Visible to the public Biblio

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Cuzzocrea, Alfredo.  2017.  Privacy-Preserving Big Data Stream Mining: Opportunities, Challenges, Directions. 2017 IEEE International Conference on Data Mining Workshops (ICDMW). :992–994.
This paper explores recent achievements and novel challenges of the annoying privacy-preserving big data stream mining problem, which consists in applying mining algorithms to big data streams while ensuring the privacy of data. Recently, the emerging big data analytics context has conferred a new light to this exciting research area. This paper follows the so-depicted research trend.
ISSN: 2375-9259
Li, Yue, Zhang, Yunjuan.  2022.  Design of Smart Risk Assessment System for Agricultural Products and Food Safety Inspection Based on Multivariate Data Analysis. 2022 4th International Conference on Smart Systems and Inventive Technology (ICSSIT). :1206—1210.
Design of smart risk assessment system for the agricultural products and the food safety inspection based on multivariate data analysis is studied in this paper. The designed quality traceability system also requires the collaboration and cooperation of various companies in the supply chain, and a unified database, including agricultural product identification system, code system and security status system, is required to record in detail the trajectory and status of agricultural products in the logistics chain. For the improvement, the multivariate data analysis is combined. Hadoop cannot be used on hardware with high price and high reliability. Even for groups with high probability of the problems, HDFS will continue to use when facing problems, and at the same time. Hence, the core model of HDFS is applied into the system. In the verification part, the analytic performance is simulated.
Jaimes, Luis G., Calderon, Juan, Shriver, Scott, Hendricks, Antonio, Lozada, Javier, Seenith, Sivasundaram, Chintakunta, Harish.  2022.  A Generative Adversarial Approach for Sybil Attacks Recognition for Vehicular Crowdsensing. 2022 International Conference on Connected Vehicle and Expo (ICCVE). :1–7.
Vehicular crowdsensing (VCS) is a subset of crowd-sensing where data collection is outsourced to group vehicles. Here, an entity interested in collecting data from a set of Places of Sensing Interest (PsI), advertises a set of sensing tasks, and the associated rewards. Vehicles attracted by the offered rewards deviate from their ongoing trajectories to visit and collect from one or more PsI. In this win-to-win scenario, vehicles reach their final destination with the extra reward, and the entity obtains the desired samples. Unfortunately, the efficiency of VCS can be undermined by the Sybil attack, in which an attacker can benefit from the injection of false vehicle identities. In this paper, we present a case study and analyze the effects of such an attack. We also propose a defense mechanism based on generative adversarial neural networks (GANs). We discuss GANs' advantages, and drawbacks in the context of VCS, and new trends in GANs' training that make them suitable for VCS.
Ramadhan, Hani, Kwon, Joonho.  2021.  Enhancing Learned Index for A Higher Recall Trajectory K-Nearest Neighbor Search. 2021 IEEE International Conference on Big Data (Big Data). :6006—6007.
Learned indices can significantly shorten the query response time of k-Nearest Neighbor search of points data. However, extending the learned index for k-Nearest Neighbor search of trajectory data may return incorrect results (low recall) and require longer pruning time. Thus, we introduce an enhancement for trajectory learned index which is a pruning step for a learned index to retrieve the k-Nearest Neighbors correctly by learning the query workload. The pruning utilizes a predicted range query that covers the correct neighbors. We show that that our approach has the potential to work effectively in a large real-world trajectory dataset.
Zhang, Jing.  2021.  Application of multi-fault diagnosis based on discrete event system in industrial sensor network. 2021 4th International Conference on Advanced Electronic Materials, Computers and Software Engineering (AEMCSE). :1122–1126.
This paper presents a method to improve the diagnosability of power network under multiple faults. In this paper, the steps of fault diagnosis are as follows: first, constructing finite automata model of the diagnostic system; then, a fault diagnoser model is established through coupling operation and trajectory reasoning mechanism; finally, the diagnosis results are obtained through this model. In this paper, the judgment basis of diagnosability is defined. Then, based on the existing diagnosis results, the information available can be increased by adding sensor devices, to achieve the purpose of diagnosability in the case of multiple faults of the system.
