Visible to the public Biblio

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2021-09-16
Yoon, JinYi, Lee, HyungJune.  2020.  PUFGAN: Embracing a Self-Adversarial Agent for Building a Defensible Edge Security Architecture. IEEE INFOCOM 2020 - IEEE Conference on Computer Communications. :904–913.
In the era of edge computing and Artificial Intelligence (AI), securing billions of edge devices within a network against intelligent attacks is crucial. We propose PUFGAN, an innovative machine learning attack-proof security architecture, by embedding a self-adversarial agent within a device fingerprint- based security primitive, public PUF (PPUF) known for its strong fingerprint-driven cryptography. The self-adversarial agent is implemented using Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs). The agent attempts to self-attack the system based on two GAN variants, vanilla GAN and conditional GAN. By turning the attacking quality through generating realistic secret keys used in the PPUF primitive into system vulnerability, the security architecture is able to monitor its internal vulnerability. If the vulnerability level reaches at a specific value, PUFGAN allows the system to restructure its underlying security primitive via feedback to the PPUF hardware, maintaining security entropy at as high a level as possible. We evaluated PUFGAN on three different machine environments: Google Colab, a desktop PC, and a Raspberry Pi 2, using a real-world PPUF dataset. Extensive experiments demonstrated that even a strong device fingerprint security primitive can become vulnerable, necessitating active restructuring of the current primitive, making the system resilient against extreme attacking environments.
2021-07-27
Xiao, Wenli, Jiang, Hao, Xia, Song.  2020.  A New Black Box Attack Generating Adversarial Examples Based on Reinforcement Learning. 2020 Information Communication Technologies Conference (ICTC). :141–146.
Machine learning can be misled by adversarial examples, which is formed by making small changes to the original data. Nowadays, there are kinds of methods to produce adversarial examples. However, they can not apply non-differentiable models, reduce the amount of calculations, and shorten the sample generation time at the same time. In this paper, we propose a new black box attack generating adversarial examples based on reinforcement learning. By using deep Q-learning network, we can train the substitute model and generate adversarial examples at the same time. Experimental results show that this method only needs 7.7ms to produce an adversarial example, which solves the problems of low efficiency, large amount of calculation and inapplicable to non-differentiable model.
2021-06-30
Wang, Zhaoyuan, Wang, Dan, Duan, Qing, Sha, Guanglin, Ma, Chunyan, Zhao, Caihong.  2020.  Missing Load Situation Reconstruction Based on Generative Adversarial Networks. 2020 IEEE/IAS Industrial and Commercial Power System Asia (I CPS Asia). :1528—1534.
The completion and the correction of measurement data are the foundation of the ubiquitous power internet of things construction. However, data missing may occur during the data transporting process. Therefore, a model of missing load situation reconstruction based on the generative adversarial networks is proposed in this paper to overcome the disadvantage of depending on data of other relevant factors in conventional methods. Through the unsupervised training, the proposed model can automatically learn the complex features of loads that are difficult to model explicitly to fill the incomplete load data without using other relevant data. Meanwhile, a method of online correction is put forward to improve the robustness of the reconstruction model in different scenarios. The proposed method is fully data-driven and contains no explicit modeling process. The test results indicate that the proposed algorithm is well-matched for the various scenarios, including the discontinuous missing load reconstruction and the continuous missing load reconstruction even massive data missing. Specifically, the reconstruction error rate of the proposed algorithm is within 4% under the absence of 50% load data.
2021-06-01
Zhang, Han, Song, Zhihua, Feng, Boyu, Zhou, Zhongliang, Liu, Fuxian.  2020.  Technology of Image Steganography and Steganalysis Based on Adversarial Training. 2020 16th International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Security (CIS). :77–80.
Steganography has made great progress over the past few years due to the advancement of deep convolutional neural networks (DCNN), which has caused severe problems in the network security field. Ensuring the accuracy of steganalysis is becoming increasingly difficult. In this paper, we designed a two-channel generative adversarial network (TGAN), inspired by the idea of adversarial training that is based on our previous work. The TGAN consisted of three parts: The first hiding network had two input channels and one output channel. For the second extraction network, the input was a hidden image embedded with the secret image. The third detecting network had two input channels and one output channel. Experimental results on two independent image data sets showed that the proposed TGAN performed well and had better detecting capability compared to other algorithms, thus having important theoretical significance and engineering value.
2021-05-20
Yu, Jia ao, Peng, Lei.  2020.  Black-box Attacks on DNN Classifier Based on Fuzzy Adversarial Examples. 2020 IEEE 5th International Conference on Signal and Image Processing (ICSIP). :965—969.
