Visible to the public Biblio

Filters: Keyword is blockchain technology  [Clear All Filters]
2020-07-30
Holland, Martin, Stjepandić, Josip, Nigischer, Christopher.  2018.  Intellectual Property Protection of 3D Print Supply Chain with Blockchain Technology. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Engineering, Technology and Innovation (ICE/ITMC). :1—8.
Within “Industrie 4.0” approach 3D printing technology is characterized as one of the disruptive innovations. Conventional supply chains are replaced by value-added networks. The spatially distributed development of printed components, e.g. for the rapid delivery of spare parts, creates a new challenge when differentiating between “original part”, “copy” or “counterfeit” becomes necessary. This is especially true for safety-critical products. Based on these changes classic branded products adopt the characteristics of licensing models as we know them in the areas of software and digital media. This paper describes the use of digital rights management as a key technology for the successful transition to Additive Manufacturing methods and a key for its commercial implementation and the prevention of intellectual property theft. Risks will be identified along the process chain and solution concepts are presented. These are currently being developed by an 8-partner project named SAMPL (Secure Additive Manufacturing Platform).
Yang, Fan, Shi, Yue, Wu, Qingqing, Li, Fei, Zhou, Wei, Hu, Zhiyan, Xiong, Naixue, Zhang, Yong.  2019.  The Survey on Intellectual Property Based on Blockchain Technology. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Industrial Cyber Physical Systems (ICPS). :743—748.
The characteristics of decentralization, tamper-resistance and transaction anonymity of blockchain can resolve effectively the problems in traditional intellectual property such as the difficulty of electronic obtaining for evidence, the high cost and low compensation when safeguarding the copyrights. Blockchain records the information through encryption algorithm, removes the third party, and stores the information in all nodes to prevent the information from being tampered with, so as to realize the protection of intellectual property. Starting from the bottom layer of blockchain, this paper expounds in detail the characteristics and the technical framework of blockchain. At the same time, according to the existing problems in transaction throughput, time delay and resource consumption of blockchain system, optimization mechanisms such as cross-chain and proof of stake are analyzed. Finally, combined with the characteristics of blockchain technology and existing application framework, this paper summarizes the existing problems in the industry and forecasts the development trend of intellectual property based on blockchain technology.
2020-07-13
Hepp, Thomas, Spaeh, Fabian, Schoenhals, Alexander, Ehret, Philip, Gipp, Bela.  2019.  Exploring Potentials and Challenges of Blockchain-based Public Key Infrastructures. IEEE INFOCOM 2019 - IEEE Conference on Computer Communications Workshops (INFOCOM WKSHPS). :847–852.
Traditional public key infrastructures (PKIs), in particular, X.509 and PGP, is plagued by security and usability issues. As reoccurring incidents show, these are not only of theoretical nature but allow attackers to inflict severe damage. Emerging blockchain technology allows for advances in this area, facilitating a trustless immutable ledger with fast consensus. There have been numerous proposals for utilization of the blockchain in the area of PKI, either as extensions upon existing methods or independent solutions. In this paper, we first study traditional PKI, then proceed with novel approaches, showing how they can improve upon recent issues. We provide a comprehensive evaluation, finding that independent blockchain-based solutions are preferable in the future, mainly due to their stronger security. However, global adoption of these yet requires advances in blockchain development, e.g., concerning scalability.
Kurbatov, Oleksandr, Shapoval, Oleksiy, Poluyanenko, Nikolay, Kuznetsova, Tetiana, Kravchenko, Pavel.  2019.  Decentralized Identification and Certification System. 2019 IEEE International Scientific-Practical Conference Problems of Infocommunications, Science and Technology (PIC S T). :507–510.
This article describes an approach to identification and certification in decentralized environment. The protocol proposes a way of integration for blockchain technology and web-of-trust concept to create decentralized public key infrastructure with flexible management for user identificators. Besides changing the current public key infrastructure, this system can be used in the Internet of Things (IoT). Each individual IoT sensor must correctly communicate with other components of the system it's in. To provide safe interaction, components should exchange encrypted messages with ability to check their integrity and authenticity, which is presented by this scheme.
2020-06-29
Jamader, Asik Rahaman, Das, Puja, Acharya, Biswa Ranjan.  2019.  BcIoT: Blockchain based DDos Prevention Architecture for IoT. 2019 International Conference on Intelligent Computing and Control Systems (ICCS). :377–382.
The Internet of Things (IoT) visualizes a massive network with billions of interaction among smart things which are capable of contributing all sorts of services. Self-configuring things (nodes) are connected dynamically with a global network in IoT scenario. The small things are widely spread in a real world paradigm with minimal processing capacity and limited storage. The recent IoT technologies have more concerns about the security, privacy and reliability. Sharing personal data over the centralized system still remains as a challenging task. If the infrastructure is able to provide the assurance for transferring the data but for now it requires special attention on security and data consistency. Because, centralized system and infrastructure is viewed as a more attractive point for hacker or cyber-attacker. To solve this we present a secured smart contract based on Blockchain to develop a secured communicative network. A Hash based secret key is used for encryption and decryption purposes. A demo attack is done for developing a better understanding on blockchain technology in terms of their comparison and calculation.
2020-05-22
Jemal, Jay, Kornegay, Kevin T..  2019.  Security Assessment of Blockchains in Heterogenous IoT Networks : Invited Presentation. 2019 53rd Annual Conference on Information Sciences and Systems (CISS). :1—4.