LAPIQUE, Maxime, GAVAGSAZ-GHOACHANI, Roghayeh, MARTIN, Jean-Philippe, PIERFEDERICI, Serge, ZAIM, Sami.  2020.  Flatness-based control of a 3-phases PWM rectifier with LCL-filter amp; disturbance observer. IECON 2020 The 46th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society. :4685–4690.
In more electrical aircraft, the embedded electrical network is handling more and more vital functions, being more and more strained as well. Attenuation of switching harmonics is a key step in the network reliability, thus filtering elements play a central role. To keep the weight of the embedded network reasonable, weakly damped high-order filters shall be preferred. Flatness-based control (FBC) can offer both high bandwidth regulation and large signal stability proof. This make FBC a good candidate to handle the inherent oscillating behavior of aforementioned filters. However, this control strategy can be tricky to implement, especially with high order systems. Moreover, FBC is more sensor demanding than classic PI-based control. This paper address these two drawbacks. First, a novel trajectory planning for high order systems is proposed. This method does not require multiple derivations. Then the input sensors are removed thanks to a parameters estimator. Feasibility and performances are verified with experimental results. Performances comparison with cascaded-loop topologies are given in final section to prove the relevance of the proposed control strategy.
ISSN: 2577-1647
Pilehvar, Mohsen S., Mirafzal, Behrooz.  2020.  Energy-Storage Fed Smart Inverters for Mitigation of Voltage Fluctuations in Islanded Microgrids. 2020 IEEE Electric Power and Energy Conference (EPEC). :1–6.
The continuous integration of intermittent low-carbon energy resources makes islanded microgrids vulnerable to voltage fluctuations. Besides, different dynamic response of synchronous-based and inverter-based distributed generation (DG) units can result in an instantaneous power imbalance between supply and demand during transients. As a result, the ac-bus voltage of microgrid starts oscillating which might have severe consequences such as blackouts. This paper modifies the conventional control scheme of battery energy storage systems (BESSs) to participate in improving the dynamic behavior of islanded microgrids by mitigating the voltage fluctuations. A piecewise linear-elliptic (PLE) droop is proposed and employed in BESS to achieve an enhanced voltage profile by injecting/absorbing reactive power during transients. In this way, the conventional inverter implemented in BESS turns into a smart inverter to cope with fast transients. Using the proposed approach in this paper, any linear droop curve with a specified coefficient can be replaced by a PLE droop curve. Compared with linear droop, an enhanced dynamic response is achieved by utilizing the proposed PLE droop. Case study results are presented using PSCAD/EMTDC to demonstrate the superiority of the proposed approach in improving the dynamic behavior of islanded microgrids.
ISSN: 2381-2842
Cheng, Tingting, Niu, Ben, Zhang, Guangju, Wang, Zhenhua.  2021.  Event-Triggered Adaptive Command Filtered Asymptotic Tracking Control for a Class of Flexible Robotic Manipulators. 2021 International Conference on Security, Pattern Analysis, and Cybernetics(SPAC). :353–359.
This work proposes an event-triggered adaptive asymptotic tracking control scheme for flexible robotic manipulators. Firstly, by employing the command filtered backstepping technology, the ``explosion of complexity'' problem is overcame. Then, the event-triggered strategy is utilized which makes that the control input is updated aperiodically when the event-trigger occurs. The utilized event-triggered mechanism reduces the transmission frequency of computer and saves computer resources. Moreover, it can be proved that all the variables in the closed-loop system are bounded and the tracking error converges asymptotically to zero. Finally, the simulation studies are included to show the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme.
Yang, Wen, Xue, Hong, Hu, Shenglin, Liang, Hongjing.  2021.  Command Filter-Based Adaptive Finite-Time Prescribed Performance Control for Uncertain Nonlinear Systems with Fuzzy Dead-Zone Input. 2021 International Conference on Security, Pattern Analysis, and Cybernetics(SPAC). :555–560.
This paper is concerned with the problem of adaptive finite-time prescribed performance control for a category of uncertain nonlinear systems subject to fuzzy dead-zone input. Via combining the technologies of command filter and backstepping control, the ``singularity'' and the ``explosion of complexity'' issues within controller design procedure are avoided. Moreover, by designing a state observer and utilizing the center-of-gravity theorem, the unmeasured states of system are estimated and the fuzzy issue result from fuzzy dead-zone input is disposed, respectively. Meanwhile, a finite-time fuzzy controller is constructed via combining with finite-time stability criterion, which guarantees all the signals in closed-loop system are convergent and the trajectory of tracking error also strictly evolves within a predefined range in finite time. At last, some simulation results confirm the viability of presented theoretical results.