The security of deep learning becomes increasing important with the more and more related applications. The adversarial attack is the known method that makes the performance of deep learning network (DNN) decline rapidly. However, adversarial attack needs the gradient knowledge of the target networks to craft the specific adversarial examples, which is the white-box attack and hardly becomes true in reality. In this paper, we implement a black-box attack on DNN classifier via a functionally equivalent network without knowing the internal structure and parameters of the target networks. And we increase the entropy of the noise via deep convolution generative adversarial networks (DCGAN) to make it seems fuzzier, avoiding being probed and eliminated easily by adversarial training. Experiments show that this method can produce a large number of adversarial examples quickly in batch and the target network cannot improve its accuracy via adversarial training simply.
2021-04-08
Verdoliva, L..  2020.  Media Forensics and DeepFakes: An Overview. IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Signal Processing. 14:910—932.
With the rapid progress in recent years, techniques that generate and manipulate multimedia content can now provide a very advanced level of realism. The boundary between real and synthetic media has become very thin. On the one hand, this opens the door to a series of exciting applications in different fields such as creative arts, advertising, film production, and video games. On the other hand, it poses enormous security threats. Software packages freely available on the web allow any individual, without special skills, to create very realistic fake images and videos. These can be used to manipulate public opinion during elections, commit fraud, discredit or blackmail people. Therefore, there is an urgent need for automated tools capable of detecting false multimedia content and avoiding the spread of dangerous false information. This review paper aims to present an analysis of the methods for visual media integrity verification, that is, the detection of manipulated images and videos. Special emphasis will be placed on the emerging phenomenon of deepfakes, fake media created through deep learning tools, and on modern data-driven forensic methods to fight them. The analysis will help highlight the limits of current forensic tools, the most relevant issues, the upcoming challenges, and suggest future directions for research.
2021-03-29
Moti, Z., Hashemi, S., Jahromi, A. N..  2020.  A Deep Learning-based Malware Hunting Technique to Handle Imbalanced Data. 2020 17th International ISC Conference on Information Security and Cryptology (ISCISC). :48–53.
Nowadays, with the increasing use of computers and the Internet, more people are exposed to cyber-security dangers. According to antivirus companies, malware is one of the most common threats of using the Internet. Therefore, providing a practical solution is critical. Current methods use machine learning approaches to classify malware samples automatically. Despite the success of these approaches, the accuracy and efficiency of these techniques are still inadequate, especially for multiple class classification problems and imbalanced training data sets. To mitigate this problem, we use deep learning-based algorithms for classification and generation of new malware samples. Our model is based on the opcode sequences, which are given to the model without any pre-processing. Besides, we use a novel generative adversarial network to generate new opcode sequences for oversampling minority classes. Also, we propose the model that is a combination of Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) and Long Short Term Memory (LSTM) to classify malware samples. CNN is used to consider short-term dependency between features; while, LSTM is used to consider longer-term dependence. The experiment results show our method could classify malware to their corresponding family effectively. Our model achieves 98.99% validation accuracy.
Olaimat, M. Al, Lee, D., Kim, Y., Kim, J., Kim, J..  2020.  A Learning-based Data Augmentation for Network Anomaly Detection. 2020 29th International Conference on Computer Communications and Networks (ICCCN). :1–10.
While machine learning technologies have been remarkably advanced over the past several years, one of the fundamental requirements for the success of learning-based approaches would be the availability of high-quality data that thoroughly represent individual classes in a problem space. Unfortunately, it is not uncommon to observe a significant degree of class imbalance with only a few instances for minority classes in many datasets, including network traffic traces highly skewed toward a large number of normal connections while very small in quantity for attack instances. A well-known approach to addressing the class imbalance problem is data augmentation that generates synthetic instances belonging to minority classes. However, traditional statistical techniques may be limited since the extended data through statistical sampling should have the same density as original data instances with a minor degree of variation. This paper takes a learning-based approach to data augmentation to enable effective network anomaly detection. One of the critical challenges for the learning-based approach is the mode collapse problem resulting in a limited diversity of samples, which was also observed from our preliminary experimental result. To this end, we present a novel "Divide-Augment-Combine" (DAC) strategy, which groups the instances based on their characteristics and augments data on a group basis to represent a subset independently using a generative adversarial model. Our experimental results conducted with two recently collected public network datasets (UNSW-NB15 and IDS-2017) show that the proposed technique enhances performances up to 21.5% for identifying network anomalies.
Yilmaz, I., Masum, R., Siraj, A..  2020.  Addressing Imbalanced Data Problem with Generative Adversarial Network For Intrusion Detection. 2020 IEEE 21st International Conference on Information Reuse and Integration for Data Science (IRI). :25–30.

