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Gu, Chongyan, Chang, Chip Hong, Liu, Weiqiang, Yu, Shichao, Ma, Qingqing, O'Neill, Maire.  2019.  A Modeling Attack Resistant Deception Technique for Securing PUF based Authentication. 2019 Asian Hardware Oriented Security and Trust Symposium (AsianHOST). :1—6.

Due to practical constraints in preventing phishing through public network or insecure communication channels, simple physical unclonable function (PDF)-based authentication protocol with unrestricted queries and transparent responses is vulnerable to modeling and replay attacks. In this paper, we present a PUF-based authentication method to mitigate the practical limitations in applications where a resource-rich server authenticates a device with no strong restriction imposed on the type of PUF designs or any additional protection on the binary channel used for the authentication. Our scheme uses an active deception protocol to prevent machine learning (ML) attacks on a device. The monolithic system makes collection of challenge response pairs (CRPs) easy for model building during enrollment but prohibitively time consuming upon device deployment. A genuine server can perform a mutual authentication with the device at any time with a combined fresh challenge contributed by both the server and the device. The message exchanged in clear does not expose the authentic CRPs. The false PUF multiplexing is fortified against prediction of waiting time by doubling the time penalty for every unsuccessful authentication.

Su, H., Zwolinski, M., Halak, B..  2018.  A Machine Learning Attacks Resistant Two Stage Physical Unclonable Functions Design. 2018 IEEE 3rd International Verification and Security Workshop (IVSW). :52-55.

Physical Unclonable Functions (PUFs) have been designed for many security applications such as identification, authentication of devices and key generation, especially for lightweight electronics. Traditional approaches to enhancing security, such as hash functions, may be expensive and resource dependent. However, modelling attacks using machine learning (ML) show the vulnerability of most PUFs. In this paper, a combination of a 32-bit current mirror and 16-bit arbiter PUFs in 65nm CMOS technology is proposed to improve resilience against modelling attacks. Both PUFs are vulnerable to machine learning attacks and we reduce the output prediction rate from 99.2% and 98.8% individually, to 60%.

Yoshikawa, M., Nozaki, Y..  2016.  Tamper resistance evaluation of PUF in environmental variations. 2016 IEEE Electrical Design of Advanced Packaging and Systems (EDAPS). :119–121.

The damage caused by counterfeits of semiconductors has become a serious problem. Recently, a physical unclonable function (PUF) has attracted attention as a technique to prevent counterfeiting. The present study investigates an arbiter PUF, which is a typical PUF. The vulnerability of a PUF against machine-learning attacks has been revealed. It has also been indicated that the output of a PUF is inverted from its normal output owing to the difference in environmental variations, such as the changes in power supply voltage and temperature. The resistance of a PUF against machine-learning attacks due to the difference in environmental variation has seldom been evaluated. The present study evaluated the resistance of an arbiter PUF against machine-learning attacks due to the difference in environmental variation. By performing an evaluation experiment using a simulation, the present study revealed that the resistance of an arbiter PUF against machine-learning attacks due to environmental variation was slightly improved. However, the present study also successfully predicted more than 95% of the outputs by increasing the number of learning cycles. Therefore, an arbiter PUF was revealed to be vulnerable to machine-learning attacks even after environmental variation.