As Blockchain technology become more understood in recent years and its capability to solve enterprise business use cases become evident, technologist have been exploring Blockchain technology to solve use cases that have been daunting industries for years. Unlike existing technologies, one of the key features of blockchain technology is its unparalleled capability to provide, traceability, accountability and immutable records that can be accessed at any point in time. One application area of interest for blockchain is securing heterogenous networks. This paper explores the security challenges in a heterogonous network of IoT devices and whether blockchain can be a viable solution. Using an experimental approach, we explore the possibility of using blockchain technology to secure IoT devices, validate IoT device transactions, and establish a chain of trust to secure an IoT device mesh network, as well as investigate the plausibility of using immutable transactions for forensic analysis.

2020-04-13
Mohanta, Bhabendu K., Panda, Soumyashree S., Satapathy, Utkalika, Jena, Debasish, Gountia, Debasis.  2019.  Trustworthy Management in Decentralized IoT Application using Blockchain. 2019 10th International Conference on Computing, Communication and Networking Technologies (ICCCNT). :1–5.
Internet of Things (IoT) as per estimated will connect 50 billion devices by 2020. Since its evolution, IoT technology provides lots of flexibility to develop and implement any application. Most of the application improves the human living standard and also makes life easy to access and monitoring the things in real time. Though there exist some security and privacy issues in IoT system like authentication, computation, data modification, trust among users. In this paper, we have identified the IoT application like insurance, supply chain system, smart city and smart car where trust among associated users is an major issue. The current centralized system does not provide enough trust between users. Using Blockchain technology we have shown that trust issue among users can be managed in a decentralized way so that information can be traceable and identify/verify any time. Blockchain has properties like distributed, digitally share and immutable which enhance security. For Blockchain implementation, Ethereum platform is used.
Grissa, Mohamed, Yavuz, Attila A., Hamdaoui, Bechir.  2019.  TrustSAS: A Trustworthy Spectrum Access System for the 3.5 GHz CBRS Band. IEEE INFOCOM 2019 - IEEE Conference on Computer Communications. :1495–1503.
As part of its ongoing efforts to meet the increased spectrum demand, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has recently opened up 150 MHz in the 3.5 GHz band for shared wireless broadband use. Access and operations in this band, aka Citizens Broadband Radio Service (CBRS), will be managed by a dynamic spectrum access system (SAS) to enable seamless spectrum sharing between secondary users (SUs) and incumbent users. Despite its benefits, SAS's design requirements, as set by FCC, present privacy risks to SUs, merely because SUs are required to share sensitive operational information (e.g., location, identity, spectrum usage) with SAS to be able to learn about spectrum availability in their vicinity. In this paper, we propose TrustSAS, a trustworthy framework for SAS that synergizes state-of-the-art cryptographic techniques with blockchain technology in an innovative way to address these privacy issues while complying with FCC's regulatory design requirements. We analyze the security of our framework and evaluate its performance through analysis, simulation and experimentation. We show that TrustSAS can offer high security guarantees with reasonable overhead, making it an ideal solution for addressing SUs' privacy issues in an operational SAS environment.
2020-03-18
Boukria, Sarra, Guerroumi, Mohamed, Romdhani, Imed.  2019.  BCFR: Blockchain-based Controller Against False Flow Rule Injection in SDN. 2019 IEEE Symposium on Computers and Communications (ISCC). :1034–1039.

