Visible to the public Biblio

Filters: Keyword is trusted platform modules  [Clear All Filters]
2020-12-07
Siddiqui, A. S., Gui, Y., Saqib, F..  2019.  Boot time Bitstream Authentication for FPGAs. 2019 IEEE 16th International Conference on Smart Cities: Improving Quality of Life Using ICT IoT and AI (HONET-ICT). :189–190.
Major commercial Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) vendors provide encryption and authentication for programmable logic fabric (PL) bitstream using AES and RSA respectively. They are limited in scope of security that they provide and have proven to be vulnerable to different attacks. As-such, in-field deployed devices are susceptible to attacks where either a configuration bitstream, application software or dynamically reconfigurable bitstreams can be maliciously replaced. This hardware demo presents a framework for secure boot and runtime authentication for FPGAs. The presented system employs on-board cryptographic mechanisms and third-party established architectures such as Trusted Platform Module (TPM). The scope of this hardware demo is of systems level.
Whitefield, J., Chen, L., Sasse, R., Schneider, S., Treharne, H., Wesemeyer, S..  2019.  A Symbolic Analysis of ECC-Based Direct Anonymous Attestation. 2019 IEEE European Symposium on Security and Privacy (EuroS P). :127–141.
Direct Anonymous Attestation (DAA) is a cryptographic scheme that provides Trusted Platform Module TPM-backed anonymous credentials. We develop Tamarin modelling of the ECC-based version of the protocol as it is standardised and provide the first mechanised analysis of this standard. Our analysis confirms that the scheme is secure when all TPMs are assumed honest, but reveals a break in the protocol's expected authentication and secrecy properties for all TPMs even if only one is compromised. We propose and formally verify a minimal fix to the standard. In addition to developing the first formal analysis of ECC-DAA, the paper contributes to the growing body of work demonstrating the use of formal tools in supporting standardisation processes for cryptographic protocols.
Islam, M. S., Verma, H., Khan, L., Kantarcioglu, M..  2019.  Secure Real-Time Heterogeneous IoT Data Management System. 2019 First IEEE International Conference on Trust, Privacy and Security in Intelligent Systems and Applications (TPS-ISA). :228–235.
The growing adoption of IoT devices in our daily life engendered a need for secure systems to safely store and analyze sensitive data as well as the real-time data processing system to be as fast as possible. The cloud services used to store and process sensitive data are often come out to be vulnerable to outside threats. Furthermore, to analyze streaming IoT data swiftly, they are in need of a fast and efficient system. The Paper will envision the aspects of complexity dealing with real time data from various devices in parallel, building solution to ingest data from different IOT devices, forming a secure platform to process data in a short time, and using various techniques of IOT edge computing to provide meaningful intuitive results to users. The paper envisions two modules of building a real time data analytics system. In the first module, we propose to maintain confidentiality and integrity of IoT data, which is of paramount importance, and manage large-scale data analytics with real-time data collection from various IoT devices in parallel. We envision a framework to preserve data privacy utilizing Trusted Execution Environment (TEE) such as Intel SGX, end-to-end data encryption mechanism, and strong access control policies. Moreover, we design a generic framework to simplify the process of collecting and storing heterogeneous data coming from diverse IoT devices. In the second module, we envision a drone-based data processing system in real-time using edge computing and on-device computing. As, we know the use of drones is growing rapidly across many application domains including real-time monitoring, remote sensing, search and rescue, delivery of goods, security and surveillance, civil infrastructure inspection etc. This paper demonstrates the potential drone applications and their challenges discussing current research trends and provide future insights for potential use cases using edge and on-device computing.