Machine learning techniques help to understand underlying patterns in datasets to develop defense mechanisms against cyber attacks. Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) technique is a machine learning technique used in detecting attack vs. benign data. However, it is difficult to construct any effective model when there are imbalances in the dataset that prevent proper classification of attack samples in data. In this research, we use UGR'16 dataset to conduct data wrangling initially. This technique helps to prepare a test set from the original dataset to train the neural network model effectively. We experimented with a series of inputs of varying sizes (i.e. 10000, 50000, 1 million) to observe the performance of the MLP neural network model with distribution of features over accuracy. Later, we use Generative Adversarial Network (GAN) model that produces samples of different attack labels (e.g. blacklist, anomaly spam, ssh scan) for balancing the dataset. These samples are generated based on data from the UGR'16 dataset. Further experiments with MLP neural network model shows that a balanced attack sample dataset, made possible with GAN, produces more accurate results than an imbalanced one.

Peng, Y., Fu, G., Luo, Y., Hu, J., Li, B., Yan, Q..  2020.  Detecting Adversarial Examples for Network Intrusion Detection System with GAN. 2020 IEEE 11th International Conference on Software Engineering and Service Science (ICSESS). :6–10.
With the increasing scale of network, attacks against network emerge one after another, and security problems become increasingly prominent. Network intrusion detection system is a widely used and effective security means at present. In addition, with the development of machine learning technology, various intelligent intrusion detection algorithms also start to sprout. By flexibly combining these intelligent methods with intrusion detection technology, the comprehensive performance of intrusion detection can be improved, but the vulnerability of machine learning model in the adversarial environment can not be ignored. In this paper, we study the defense problem of network intrusion detection system against adversarial samples. More specifically, we design a defense algorithm for NIDS against adversarial samples by using bidirectional generative adversarial network. The generator learns the data distribution of normal samples during training, which is an implicit model reflecting the normal data distribution. After training, the adversarial sample detection module calculates the reconstruction error and the discriminator matching error of sample. Then, the adversarial samples are removed, which improves the robustness and accuracy of NIDS in the adversarial environment.
Gupta, S., Buduru, A. B., Kumaraguru, P..  2020.  imdpGAN: Generating Private and Specific Data with Generative Adversarial Networks. 2020 Second IEEE International Conference on Trust, Privacy and Security in Intelligent Systems and Applications (TPS-ISA). :64–72.
Generative Adversarial Network (GAN) and its variants have shown promising results in generating synthetic data. However, the issues with GANs are: (i) the learning happens around the training samples and the model often ends up remembering them, consequently, compromising the privacy of individual samples - this becomes a major concern when GANs are applied to training data including personally identifiable information, (ii) the randomness in generated data - there is no control over the specificity of generated samples. To address these issues, we propose imdpGAN-an information maximizing differentially private Generative Adversarial Network. It is an end-to-end framework that simultaneously achieves privacy protection and learns latent representations. With experiments on MNIST dataset, we show that imdpGAN preserves the privacy of the individual data point, and learns latent codes to control the specificity of the generated samples. We perform binary classification on digit pairs to show the utility versus privacy trade-off. The classification accuracy decreases as we increase privacy levels in the framework. We also experimentally show that the training process of imdpGAN is stable but experience a 10-fold time increase as compared with other GAN frameworks. Finally, we extend imdpGAN framework to CelebA dataset to show how the privacy and learned representations can be used to control the specificity of the output.