Software Defined Networking (SDN) technology increases the evolution of Internet and network development. SDN, with its logical centralization of controllers and global network overview changes the network's characteristics, on term of flexibility, availability and programmability. However, this development increased the network communication security challenges. To enhance the SDN security, we propose the BCFR solution to avoid false flow rules injection in SDN data layer devices. In this solution, we use the blockchain technology to provide the controller authentication and the integrity of the traffic flow circulated between the controller and the other network elements. This work is implemented using OpenStack platform and Onos controller. The evaluation results show the effectiveness of our proposal.

2020-03-16
Hasavari, Shirin, Song, Yeong Tae.  2019.  A Secure and Scalable Data Source for Emergency Medical Care using Blockchain Technology. 2019 IEEE 17th International Conference on Software Engineering Research, Management and Applications (SERA). :71–75.
Emergency medical services universally get regarded as the essential part of the health care delivery system [1]. A relationship exists between the emergency patient death rate and factors such as the failure to access a patient's critical data and the time it takes to arrive at hospitals. Nearly thirty million Americans do not live within an hour of trauma care, so this poor access to trauma centers links to higher pre-hospital death rates in more than half of the United States [2]. So, we need to address the problem. In a patient care-cycle, loads of medical data items are born in different healthcare settings using a disparate system of records during patient visits. The ability for medical care providers to access a patient's complete picture of emergency-relevant medical data is critical and can significantly reduce the annual mortality rate. Today, the problem exists with a continuous recording system of the patient data between healthcare providers. In this paper, we've introduced a combination of secure file transfer methods/tools and blockchain technology as a solution to record patient Emergency relevant medical data as patient walk through from one clinic/medical facility to another, creating a continuous footprint of patient as a secure and scalable data source. So, ambulance crews can access and use it to provide high quality pre-hospital care. All concerns of medical record sharing and accessing like authentication, privacy, security, scalability and audibility, confidentiality has been considered in this approach.
2020-03-12
Gorodnichev, Mikhail G., Nazarova, Anastasia N., Moseva, Marina S..  2019.  Development of Platform for Confirming and Storing Supply Data Using Blockchain Technology. 2019 International Conference "Quality Management, Transport and Information Security, Information Technologies" (IT QM IS). :182–185.

This article is devoted to the development of a platform for reliable storage of information on supplies based on blockchain technology. The article discusses the main approaches to the work of decentralized applications, as well as the main problems.

Yousuf, Soha, Svetinovic, Davor.  2019.  Blockchain Technology in Supply Chain Management: Preliminary Study. 2019 Sixth International Conference on Internet of Things: Systems, Management and Security (IOTSMS). :537–538.

Despite significant research, the supply chain management challenges still have a long way to go with respect to solving the issues such as management of product supply information, product lifecycle, transport history, etc. Given the recent rise of blockchain technology in various industrial sectors, our work explores the issues prevalent in each stage of the supply chain and checks their candidacy for the implementation using blockchain technology. The analysis is performed in terms of the characteristics of trust and decentralization with respect to forming a generalized framework. The main contribution of this work is to create a conceptual overview of the areas where blockchain integrates with supply chain management in order to benefit further research and development.

2020-03-02
Swathi, P, Modi, Chirag, Patel, Dhiren.  2019.  Preventing Sybil Attack in Blockchain Using Distributed Behavior Monitoring of Miners. 2019 10th International Conference on Computing, Communication and Networking Technologies (ICCCNT). :1–6.

Blockchain technology is useful with the record keeping of digital transactions, IoT, supply chain management etc. However, we have observed that the traditional attacks are possible on blockchain due to lack of robust identity management. We found that Sybil attack can cause severe impact in public/permissionless blockchain, in which an attacker can subvert the blockchain by creating a large number of pseudonymous identities (i.e. Fake user accounts) and push legitimate entities in the minority. Such virtual nodes can act like genuine nodes to create disproportionately large influence on the network. This may lead to several other attacks like DoS, DDoS etc. In this paper, a Sybil attack is demonstrated on a blockchain test bed with its impact on the throughput of the system. We propose a solution directive, in which each node monitors the behavior of other nodes and checks for the nodes which are forwarding the blocks of only particular user. Such nodes are quickly identified, blacklisted and notified to other nodes, and thus the Sybil attack can be restricted. We analyze experimental results of the proposed solution.