Sundar, S., Yellai, P., Sanagapati, S. S. S., Pradhan, P. C., Y, S. K. K. R..  2019.  Remote Attestation based Software Integrity of IoT devices. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Advanced Networks and Telecommunications Systems (ANTS). :1–4.
Internet of Things is the new paradigm towards which the world is moving today. As these devices proliferate, security issues at these scales become more and more intimidating. Traditional approach like an antivirus does not work well with these devices and there is a need to look for a more trusted solution. For a device with reasonable computational power, we use a software trusted platform module for the cryptographic operations. In this paper, we have developed a model to remotely attest to the integrity of the processes running in the device. We have also explored the various features of the TPM (Trusted Platform Module) to gain insight into its working and also to ascertain those which can make this process better. This model depends on the server and the TPM to behave as roots of trust for this model. The client computes the HMAC (Hashed Message Authentication Code) values and appends a nonce and sends these values periodically to the server via asymmetric encryption. The HMAC values are verified by the server by comparing with its known good values (KGV) and the trustworthiness of the process is determined and accordingly an authorization response is sent.
Furtak, J., Zieliński, Z., Chudzikiewicz, J..  2019.  Security Domain for the Sensor Nodes with Strong Authentication. 2019 International Conference on Military Communications and Information Systems (ICMCIS). :1–6.
Nowadays interest in IoT solutions is growing. A significant barrier to the use of these solutions in military applications is to ensure the security of data transmission and authentication of data sources and recipients of the data. Developing an efficient solution to these problems requires finding a compromise between the facts that the sensors often are mobile, use wireless communication, usually have the small processing power and have little energy resources. The article presents the security domain designated for cooperating mobile sensor nodes. The domain has the following features: the strong authentication of each domain member, cryptographic protection of data exchange in the data link layer and protection of data stored in the sensor node resources. The domain is also prepared to perform diagnostic procedures and to exchange sensory data with other domains securely. At each node, the Trusted Platform Module (TPM) is used to support these procedures.
Xu, M., Huber, M., Sun, Z., England, P., Peinado, M., Lee, S., Marochko, A., Mattoon, D., Spiger, R., Thom, S..  2019.  Dominance as a New Trusted Computing Primitive for the Internet of Things. 2019 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy (SP). :1415–1430.
The Internet of Things (IoT) is rapidly emerging as one of the dominant computing paradigms of this decade. Applications range from in-home entertainment to large-scale industrial deployments such as controlling assembly lines and monitoring traffic. While IoT devices are in many respects similar to traditional computers, user expectations and deployment scenarios as well as cost and hardware constraints are sufficiently different to create new security challenges as well as new opportunities. This is especially true for large-scale IoT deployments in which a central entity deploys and controls a large number of IoT devices with minimal human interaction. Like traditional computers, IoT devices are subject to attack and compromise. Large IoT deployments consisting of many nearly identical devices are especially attractive targets. At the same time, recovery from root compromise by conventional means becomes costly and slow, even more so if the devices are dispersed over a large geographical area. In the worst case, technicians have to travel to all devices and manually recover them. Data center solutions such as the Intelligent Platform Management Interface (IPMI) which rely on separate service processors and network connections are not only not supported by existing IoT hardware, but are unlikely to be in the foreseeable future due to the cost constraints of mainstream IoT devices. This paper presents CIDER, a system that can recover IoT devices within a short amount of time, even if attackers have taken root control of every device in a large deployment. The recovery requires minimal manual intervention. After the administrator has identified the compromise and produced an updated firmware image, he/she can instruct CIDER to force the devices to reset and to install the patched firmware on the devices. We demonstrate the universality and practicality of CIDER by implementing it on three popular IoT platforms (HummingBoard Edge, Raspberry Pi Compute Module 3 and Nucleo-L476RG) spanning the range from high to low end. Our evaluation shows that the performance overhead of CIDER is generally negligible.