Chauhan, R., Heydari, S. Shah.  2020.  Polymorphic Adversarial DDoS attack on IDS using GAN. 2020 International Symposium on Networks, Computers and Communications (ISNCC). :1–6.
Intrusion Detection systems are important tools in preventing malicious traffic from penetrating into networks and systems. Recently, Intrusion Detection Systems are rapidly enhancing their detection capabilities using machine learning algorithms. However, these algorithms are vulnerable to new unknown types of attacks that can evade machine learning IDS. In particular, they may be vulnerable to attacks based on Generative Adversarial Networks (GAN). GANs have been widely used in domains such as image processing, natural language processing to generate adversarial data of different types such as graphics, videos, texts, etc. We propose a model using GAN to generate adversarial DDoS attacks that can change the attack profile and can be undetected. Our simulation results indicate that by continuous changing of attack profile, defensive systems that use incremental learning will still be vulnerable to new attacks.
Alabugin, S. K., Sokolov, A. N..  2020.  Applying of Generative Adversarial Networks for Anomaly Detection in Industrial Control Systems. 2020 Global Smart Industry Conference (GloSIC). :199–203.

Modern industrial control systems (ICS) act as victims of cyber attacks more often in last years. These cyber attacks often can not be detected by classical information security methods. Moreover, the consequences of cyber attack's impact can be catastrophic. Since cyber attacks leads to appearance of anomalies in the ICS and technological equipment controlled by it, the task of intrusion detection for ICS can be reformulated as the task of industrial process anomaly detection. This paper considers the applicability of generative adversarial networks (GANs) in the field of industrial processes anomaly detection. Existing approaches for GANs usage in the field of information security (such as anomaly detection in network traffic) were described. It is proposed to use the BiGAN architecture in order to detect anomalies in the industrial processes. The proposed approach has been tested on Secure Water Treatment Dataset (SWaT). The obtained results indicate the prospects of using the examined method in practice.

2021-03-15
Toma, A., Krayani, A., Marcenaro, L., Gao, Y., Regazzoni, C. S..  2020.  Deep Learning for Spectrum Anomaly Detection in Cognitive mmWave Radios. 2020 IEEE 31st Annual International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications. :1–7.
Millimeter Wave (mmWave) band can be a solution to serve the vast number of Internet of Things (IoT) and Vehicle to Everything (V2X) devices. In this context, Cognitive Radio (CR) is capable of managing the mmWave spectrum sharing efficiently. However, Cognitive mmWave Radios are vulnerable to malicious users due to the complex dynamic radio environment and the shared access medium. This indicates the necessity to implement techniques able to detect precisely any anomalous behaviour in the spectrum to build secure and efficient radios. In this work, we propose a comparison framework between deep generative models: Conditional Generative Adversarial Network (C-GAN), Auxiliary Classifier Generative Adversarial Network (AC-GAN), and Variational Auto Encoder (VAE) used to detect anomalies inside the dynamic radio spectrum. For the sake of the evaluation, a real mmWave dataset is used, and results show that all of the models achieve high probability in detecting spectrum anomalies. Especially, AC-GAN that outperforms C-GAN and VAE in terms of accuracy and probability of detection.
2021-02-23
Liao, D., Huang, S., Tan, Y., Bai, G..  2020.  Network Intrusion Detection Method Based on GAN Model. 2020 International Conference on Computer Communication and Network Security (CCNS). :153—156.