Liu, Qian, de Simone, Robert, Chen, Xiaohong, Kang, Jiexiang, Liu, Jing, Yin, Wei, Wang, Hui.  2020.  Multiform Logical Time Amp; Space for Mobile Cyber-Physical System With Automated Driving Assistance System. 2020 27th Asia-Pacific Software Engineering Conference (APSEC). :415–424.
We study the use of Multiform Logical Time, as embodied in Esterel/SyncCharts and Clock Constraint Specification Language (CCSL), for the specification of assume-guarantee constraints providing safe driving rules related to time and space, in the context of Automated Driving Assistance Systems (ADAS). The main novelty lies in the use of logical clocks to represent the epochs of specific area encounters (when particular area trajectories just start overlapping for instance), thereby combining time and space constraints by CCSL to build safe driving rules specification. We propose the safe specification pattern at high-level that provide the required expressiveness for safe driving rules specification. In the pattern, multiform logical time provides the power of parameterization to express safe driving rules, before instantiation in further simulation contexts. We present an efficient way to irregularly update the constraints in the specification due to the context changes, where elements (other cars, road sections, traffic signs) may dynamically enter and exit the scene. In this way, we add constraints for the new elements and remove the constraints related to the disappearing elements rather than rebuild everything. The multi-lane highway scenario is used to illustrate how to irregularly and efficiently update the constraints in the specification while receiving a fresh scene.
Lu, Yujun, Gao, BoYu, Long, Jinyi, Weng, Jian.  2020.  Hand Motion with Eyes-free Interaction for Authentication in Virtual Reality. 2020 IEEE Conference on Virtual Reality and 3D User Interfaces Abstracts and Workshops (VRW). :714—715.
Designing an authentication method is a crucial component to secure privacy in information systems. Virtual Reality (VR) is a new interaction platform, in which the users can interact with natural behaviours (e.g. hand, gaze, head, etc.). In this work, we propose a novel authentication method in which user can perform hand motion in an eyes-free manner. We evaluate the usability and security between eyes-engage and eyes-free input with a pilot study. The initial result revealed our purposed method can achieve a trade-off between usability and security, showing a new way to behaviour-based authentication in VR.
Yang, Yang, Wang, Ruchuan.  2020.  LBS-based location privacy protection mechanism in augmented reality. 2020 International Conference on Internet of Things and Intelligent Applications (ITIA). :1—6.
With the development of augmented reality(AR) technology and location-based service (LBS) technology, combining AR with LBS will create a new way of life and socializing. In AR, users may consider the privacy and security of data. In LBS, the leakage of user location privacy is an important threat to LBS users. Therefore, it is very important for privacy management of positioning information and user location privacy to avoid loopholes and abuse. In this review, the concepts and principles of AR technology and LBS would be introduced. The existing privacy measurement and privacy protection framework would be analyzed and summarized. Also future research direction of location privacy protection would be discussed.
Yazdani, Kasra, Hale, Matthew.  2020.  Error Bounds and Guidelines for Privacy Calibration in Differentially Private Kalman Filtering. 2020 American Control Conference (ACC). :4423—4428.
Differential privacy has emerged as a formal framework for protecting sensitive information in control systems. One key feature is that it is immune to post-processing, which means that arbitrary post-hoc computations can be performed on privatized data without weakening differential privacy. It is therefore common to filter private data streams. To characterize this setup, in this paper we present error and entropy bounds for Kalman filtering differentially private state trajectories. We consider systems in which an output trajectory is privatized in order to protect the state trajectory that produced it. We provide bounds on a priori and a posteriori error and differential entropy of a Kalman filter which is processing the privatized output trajectories. Using the error bounds we develop, we then provide guidelines to calibrate privacy levels in order to keep filter error within pre-specified bounds. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate these developments.
Wang, Lei, Manchester, Ian R., Trumpf, Jochen, Shi, Guodong.  2020.  Initial-Value Privacy of Linear Dynamical Systems. 2020 59th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control (CDC). :3108—3113.