Hamadeh, H., Tyagi, A..  2019.  Physical Unclonable Functions (PUFs) Entangled Trusted Computing Base. 2019 IEEE International Symposium on Smart Electronic Systems (iSES) (Formerly iNiS). :177–180.
The center-piece of this work is a software measurement physical unclonable function (PUF). It measures processor chip ALU silicon biometrics in a manner similar to all PUFs. Additionally, it composes the silicon measurement with the data-dependent delay of a particular program instruction in a way that is difficult to decompose through a mathematical model. This approach ensures that each software instruction is measured if computed. The SW-PUF measurements bind the execution of software to a specific processor with a corresponding certificate. This makes the SW-PUF a promising candidate for applications requiring Trusted Computing. For instance, it could measure the integrity of an execution path by generating a signature that is unique to the specific program execution path and the processor chip. We present an area and energy-efficient scheme based on the SW-PUF to provide a more robust root of trust for measurement than the existing trusted platform module (TPM). To explore the feasibility of the proposed design, the SW-PUF has been implemented in HSPICE using 45 nm technology and evaluated on the FPGA platform.
Yekini, T. Akeem, Jaafar, F., Zavarsky, P..  2019.  Study of Trust at Device Level of the Internet of Things Architecture. 2019 IEEE 19th International Symposium on High Assurance Systems Engineering (HASE). :150–155.
In the Internet of Things architecture, devices are frequently connected to the Internet either directly or indirectly. However, many IoT devices lack built-in security features such as device level encryption, user authentication and basic firewall protection. This paper discusses security risks in the layers of general Internet of Things architecture and shows examples of potential risks at each level of the architecture. The paper also compares IoT security solutions provided by three major vendors and shows that the solutions are mutually complementary. Nevertheless, none of the examined IoT solutions provides security at the device level of the IoT architecture model. In order to address risks at the device level of the architecture, an implementation of Trusted Platform Module and Unique Device Identifier on IoT devices and gateways for encryption, authentication and device management is advocated in the paper.
Qian, Y..  2019.  Research on Trusted Authentication Model and Mechanism of Data Fusion. 2019 IEEE 10th International Conference on Software Engineering and Service Science (ICSESS). :479–482.
Firstly, this paper analyses the technical foundation of single sign-on solution of unified authentication platform, and analyses the advantages and disadvantages of each solution. Secondly, from the point of view of software engineering, such as function requirement, performance requirement, development mode, architecture scheme, technology development framework and system configuration environment of the unified authentication platform, the unified authentication platform is analyzed and designed, and the database design and system design framework of the system are put forward according to the system requirements. Thirdly, the idea and technology of unified authentication platform based on JA-SIG CAS are discussed, and the design and implementation of each module of unified authentication platform based on JA-SIG CAS are analyzed, which has been applied in ship cluster platform.
2020-10-16
Zhang, Xin, Cai, Xiaobo, Wang, Chaogang, Han, Ke, Zhang, Shujuan.  2019.  A Dynamic Security Control Architecture for Industrial Cyber-Physical System. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Industrial Internet (ICII). :148—151.

