provide better services to its dwellers while ensuring efficient and optimal utilization of available resources. With the proliferation of technologies such as Internet of Things (IoT), cloud computing, and interconnected networks, smart cities can deliver innovative solutions and more direct interaction and collaboration between citizens and the local government. Despite a number of potential benefits, digital disruption poses many challenges related to information security and privacy. This paper proposes a security framework that integrates the blockchain technology with smart devices to provide a secure communication platform in a smart city.