This paper studies initial-value privacy problems of linear dynamical systems. We consider a standard linear time-invariant system with random process and measurement noises. For such a system, eavesdroppers having access to system output trajectories may infer the system initial states, leading to initial-value privacy risks. When a finite number of output trajectories are eavesdropped, we consider a requirement that any guess about the initial values can be plausibly denied. When an infinite number of output trajectories are eavesdropped, we consider a requirement that the initial values should not be uniquely recoverable. In view of these two privacy requirements, we define differential initial-value privacy and intrinsic initial-value privacy, respectively, for the system as metrics of privacy risks. First of all, we prove that the intrinsic initial-value privacy is equivalent to unobservability, while the differential initial-value privacy can be achieved for a privacy budget depending on an extended observability matrix of the system and the covariance of the noises. Next, the inherent network nature of the considered linear system is explored, where each individual state corresponds to a node and the state and output matrices induce interaction and sensing graphs, leading to a network system. Under this network system perspective, we allow the initial states at some nodes to be public, and investigate the resulting intrinsic initial- value privacy of each individual node. We establish necessary and sufficient conditions for such individual node initial-value privacy, and also prove that the intrinsic initial-value privacy of individual nodes is generically determined by the network structure.
Cideron, Geoffrey, Seurin, Mathieu, Strub, Florian, Pietquin, Olivier.  2020.  HIGhER: Improving instruction following with Hindsight Generation for Experience Replay. 2020 IEEE Symposium Series on Computational Intelligence (SSCI). :225–232.
Language creates a compact representation of the world and allows the description of unlimited situations and objectives through compositionality. While these characterizations may foster instructing, conditioning or structuring interactive agent behavior, it remains an open-problem to correctly relate language understanding and reinforcement learning in even simple instruction following scenarios. This joint learning problem is alleviated through expert demonstrations, auxiliary losses, or neural inductive biases. In this paper, we propose an orthogonal approach called Hindsight Generation for Experience Replay (HIGhER) that extends the Hindsight Experience Replay approach to the language-conditioned policy setting. Whenever the agent does not fulfill its instruction, HIGhER learns to output a new directive that matches the agent trajectory, and it relabels the episode with a positive reward. To do so, HIGhER learns to map a state into an instruction by using past successful trajectories, which removes the need to have external expert interventions to relabel episodes as in vanilla HER. We show the efficiency of our approach in the BabyAI environment, and demonstrate how it complements other instruction following methods.
Averta, Giuseppe, Hogan, Neville.  2020.  Enhancing Robot-Environment Physical Interaction via Optimal Impedance Profiles. 2020 8th IEEE RAS/EMBS International Conference for Biomedical Robotics and Biomechatronics (BioRob). :973–980.
Physical interaction of robots with their environment is a challenging problem because of the exchanged forces. Hybrid position/force control schemes often exhibit problems during the contact phase, whereas impedance control appears to be more simple and reliable, especially when impedance is shaped to be energetically passive. Even if recent technologies enable shaping the impedance of a robot, how best to plan impedance parameters for task execution remains an open question. In this paper we present an optimization-based approach to plan not only the robot motion but also its desired end-effector mechanical impedance. We show how our methodology is able to take into account the transition from free motion to a contact condition, typical of physical interaction tasks. Results are presented for planar and three-dimensional open-chain manipulator arms. The compositionality of mechanical impedance is exploited to deal with kinematic redundancy and multi-arm manipulation.
Murguia, Carlos, Tabuada, Paulo.  2020.  Privacy Against Adversarial Classification in Cyber-Physical Systems. 2020 59th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control (CDC). :5483–5488.
For a class of Cyber-Physical Systems (CPSs), we address the problem of performing computations over the cloud without revealing private information about the structure and operation of the system. We model CPSs as a collection of input-output dynamical systems (the system operation modes). Depending on the mode the system is operating on, the output trajectory is generated by one of these systems in response to driving inputs. Output measurements and driving inputs are sent to the cloud for processing purposes. We capture this "processing" through some function (of the input-output trajectory) that we require the cloud to compute accurately - referred here as the trajectory utility. However, for privacy reasons, we would like to keep the mode private, i.e., we do not want the cloud to correctly identify what mode of the CPS produced a given trajectory. To this end, we distort trajectories before transmission and send the corrupted data to the cloud. We provide mathematical tools (based on output-regulation techniques) to properly design distorting mechanisms so that: 1) the original and distorted trajectories lead to the same utility; and the distorted data leads the cloud to misclassify the mode.