According to the information security requirements of the industrial control system and the technical features of the existing defense measures, a dynamic security control strategy based on trusted computing is proposed. According to the strategy, the Industrial Cyber-Physical System system information security solution is proposed, and the linkage verification mechanism between the internal fire control wall of the industrial control system, the intrusion detection system and the trusted connection server is provided. The information exchange of multiple network security devices is realized, which improves the comprehensive defense capability of the industrial control system, and because the trusted platform module is based on the hardware encryption, storage, and control protection mode, It overcomes the common problem that the traditional repairing and stitching technique based on pure software leads to easy breakage, and achieves the goal of significantly improving the safety of the industrial control system . At the end of the paper, the system analyzes the implementation of the proposed secure industrial control information security system based on the trustworthy calculation.

2019-03-11
Puesche, A., Bothe, D., Niemeyer, M., Sachweh, S., Pohlmann, N., Kunold, I..  2018.  Concept of Smart Building Cyber-physical Systems Including Tamper Resistant Endpoints. 2018 International IEEE Conference and Workshop in Óbuda on Electrical and Power Engineering (CANDO-EPE). :000127–000132.

Cyber-physical systems (CPS) and their Internet of Things (IoT) components are repeatedly subject to various attacks targeting weaknesses in their firmware. For that reason emerges an imminent demand for secure update mechanisms that not only include specific systems but cover all parts of the critical infrastructure. In this paper we introduce a theoretical concept for a secure CPS device update and verification mechanism and provide information on handling hardware-based security incorporating trusted platform modules (TPM) on those CPS devices. We will describe secure communication channels by state of the art technology and also integrity measurement mechanisms to ensure the system is in a known state. In addition, a multi-level fail-over concept is presented, ensuring continuous patching to minimize the necessity of restarting those systems.

Shaik, M. A..  2018.  Protecting Agents from Malicious Hosts using Trusted Platform Modules (TPM). 2018 Second International Conference on Inventive Communication and Computational Technologies (ICICCT). :559–564.

Software agents represent an assured computing paradigm that tends to emerge to be an elegant technology to solve present day problems. The eminent Scientific Community has proved us with the usage or implementation of software agent's usage approach that simplifies the proposed solution in various types to solve the traditional computing problems arise. The proof of the same is implemented in several applications that exist based on this area of technology where the software agents have maximum benefits but on the same hand absence of the suitable security mechanisms that endures for systems that are based on representation of barriers exists in the paradigm with respect to present day industry. As the application proposing present security mechanisms is not a trivial one as the agent based system builders or developers who are not often security experts as they subsequently do not count on the area of expertise. This paper presents a novel approach for protecting the infrastructure for solving the issues considered to be malicious host in mobile agent system by implementing a secure protocol to migrate agents from host to host relying in various elements based on the enhanced Trusted Platforms Modules (TPM) for processing data. We use enhanced extension to the Java Agent Development framework (JADE) in our proposed system and a migrating protocol is used to validate the proposed framework (AVASPA).

Hoeller, A., Toegl, R..  2018.  Trusted Platform Modules in Cyber-Physical Systems: On the Interference Between Security and Dependability. 2018 IEEE European Symposium on Security and Privacy Workshops (EuroS PW). :136–144.

Cyber physical systems are the key innovation driver for many domains such as automotive, avionics, industrial process control, and factory automation. However, their interconnection potentially provides adversaries easy access to sensitive data, code, and configurations. If attackers gain control, material damage or even harm to people must be expected. To counteract data theft, system manipulation and cyber-attacks, security mechanisms must be embedded in the cyber physical system. Adding hardware security in the form of the standardized Trusted Platform Module (TPM) is a promising approach. At the same time, traditional dependability features such as safety, availability, and reliability have to be maintained. To determine the right balance between security and dependability it is essential to understand their interferences. This paper supports developers in identifying the implications of using TPMs on the dependability of their system.We highlight potential consequences of adding TPMs to cyber-physical systems by considering the resulting safety, reliability, and availability. Furthermore, we discuss the potential of enhancing the dependability of TPM services by applying traditional redundancy techniques.

2018-02-06
Han, Yi, Etigowni, Sriharsha, Liu, Hua, Zonouz, Saman, Petropulu, Athina.  2017.  Watch Me, but Don'T Touch Me! Contactless Control Flow Monitoring via Electromagnetic Emanations. Proceedings of the 2017 ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security. :1095–1108.

Trustworthy operation of industrial control systems depends on secure and real-time code execution on the embedded programmable logic controllers (PLCs). The controllers monitor and control the critical infrastructures, such as electric power grids and healthcare platforms, and continuously report back the system status to human operators. We present Zeus, a contactless embedded controller security monitor to ensure its execution control flow integrity. Zeus leverages the electromagnetic emission by the PLC circuitry during the execution of the controller programs. Zeus's contactless execution tracking enables non-intrusive monitoring of security-critical controllers with tight real-time constraints. Those devices often cannot tolerate the cost and performance overhead that comes with additional traditional hardware or software monitoring modules. Furthermore, Zeus provides an air-gap between the monitor (trusted computing base) and the target (potentially compromised) PLC. This eliminates the possibility of the monitor infection by the same attack vectors. Zeus monitors for control flow integrity of the PLC program execution. Zeus monitors the communications between the human machine interface and the PLC, and captures the control logic binary uploads to the PLC. Zeus exercises its feasible execution paths, and fingerprints their emissions using an external electromagnetic sensor. Zeus trains a neural network for legitimate PLC executions, and uses it at runtime to identify the control flow based on PLC's electromagnetic emissions. We implemented Zeus on a commercial Allen Bradley PLC, which is widely used in industry, and evaluated it on real-world control program executions. Zeus was able to distinguish between different legitimate and malicious executions with 98.9% accuracy and with zero overhead on PLC execution by design.