Amrutiya, Varun, Jhamb, Siddhant, Priyadarshi, Pranjal, Bhatia, Ashutosh.  2019.  Trustless Two-Factor Authentication Using Smart Contracts in Blockchains. 2019 International Conference on Information Networking (ICOIN). :66–71.
Two-factor authentication (2FA) is widely prevalent in banking, emails and virtual private networks (VPN) connections or in accessing any secure web service. In 2FA, to get authenticated the users are expected to provide additional secret information along with the password. Typically, this secret information (tokens) is generated by a centralized trusted third party upon receiving an authentication request from users. Thus, this additional layer of security comes at the cost of inherently trusting the third party for their services. The security of such authentication systems is always under the threat of the trusted party is being compromised. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to make server authentication even more secure by building 2FA over the blockchain platform which is distributed in nature. The proposed solution does not require any trusted third party between claimant (user) and the verifier (server) for the authentication purpose. To demonstrate the idea of using blockchain technology for 2FA, we have added an extra layer of security component to the OpenSSH server a widely used application for Secure Shell (SSH) protocol.
2020-02-17
Marchang, Jims, Ibbotson, Gregg, Wheway, Paul.  2019.  Will Blockchain Technology Become a Reality in Sensor Networks? 2019 Wireless Days (WD). :1–4.
The need for sensors to deliver, communicate, collect, alert, and share information in various applications has made wireless sensor networks very popular. However, due to its limited resources in terms of computation power, battery life and memory storage of the sensor nodes, it is challenging to add security features to provide the confidentiality, integrity, and availability. Blockchain technology ensures security and avoids the need of any trusted third party. However, applying Blockchain in a resource-constrained wireless sensor network is a challenging task because Blockchain is power, computation, and memory hungry in nature and demands heavy bandwidth due to control overheads. In this paper, a new routing and a private communication Blockchain framework is designed and tested with Constant Bit rate (CBR). The proposed Load Balancing Multi-Hop (LBMH) routing shares and enhances the battery life of the Cluster Heads and reduce control overhead during Block updates, but due to limited storage and energy of the sensor nodes, Blockchain in sensor networks may never become a reality unless computation, storage and battery life are readily available at low cost.
2020-01-21
Rana, Rima, Zaeem, Razieh Nokhbeh, Barber, K. Suzanne.  2019.  An Assessment of Blockchain Identity Solutions: Minimizing Risk and Liability of Authentication. 2019 IEEE/WIC/ACM International Conference on Web Intelligence (WI). :26–33.
Personally Identifiable Information (PII) is often used to perform authentication and acts as a gateway to personal and organizational information. One weak link in the architecture of identity management services is sufficient to cause exposure and risk identity. Recently, we have witnessed a shift in identity management solutions with the growth of blockchain. Blockchain-the decentralized ledger system-provides a unique answer addressing security and privacy with its embedded immutability. In a blockchain-based identity solution, the user is given the control of his/her identity by storing personal information on his/her device and having the choice of identity verification document used later to create blockchain attestations. Yet, the blockchain technology alone is not enough to produce a better identity solution. The user cannot make informed decisions as to which identity verification document to choose if he/she is not presented with tangible guidelines. In the absence of scientifically created practical guidelines, these solutions and the choices they offer may become overwhelming and even defeat the purpose of providing a more secure identity solution.We analyze different PII options given to users for authentication on current blockchain-based solutions. Based on our Identity Ecosystem model, we evaluate these options and their risk and liability of exposure. Powered by real world data of about 6,000 identity theft and fraud stories, our model recommends some authentication choices and discourages others. Our work paves the way for a truly effective identity solution based on blockchain by helping users make informed decisions and motivating blockchain identity solution providers to introduce better options to their users.
Haddouti, Samia El, Ech-Cherif El Kettani, M. Dafir.  2019.  Analysis of Identity Management Systems Using Blockchain Technology. 2019 International Conference on Advanced Communication Technologies and Networking (CommNet). :1–7.
The emergence of Blockchain technology as the biggest innovations of the 21stcentury, has given rise to new concepts of Identity Management to deal with the privacy and security challenges on the one hand, and to enhance the decentralization and user control in transactions on Blockchain infrastructures on the other hand. This paper investigates and gives analysis of the most popular Identity Management Systems using Blockchain: uPort, Sovrin, and ShoCard. It then evaluates them under a set of features of digital identity that characterizes the successful of an Identity Management solution. The result of the comparative analysis is presented in a concise way to allow readers to find out easily which systems satisfy what requirements in order to select the appropriate one to fit into a specific scenario.
2019-12-18
Essaid, Meryam, Kim, DaeYong, Maeng, Soo Hoon, Park, Sejin, Ju, Hong Taek.  2019.  A Collaborative DDoS Mitigation Solution Based on Ethereum Smart Contract and RNN-LSTM. 2019 20th Asia-Pacific Network Operations and Management Symposium (APNOMS). :1–6.