The existing network intrusion detection methods have less label samples in the training process, and the detection accuracy is not high. In order to solve this problem, this paper designs a network intrusion detection method based on the GAN model by using the adversarial idea contained in the GAN. The model enhances the original training set by continuously generating samples, which expanding the label sample set. In order to realize the multi-classification of samples, this paper transforms the previous binary classification model of the generated adversarial network into a supervised learning multi-classification model. The loss function of training is redefined, so that the corresponding training method and parameter setting are obtained. Under the same experimental conditions, several performance indicators are used to compare the detection ability of the proposed method, the original classification model and other models. The experimental results show that the method proposed in this paper is more stable, robust, accurate detection rate, has good generalization ability, and can effectively realize network intrusion detection.

2021-02-03
Liu, H., Zhou, Z., Zhang, M..  2020.  Application of Optimized Bidirectional Generative Adversarial Network in ICS Intrusion Detection. 2020 Chinese Control And Decision Conference (CCDC). :3009—3014.

Aiming at the problem that the traditional intrusion detection method can not effectively deal with the massive and high-dimensional network traffic data of industrial control system (ICS), an ICS intrusion detection strategy based on bidirectional generative adversarial network (BiGAN) is proposed in this paper. In order to improve the applicability of BiGAN model in ICS intrusion detection, the optimal model was obtained through the single variable principle and cross-validation. On this basis, the supervised control and data acquisition (SCADA) standard data set is used for comparative experiments to verify the performance of the optimized model on ICS intrusion detection. The results show that the ICS intrusion detection method based on optimized BiGAN has higher accuracy and shorter detection time than other methods.

2021-01-15
Ebrahimi, M., Samtani, S., Chai, Y., Chen, H..  2020.  Detecting Cyber Threats in Non-English Hacker Forums: An Adversarial Cross-Lingual Knowledge Transfer Approach. 2020 IEEE Security and Privacy Workshops (SPW). :20—26.

The regularity of devastating cyber-attacks has made cybersecurity a grand societal challenge. Many cybersecurity professionals are closely examining the international Dark Web to proactively pinpoint potential cyber threats. Despite its potential, the Dark Web contains hundreds of thousands of non-English posts. While machine translation is the prevailing approach to process non-English text, applying MT on hacker forum text results in mistranslations. In this study, we draw upon Long-Short Term Memory (LSTM), Cross-Lingual Knowledge Transfer (CLKT), and Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) principles to design a novel Adversarial CLKT (A-CLKT) approach. A-CLKT operates on untranslated text to retain the original semantics of the language and leverages the collective knowledge about cyber threats across languages to create a language invariant representation without any manual feature engineering or external resources. Three experiments demonstrate how A-CLKT outperforms state-of-the-art machine learning, deep learning, and CLKT algorithms in identifying cyber-threats in French and Russian forums.

Zhang, N., Ebrahimi, M., Li, W., Chen, H..  2020.  A Generative Adversarial Learning Framework for Breaking Text-Based CAPTCHA in the Dark Web. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Intelligence and Security Informatics (ISI). :1—6.