Haider, Syed Kamran, Omar, Hamza, Lebedev, Ilia, Devadas, Srinivas, van Dijk, Marten.  2017.  Leveraging Hardware Isolation for Process Level Access Control & Authentication. Proceedings of the 22Nd ACM on Symposium on Access Control Models and Technologies. :133–141.

Critical resource sharing among multiple entities in a processing system is inevitable, which in turn calls for the presence of appropriate authentication and access control mechanisms. Generally speaking, these mechanisms are implemented via trusted software "policy checkers" that enforce certain high level application-specific "rules" to enforce a policy. Whether implemented as operating system modules or embedded inside the application ad hoc, these policy checkers expose additional attack surface in addition to the application logic. In order to protect application software from an adversary, modern secure processing platforms, such as Intel's Software Guard Extensions (SGX), employ principled hardware isolation to offer secure software containers or enclaves to execute trusted sensitive code with some integrity and privacy guarantees against a privileged software adversary. We extend this model further and propose using these hardware isolation mechanisms to shield the authentication and access control logic essential to policy checker software. While relying on the fundamental features of modern secure processors, our framework introduces productive software design guidelines which enable a guarded environment to execute sensitive policy checking code - hence enforcing application control flow integrity - and afford flexibility to the application designer to construct appropriate high-level policies to customize policy checker software.

Nemec, Matus, Sys, Marek, Svenda, Petr, Klinec, Dusan, Matyas, Vashek.  2017.  The Return of Coppersmith's Attack: Practical Factorization of Widely Used RSA Moduli. Proceedings of the 2017 ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security. :1631–1648.

We report on our discovery of an algorithmic flaw in the construction of primes for RSA key generation in a widely-used library of a major manufacturer of cryptographic hardware. The primes generated by the library suffer from a significant loss of entropy. We propose a practical factorization method for various key lengths including 1024 and 2048 bits. Our method requires no additional information except for the value of the public modulus and does not depend on a weak or a faulty random number generator. We devised an extension of Coppersmith's factorization attack utilizing an alternative form of the primes in question. The library in question is found in NIST FIPS 140-2 and CC\textasciitildeEAL\textasciitilde5+ certified devices used for a wide range of real-world applications, including identity cards, passports, Trusted Platform Modules, PGP and tokens for authentication or software signing. As the relevant library code was introduced in 2012 at the latest (and probably earlier), the impacted devices are now widespread. Tens of thousands of such keys were directly identified, many with significant impacts, especially for electronic identity documents, software signing, Trusted Computing and PGP. We estimate the number of affected devices to be in the order of at least tens of millions. The worst cases for the factorization of 1024 and 2048-bit keys are less than 3 CPU-months and 100 CPU-years on single core of common recent CPUs, respectively, while the expected time is half of that of the worst case. The attack can be parallelized on multiple CPUs. Worse still, all susceptible keys contain a strong fingerprint that is verifiable in microseconds on an ordinary laptop – meaning that all vulnerable keys can be quickly identified, even in very large datasets.

Chen, Binbin, Dong, Xinshu, Bai, Guangdong, Jauhar, Sumeet, Cheng, Yueqiang.  2017.  Secure and Efficient Software-Based Attestation for Industrial Control Devices with ARM Processors. Proceedings of the 33rd Annual Computer Security Applications Conference. :425–436.