Recently Distributed Denial-of-Service (DDoS) are becoming more and more sophisticated, which makes the existing defence systems not capable of tolerating by themselves against wide-ranging attacks. Thus, collaborative protection mitigation has become a needed alternative to extend defence mechanisms. However, the existing coordinated DDoS mitigation approaches either they require a complex configuration or are highly-priced. Blockchain technology offers a solution that reduces the complexity of signalling DDoS system, as well as a platform where many autonomous systems (Ass) can share hardware resources and defence capabilities for an effective DDoS defence. In this work, we also used a Deep learning DDoS detection system; we identify individual DDoS attack class and also define whether the incoming traffic is legitimate or attack. By classifying the attack traffic flow separately, our proposed mitigation technique could deny only the specific traffic causing the attack, instead of blocking all the traffic coming towards the victim(s).

2019-12-17
Wang, Ziyan, Dong, Xinghua, Li, Yi, Fang, Li, Chen, Ping.  2018.  IoT Security Model and Performance Evaluation: A Blockchain Approach. 2018 International Conference on Network Infrastructure and Digital Content (IC-NIDC). :260-264.

It is a research hotspot that using blockchain technology to solve the security problems of the Internet of Things (IoT). Although many related ideas have been proposed, there are very few literatures with theoretical and data support. This paper focuses on the research of model construction and performance evaluation. First, an IoT security model is established based on blockchain and InterPlanetary File System (IPFS). In this model, many security risks of traditional IoT architectures can be avoided, and system performance is significantly improved in distributed large capacity storage, concurrency and query. Secondly, the performance of the proposed model is evaluated through the average latency and throughput, which are meaningful for further research and optimization of this direction. Analysis and test results demonstrate the effectiveness of the blockchain-based security model.

2019-11-26
Acharjamayum, Irani, Patgiri, Ripon, Devi, Dhruwajita.  2018.  Blockchain: A Tale of Peer to Peer Security. 2018 IEEE Symposium Series on Computational Intelligence (SSCI). :609-617.

The underlying or core technology of Bitcoin cryptocurrency has become a blessing for human being in this era. Everything is gradually changing to digitization in this today's epoch. Bitcoin creates virtual money using Blockchain that's become popular over the world. Blockchain is a shared public ledger, and it includes all transactions which are confirmed. It is almost impossible to crack the hidden information in the blocks of the Blockchain. However, there are certain security and technical challenges like scalability, privacy leakage, selfish mining, etc. which hampers the wide application of Blockchain. In this paper, we briefly discuss this emerging technology namely Blockchain. In addition, we extrapolate in-depth insight on Blockchain technology.

2019-09-26
Liu, Y., Zhang, J., Gao, Q..  2018.  A Blockchain-Based Secure Cloud Files Sharing Scheme with Fine-Grained Access Control. 2018 International Conference on Networking and Network Applications (NaNA). :277-283.

As cloud services greatly facilitate file sharing online, there's been a growing awareness of the security challenges brought by outsourcing data to a third party. Traditionally, the centralized management of cloud service provider brings about safety issues because the third party is only semi-trusted by clients. Besides, it causes trouble for sharing online data conveniently. In this paper, the blockchain technology is utilized for decentralized safety administration and provide more user-friendly service. Apart from that, Ciphertext-Policy Attribute Based Encryption is introduced as an effective tool to realize fine-grained data access control of the stored files. Meanwhile, the security analysis proves the confidentiality and integrity of the data stored in the cloud server. Finally, we evaluate the performance of computation overhead of our system.