Ramasubramanian, Bhaskar, Niu, Luyao, Clark, Andrew, Bushnell, Linda, Poovendran, Radha.  2020.  Privacy-Preserving Resilience of Cyber-Physical Systems to Adversaries. 2020 59th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control (CDC). :3785–3792.

A cyber-physical system (CPS) is expected to be resilient to more than one type of adversary. In this paper, we consider a CPS that has to satisfy a linear temporal logic (LTL) objective in the presence of two kinds of adversaries. The first adversary has the ability to tamper with inputs to the CPS to influence satisfaction of the LTL objective. The interaction of the CPS with this adversary is modeled as a stochastic game. We synthesize a controller for the CPS to maximize the probability of satisfying the LTL objective under any policy of this adversary. The second adversary is an eavesdropper who can observe labeled trajectories of the CPS generated from the previous step. It could then use this information to launch other kinds of attacks. A labeled trajectory is a sequence of labels, where a label is associated to a state and is linked to the satisfaction of the LTL objective at that state. We use differential privacy to quantify the indistinguishability between states that are related to each other when the eavesdropper sees a labeled trajectory. Two trajectories of equal length will be differentially private if they are differentially private at each state along the respective trajectories. We use a skewed Kantorovich metric to compute distances between probability distributions over states resulting from actions chosen according to policies from related states in order to quantify differential privacy. Moreover, we do this in a manner that does not affect the satisfaction probability of the LTL objective. We validate our approach on a simulation of a UAV that has to satisfy an LTL objective in an adversarial environment.

Diao, Yiqing, Ye, Ayong, Cheng, Baorong, Zhang, Jiaomei, Zhang, Qiang.  2020.  A Dummy-Based Privacy Protection Scheme for Location-Based Services under Spatiotemporal Correlation. 2020 International Conference on Networking and Network Applications (NaNA). :443—447.
The dummy-based method has been commonly used to protect the users location privacy in location-based services, since it can provide precise results and generally do not rely on a third party or key sharing. However, the close spatiotemporal correlation between the consecutively reported locations enables the adversary to identify some dummies, which lead to the existing dummy-based schemes fail to protect the users location privacy completely. To address this limit, this paper proposes a new algorithm to produce dummy location by generating dummy trajectory, which naturally takes into account of the spatiotemporal correlation all round. Firstly, the historical trajectories similar to the user's travel route are chosen as the dummy trajectories which depend on the distance between two trajectories with the help of home gateway. Then, the dummy is generated from the dummy trajectory by taking into account of time reachability, historical query similarity and the computation of in-degree/out-degree. Security analysis shows that the proposed scheme successfully perturbs the spatiotemporal correlation between neighboring location sets, therefore, it is infeasible for the adversary to distinguish the users real location from the dummies. Furthermore, extensive experiments indicate that the proposal is able to protect the users location privacy effectively and efficiently.
Liu, Xinghua, Bai, Dandan, Jiang, Rui.  2020.  Load Frequency Control of Multi-area Power Systems under Deception Attacks*. 2020 Chinese Automation Congress (CAC). :3851–3856.
This paper investigated the sliding mode load frequency control (LFC) for an multi-area power system (MPS) under deception attacks (DA). A Luenberger observer is designed to obtain the state estimate of MPS. By using the Lyapunov-Krasovskii method, a sliding mode surface (SMS) is designed to ensure the stability. Then the accessibility analysis ensures that the trajectory of the MPS can reach the specified SMS. Finally, the serviceability of the method is explained by providing a case study.
Ergün, S., Tanrıseven, S..  2020.  Random Number Generator Based on Skew-tent Map and Chaotic Sampling. 2020 IEEE Asia Pacific Conference on Circuits and Systems (APCCAS). :224–227.
In this paper a novel random number generator is introduced and it is based on the Skew-tent discrete-time chaotic map. The RNG presented in this paper is made using the discrete-time chaotic map and chaotic sampling of regular waveform method together to increase the throughput and statistical quality of the output sequence. An explanation of the arithmetic model for the proposed design is given in this paper with an algebra confirmation for the generated bit stream that shows how it passes the primary four tests of the FIPS-140-2 test suit successfully. Finally the bit stream resulting from the hardware implementation of the circuit in a similar method has been confirmed to pass all NIST-800-22 test with no post processing. A presentation of the experimentally obtained results is given therefor proving the the circuit’s usefulness. The proposed RNG can be built with the integrated circuit.