For industrial control systems, ensuring the software integrity of their devices is a key security requirement. A pure software-based attestation solution is highly desirable for protecting legacy field devices that lack hardware root of trust (e.g., Trusted Platform Module). However, for the large population of field devices with ARM processors, existing software-based attestation schemes either incur long attestation time or are insecure. In this paper, we design a novel memory stride technique that significantly reduces the attestation time while remaining secure against known attacks and their advanced variants on ARM platform. We analyze the scheme's security and performance based on the formal framework proposed by Armknecht et al. [7] (with a necessary change to ensure its applicability in practical settings). We also implement memory stride on two models of real-world power grid devices that are widely deployed today, and demonstrate its superior performance.

Birnstill, P., Haas, C., Hassler, D., Beyerer, J..  2017.  Introducing Remote Attestation and Hardware-Based Cryptography to OPC UA. 2017 22nd IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation (ETFA). :1–8.

In this paper we investigate whether and how hardware-based roots of trust, namely Trusted Platform Modules (TPMs) can improve the security of the communication protocol OPC UA (Open Platform Communications Unified Architecture) under reasonable assumptions, i.e. the Dolev-Yao attacker model. Our analysis shows that TPMs may serve for generating (RNG) and securely storing cryptographic keys, as cryptocoprocessors for weak systems, as well as for remote attestation. We propose to include these TPM functions into OPC UA via so-called ConformanceUnits, which can serve as building blocks of profiles that are used by clients and servers for negotiating the parameters of a session. Eventually, we present first results regarding the performance of a client-server communication including an additional OPC UA server providing remote attestation of other OPC UA servers.

Camenisch, J., Chen, L., Drijvers, M., Lehmann, A., Novick, D., Urian, R..  2017.  One TPM to Bind Them All: Fixing TPM 2.0 for Provably Secure Anonymous Attestation. 2017 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy (SP). :901–920.

The Trusted Platform Module (TPM) is an international standard for a security chip that can be used for the management of cryptographic keys and for remote attestation. The specification of the most recent TPM 2.0 interfaces for direct anonymous attestation unfortunately has a number of severe shortcomings. First of all, they do not allow for security proofs (indeed, the published proofs are incorrect). Second, they provide a Diffie-Hellman oracle w.r.t. the secret key of the TPM, weakening the security and preventing forward anonymity of attestations. Fixes to these problems have been proposed, but they create new issues: they enable a fraudulent TPM to encode information into an attestation signature, which could be used to break anonymity or to leak the secret key. Furthermore, all proposed ways to remove the Diffie-Hellman oracle either strongly limit the functionality of the TPM or would require significant changes to the TPM 2.0 interfaces. In this paper we provide a better specification of the TPM 2.0 interfaces that addresses these problems and requires only minimal changes to the current TPM 2.0 commands. We then show how to use the revised interfaces to build q-SDH-and LRSW-based anonymous attestation schemes, and prove their security. We finally discuss how to obtain other schemes addressing different use cases such as key-binding for U-Prove and e-cash.

Moukarzel, M., Eisenbarth, T., Sunar, B..  2017.  \#x03BC;Leech: A Side-Channel Evaluation Platform for IoT. 2017 IEEE 60th International Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems (MWSCAS). :25–28.

We propose $μ$Leech, a new embedded trusted platform module for next generation power scavenging devices. Such power scavenging devices are already widely deployed. For instance, the Square point-of-sale reader uses the microphone/speaker interface of a smartphone for communications and as power supply. While such devices are used as trusted devices in security critical applications in the wild, they have not been properly evaluated yet. $μ$Leech can securely store keys and provide cryptographic services to any connected smart phone. Our design also facilitates physical security analysis by providing interfaces to facilitate acquisition of power traces and clock manipulation attacks. Thus $μ$Leech empowers security researchers to analyze leakage in next generation embedded and IoT devices and to evaluate countermeasures before deployment.

Alghamdi, W., Schukat, M..  2017.  Advanced Methodologies to Deter Internal Attacks in PTP Time Synchronization Networks. 2017 28th Irish Signals and Systems Conference (ISSC). :1–6.