Cyber threat intelligence (CTI) necessitates automated monitoring of dark web platforms (e.g., Dark Net Markets and carding shops) on a large scale. While there are existing methods for collecting data from the surface web, large-scale dark web data collection is commonly hindered by anti-crawling measures. Text-based CAPTCHA serves as the most prohibitive type of these measures. Text-based CAPTCHA requires the user to recognize a combination of hard-to-read characters. Dark web CAPTCHA patterns are intentionally designed to have additional background noise and variable character length to prevent automated CAPTCHA breaking. Existing CAPTCHA breaking methods cannot remedy these challenges and are therefore not applicable to the dark web. In this study, we propose a novel framework for breaking text-based CAPTCHA in the dark web. The proposed framework utilizes Generative Adversarial Network (GAN) to counteract dark web-specific background noise and leverages an enhanced character segmentation algorithm. Our proposed method was evaluated on both benchmark and dark web CAPTCHA testbeds. The proposed method significantly outperformed the state-of-the-art baseline methods on all datasets, achieving over 92.08% success rate on dark web testbeds. Our research enables the CTI community to develop advanced capabilities of large-scale dark web monitoring.

McCloskey, S., Albright, M..  2019.  Detecting GAN-Generated Imagery Using Saturation Cues. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP). :4584—4588.
Image forensics is an increasingly relevant problem, as it can potentially address online disinformation campaigns and mitigate problematic aspects of social media. Of particular interest, given its recent successes, is the detection of imagery produced by Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs), e.g. `deepfakes'. Leveraging large training sets and extensive computing resources, recent GANs can be trained to generate synthetic imagery which is (in some ways) indistinguishable from real imagery. We analyze the structure of the generating network of a popular GAN implementation [1], and show that the network's treatment of exposure is markedly different from a real camera. We further show that this cue can be used to distinguish GAN-generated imagery from camera imagery, including effective discrimination between GAN imagery and real camera images used to train the GAN.
Yadav, D., Salmani, S..  2019.  Deepfake: A Survey on Facial Forgery Technique Using Generative Adversarial Network. 2019 International Conference on Intelligent Computing and Control Systems (ICCS). :852—857.
"Deepfake" it is an incipiently emerging face video forgery technique predicated on AI technology which is used for creating the fake video. It takes images and video as source and it coalesces these to make a new video using the generative adversarial network and the output is very convincing. This technique is utilized for generating the unauthentic spurious video and it is capable of making it possible to generate an unauthentic spurious video of authentic people verbally expressing and doing things that they never did by swapping the face of the person in the video. Deepfake can create disputes in countries by influencing their election process by defaming the character of the politician. This technique is now being used for character defamation of celebrities and high-profile politician just by swapping the face with someone else. If it is utilized in unethical ways, this could lead to a serious problem. Someone can use this technique for taking revenge from the person by swapping face in video and then posting it to a social media platform. In this paper, working of Deepfake technique along with how it can swap faces with maximum precision in the video has been presented. Further explained are the different ways through which we can identify if the video is generated by Deepfake and its advantages and drawback have been listed.
Katarya, R., Lal, A..  2020.  A Study on Combating Emerging Threat of Deepfake Weaponization. 2020 Fourth International Conference on I-SMAC (IoT in Social, Mobile, Analytics and Cloud) (I-SMAC). :485—490.
A breakthrough in the emerging use of machine learning and deep learning is the concept of autoencoders and GAN (Generative Adversarial Networks), architectures that can generate believable synthetic content called deepfakes. The threat lies when these low-tech doctored images, videos, and audios blur the line between fake and genuine content and are used as weapons to cause damage to an unprecedented degree. This paper presents a survey of the underlying technology of deepfakes and methods proposed for their detection. Based on a detailed study of all the proposed models of detection, this paper presents SSTNet as the best model to date, that uses spatial, temporal, and steganalysis for detection. The threat posed by document and signature forgery, which is yet to be explored by researchers, has also been highlighted in this paper. This paper concludes with the discussion of research directions in this field and the development of more robust techniques to deal with the increasing threats surrounding deepfake technology.