Tsareva, P., Voronova, A., Vetrov, B., Ivanov, A..  2020.  Digital Dynamic Chaos-Based Encryption System in a Research Project of the Department of Marine Electronics. 2020 IEEE Conference of Russian Young Researchers in Electrical and Electronic Engineering (EIConRus). :538–541.
The problems of synthesis of a digital data encryption system based on dynamic chaos in a research project carried out at the Department of Marine Electronics (SMTU) are considered. A description is made of the problems of generating a chaotic (random) signal in computer systems with calculations with finite accuracy.
Liu, X., Gao, W., Feng, D., Gao, X..  2020.  Abnormal Traffic Congestion Recognition Based on Video Analysis. 2020 IEEE Conference on Multimedia Information Processing and Retrieval (MIPR). :39—42.

The incidence of abnormal road traffic events, especially abnormal traffic congestion, is becoming more and more prominent in daily traffic management in China. It has become the main research work of urban traffic management to detect and identify traffic congestion incidents in time. Efficient and accurate detection of traffic congestion incidents can provide a good strategy for traffic management. At present, the detection and recognition of traffic congestion events mainly rely on the integration of road traffic flow data and the passing data collected by electronic police or devices of checkpoint, and then estimating and forecasting road conditions through the method of big data analysis; Such methods often have some disadvantages such as low time-effect, low precision and small prediction range. Therefore, with the help of the current large and medium cities in the public security, traffic police have built video surveillance equipment, through computer vision technology to analyze the traffic flow from video monitoring, in this paper, the motion state and the changing trend of vehicle flow are obtained by using the technology of vehicle detection from video and multi-target tracking based on deep learning, so as to realize the perception and recognition of traffic congestion. The method achieves the recognition accuracy of less than 60 seconds in real-time, more than 80% in detection rate of congestion event and more than 82.5% in accuracy of detection. At the same time, it breaks through the restriction of traditional big data prediction, such as traffic flow data, truck pass data and GPS floating car data, and enlarges the scene and scope of detection.

Tojiboev, R., Lee, W., Lee, C. C..  2020.  Adding Noise Trajectory for Providing Privacy in Data Publishing by Vectorization. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Big Data and Smart Computing (BigComp). :432—434.

Since trajectory data is widely collected and utilized for scientific research and business purpose, publishing trajectory without proper privacy-policy leads to an acute threat to individual data. Recently, several methods, i.e., k-anonymity, l-diversity, t-closeness have been studied, though they tend to protect by reducing data depends on a feature of each method. When a strong privacy protection is required, these methods have excessively reduced data utility that may affect the result of scientific research. In this research, we suggest a novel approach to tackle this existing dilemma via an adding noise trajectory on a vector-based grid environment.

Huang, Y., Wang, W., Wang, Y., Jiang, T., Zhang, Q..  2020.  Lightweight Sybil-Resilient Multi-Robot Networks by Multipath Manipulation. IEEE INFOCOM 2020 - IEEE Conference on Computer Communications. :2185–2193.

Wireless networking opens up many opportunities to facilitate miniaturized robots in collaborative tasks, while the openness of wireless medium exposes robots to the threats of Sybil attackers, who can break the fundamental trust assumption in robotic collaboration by forging a large number of fictitious robots. Recent advances advocate the adoption of bulky multi-antenna systems to passively obtain fine-grained physical layer signatures, rendering them unaffordable to miniaturized robots. To overcome this conundrum, this paper presents ScatterID, a lightweight system that attaches featherlight and batteryless backscatter tags to single-antenna robots to defend against Sybil attacks. Instead of passively "observing" signatures, ScatterID actively "manipulates" multipath propagation by using backscatter tags to intentionally create rich multipath features obtainable to a single-antenna robot. These features are used to construct a distinct profile to detect the real signal source, even when the attacker is mobile and power-scaling. We implement ScatterID on the iRobot Create platform and evaluate it in typical indoor and outdoor environments. The experimental results show that our system achieves a high AUROC of 0.988 and an overall accuracy of 96.4% for identity verification.