High accurate time synchronization is very important for many applications and industrial environments. In a computer network, synchronization of time for connected devices is provided by the Precision Time Protocol (PTP), which in principal allows for device time synchronization down to microsecond level. However, PTP and network infrastructures are vulnerable to cyber-attacks, which can de-synchronize an entire network, leading to potentially devastating consequences. This paper will focus on the issue of internal attacks on time synchronization networks and discuss how counter-measures based on public key infrastructures, trusted platform modules, network intrusion detection systems and time synchronization supervisors can be adopted to defeat or at least detect such internal attacks.

Vorobiev, E. G., Petrenko, S. A., Kovaleva, I. V., Abrosimov, I. K..  2017.  Organization of the Entrusted Calculations in Crucial Objects of Informatization under Uncertainty. 2017 XX IEEE International Conference on Soft Computing and Measurements (SCM). :299–300.

The urgent task of the organization of confidential calculations in crucial objects of informatization on the basis of domestic TPM technologies (Trusted Platform Module) is considered. The corresponding recommendations and architectural concepts of the special hardware TPM module (Trusted Platform Module) which is built in a computing platform are proposed and realize a so-called ``root of trust''. As a result it gave the organization the confidential calculations on the basis of domestic electronic base.

Detken, K. O., Jahnke, M., Rix, T., Rein, A..  2017.  Software-Design for Internal Security Checks with Dynamic Integrity Measurement (DIM). 2017 9th IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Data Acquisition and Advanced Computing Systems: Technology and Applications (IDAACS). 1:367–373.

Most security software tools try to detect malicious components by cryptographic hashes, signatures or based on their behavior. The former, is a widely adopted approach based on Integrity Measurement Architecture (IMA) enabling appraisal and attestation of system components. The latter, however, may induce a very long time until misbehavior of a component leads to a successful detection. Another approach is a Dynamic Runtime Attestation (DRA) based on the comparison of binary code loaded in the memory and well-known references. Since DRA is a complex approach, involving multiple related components and often complex attestation strategies, a flexible and extensible architecture is needed. In a cooperation project an architecture was designed and a Proof of Concept (PoC) successfully developed and evaluated. To achieve needed flexibility and extensibility, the implementation facilitates central components providing attestation strategies (guidelines). These guidelines define and implement the necessary steps for all relevant attestation operations, i.e. measurement, reference generation and verification.

Resch, S., Paulitsch, M..  2017.  Using TLA+ in the Development of a Safety-Critical Fault-Tolerant Middleware. 2017 IEEE International Symposium on Software Reliability Engineering Workshops (ISSREW). :146–152.

Creating and implementing fault-tolerant distributed algorithms is a challenging task in highly safety-critical industries. Using formal methods supports design and development of complex algorithms. However, formal methods are often perceived as an unjustifiable overhead. This paper presents the experience and insights when using TLA+ and PlusCal to model and develop fault-tolerant and safety-critical modules for TAS Control Platform, a platform for railway control applications up to safety integrity level (SIL) 4. We show how formal methods helped us improve the correctness of the algorithms, improved development efficiency and how part of the gap between model and implementation has been closed by translation to C code. Additionally, we describe how we gained trust in the formal model and tools by following a specific design process called property-driven design, which also implicitly addresses software quality metrics such as code coverage metrics.

Joshi, M., Mittal, S., Joshi, K. P., Finin, T..  2017.  Semantically Rich, Oblivious Access Control Using ABAC for Secure Cloud Storage. 2017 IEEE International Conference on Edge Computing (EDGE). :142–149.

Securing their critical documents on the cloud from data threats is a major challenge faced by organizations today. Controlling and limiting access to such documents requires a robust and trustworthy access control mechanism. In this paper, we propose a semantically rich access control system that employs an access broker module to evaluate access decisions based on rules generated using the organizations confidentiality policies. The proposed system analyzes the multi-valued attributes of the user making the request and the requested document that is stored on a cloud service platform, before making an access decision. Furthermore, our system guarantees an end-to-end oblivious data transaction between the organization and the cloud service provider using oblivious storage techniques. Thus, an organization can use our system to secure their documents as well as obscure their access pattern details from an untrusted cloud service provider.