Gandhi, A., Jain, S..  2020.  Adversarial Perturbations Fool Deepfake Detectors. 2020 International Joint Conference on Neural Networks (IJCNN). :1—8.
This work uses adversarial perturbations to enhance deepfake images and fool common deepfake detectors. We created adversarial perturbations using the Fast Gradient Sign Method and the Carlini and Wagner L2 norm attack in both blackbox and whitebox settings. Detectors achieved over 95% accuracy on unperturbed deepfakes, but less than 27% accuracy on perturbed deepfakes. We also explore two improvements to deep-fake detectors: (i) Lipschitz regularization, and (ii) Deep Image Prior (DIP). Lipschitz regularization constrains the gradient of the detector with respect to the input in order to increase robustness to input perturbations. The DIP defense removes perturbations using generative convolutional neural networks in an unsupervised manner. Regularization improved the detection of perturbed deepfakes on average, including a 10% accuracy boost in the blackbox case. The DIP defense achieved 95% accuracy on perturbed deepfakes that fooled the original detector while retaining 98% accuracy in other cases on a 100 image subsample.
Younus, M. A., Hasan, T. M..  2020.  Effective and Fast DeepFake Detection Method Based on Haar Wavelet Transform. 2020 International Conference on Computer Science and Software Engineering (CSASE). :186—190.
DeepFake using Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) tampered videos reveals a new challenge in today's life. With the inception of GANs, generating high-quality fake videos becomes much easier and in a very realistic manner. Therefore, the development of efficient tools that can automatically detect these fake videos is of paramount importance. The proposed DeepFake detection method takes the advantage of the fact that current DeepFake generation algorithms cannot generate face images with varied resolutions, it is only able to generate new faces with a limited size and resolution, a further distortion and blur is needed to match and fit the fake face with the background and surrounding context in the source video. This transformation causes exclusive blur inconsistency between the generated face and its background in the outcome DeepFake videos, in turn, these artifacts can be effectively spotted by examining the edge pixels in the wavelet domain of the faces in each frame compared to the rest of the frame. A blur inconsistency detection scheme relied on the type of edge and the analysis of its sharpness using Haar wavelet transform as shown in this paper, by using this feature, it can determine if the face region in a video has been blurred or not and to what extent it has been blurred. Thus will lead to the detection of DeepFake videos. The effectiveness of the proposed scheme is demonstrated in the experimental results where the “UADFV” dataset has been used for the evaluation, a very successful detection rate with more than 90.5% was gained.
Khodabakhsh, A., Busch, C..  2020.  A Generalizable Deepfake Detector based on Neural Conditional Distribution Modelling. 2020 International Conference of the Biometrics Special Interest Group (BIOSIG). :1—5.
Photo- and video-realistic generation techniques have become a reality following the advent of deep neural networks. Consequently, there are immense concerns regarding the difficulty in differentiating what content is real from what is synthetic. An example of video-realistic generation techniques is the infamous Deepfakes, which exploit the main modality by which humans identify each other. Deepfakes are a category of synthetic face generation methods and are commonly based on generative adversarial networks. In this article, we propose a novel two-step synthetic face image detection method in which general-purpose features are extracted in a first step, trivializing the task of detecting synthetic images. The anomaly detector predicts the conditional probabilities for observing every individual pixel in the image and is trained on pristine data only. The extracted anomaly features demonstrate true generalization capacity across widely different unknown synthesis methods while showing a minimal loss in performance with regard to the detection of known synthetic samples.
2020-12-11
Zhou, Z., Yang, Y., Cai, Z., Yang, Y., Lin, L..  2019.  Combined Layer GAN for Image Style Transfer*. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Computational Electromagnetics (ICCEM). :1—3.

Image style transfer is an increasingly interesting topic in computer vision where the goal is to map images from one style to another. In this paper, we propose a new framework called Combined Layer GAN as a solution of dealing with image style transfer problem. Specifically, the edge-constraint and color-constraint are proposed and explored in the GAN based image translation method to improve the performance. The motivation of the work is that color and edge are fundamental vision factors for an image, while in the traditional deep network based approach, there is a lack of fine control of these factors in the process of translation and the performance is degraded consequently. Our experiments and evaluations show that our novel method with the edge and color constrains is more stable, and significantly improves the performance compared with the traditional methods.