2019-04-01
Zhang, X., Li, R., Cui, B..  2018.  A security architecture of VANET based on blockchain and mobile edge computing. 2018 1st IEEE International Conference on Hot Information-Centric Networking (HotICN). :258–259.

The development of Vehicular Ad-hoc NETwork (VANET) has brought many conveniences to human beings, but also brings a very prominent security problem. The traditional solution to the security problem is based on centralized approach which requires a trusted central entity which exists a single point of failure problem. Moreover, there is no approach of technical level to ensure security of data. Therefore, this paper proposes a security architecture of VANET based on blockchain and mobile edge computing. The architecture includes three layers, namely perception layer, edge computing layer and service layer. The perception layer ensures the security of VANET data in the transmission process through the blockchain technology. The edge computing layer provides computing resources and edge cloud services to the perception layer. The service layer uses the combination of traditional cloud storage and blockchain to ensure the security of data.

2019-02-08
Cui, S., Asghar, M. R., Russello, G..  2018.  Towards Blockchain-Based Scalable and Trustworthy File Sharing. 2018 27th International Conference on Computer Communication and Networks (ICCCN). :1-2.

In blockchain-based systems, malicious behaviour can be detected using auditable information in transactions managed by distributed ledgers. Besides cryptocurrency, blockchain technology has recently been used for other applications, such as file storage. However, most of existing blockchain- based file storage systems can not revoke a user efficiently when multiple users have access to the same file that is encrypted. Actually, they need to update file encryption keys and distribute new keys to remaining users, which significantly increases computation and bandwidth overheads. In this work, we propose a blockchain and proxy re-encryption based design for encrypted file sharing that brings a distributed access control and data management. By combining blockchain with proxy re-encryption, our approach not only ensures confidentiality and integrity of files, but also provides a scalable key management mechanism for file sharing among multiple users. Moreover, by storing encrypted files and related keys in a distributed way, our method can resist collusion attacks between revoked users and distributed proxies.

2018-11-14
Keenan, T. P..  2017.  Alice in Blockchains: Surprising Security Pitfalls in PoW and PoS Blockchain Systems. 2017 15th Annual Conference on Privacy, Security and Trust (PST). :400–4002.

If, as most experts agree, the mathematical basis of major blockchain systems is (probably if not provably) sound, why do they have a bad reputation? Human misbehavior (such as failed Bitcoin exchanges) accounts for some of the issues, but there are also deeper and more interesting vulnerabilities here. These include design faults and code-level implementation defects, ecosystem issues (such as wallets), as well as approaches such as the "51% attack" all of which can compromise the integrity of blockchain systems. With particular attention to the emerging non-financial applications of blockchain technology, this paper demonstrates the kinds of attacks that are possible and provides suggestions for minimizing the risks involved.

Magyar, G..  2017.  Blockchain: Solving the Privacy and Research Availability Tradeoff for EHR Data: A New Disruptive Technology in Health Data Management. 2017 IEEE 30th Neumann Colloquium (NC). :000135–000140.

A blockchain powered Health information ecosystem can solve a frequently discussed problem of the lifelong recorded patient health data, which seriously could hurdle the privacy of the patients and the growing data hunger of the research and policy maker institutions. On one side the general availability of the data is vital in emergency situations and supports heavily the different research, population health management and development activities, on the other side using the same data can lead to serious social and ethical problems caused by malicious actors. Currently, the regulation of the privacy data varies all over the world, however underlying principles are always defensive and protective towards patient privacy against general availability. The protective principles cause a defensive, data hiding attitude of the health system developers to avoid breaching the overall law regulations. It makes the policy makers and different - primarily drug - developers to find ways to treat data such a way that lead to ethical and political debates. In our paper we introduce how the blockchain technology can help solving the problem of secure data storing and ensuring data availability at the same time. We use the basic principles of the American HIPAA regulation, which defines the public availability criteria of health data, however the different local regulations may differ significantly. Blockchain's decentralized, intermediary-free, cryptographically secured attributes offer a new way of storing patient data securely and at the same time publicly available in a regulated way, where a well-designed distributed peer-to-peer network incentivize the smooth operation of a full-featured EHR system.