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Machida, H., Fujiwara, T., Fujimoto, C., Kanamori, Y., Tanaka, J., Takezawa, M..  2019.  Magnetic Domain Structures and Magnetic Properties of Lightly Nd-Doped Sm–Co Magnets With High Squareness and High Heat Resistance. IEEE Transactions on Magnetics. 55:1–4.
The relationship between magnetic domain structures and magnetic properties of Nd-doped Sm(Fe, Cu, Zr, Co)7.5 was investigated. In the preparation process, slow cooling between sintering and solution treatment was employed to promote homogenization of microstructures. The developed magnet achieved a maximum energy product, [BH]m, of 33.8 MGOe and coercivity, Hcb, of 11.2 kOe at 25 °C, respectively. Moreover, B-H line at 150 °C was linear, which means that irreversible demagnetization does not occur even at 150 °C. Temperature coefficients of remanent magnetic flux density, Br, and intrinsic coercivity, Hcj, were 0.035%/K and 0.24%/K, respectively, as usual the conventional Sm-Co magnet. Magnetic domain structures were observed with a Kerr effect microscope with a magnetic field applied from 0 to -20 kOe, and then reverse magnetic domains were generated evenly from grain boundaries. Microstructures referred to as “cell structures” were observed with a scanning transmission electron microscope. Fe and Cu were separated to 2-17 and 1-5 phases, respectively. Moreover, without producing impurity phases, Nd showed the same composition behavior with Sm in a cell structure.
Chen, Z., Bai, B., Chen, D., Chai, W..  2018.  Direct-Current and Alternate-Decay-Current Hybrid Integrative Power Supplies Design Applied to DC Bias Treatment. IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics. 33:10251–10264.
This paper proposes a novel kind of direct-current and alternate-decay-current hybrid integrative magnetization and demagnetization power supplies applied to transformer dc bias treatment based on a nanocomposite magnetic material. First, according to the single-phase transformer structure, one dc bias magnetic compensation mechanism was provided. The dc bias flux in the transformer main core could be eliminated directionally by utilizing the material remanence. Second, for the rapid response characteristic of the magnetic material to an external magnetic field, one positive and negative dc magnetization superimposed decaying ac demagnetization hybrid integrative power supplies based on single-phase rectifier circuit and inverter circuit was designed. In order to accurately control the magnetic field strength by which a good de/-magnetization effect could be achieved, this paper adopts the double-loop control technology of the magnetic field strength and magnetizing current for the nanocomposite magnetic state adjustment. Finally, two 10 kVA transformers and the experiment module of the hybrid integrative power supplies were manufactured and built. Experimental results showed that the integrated power supplies have good de/-magnetization effect and practicability, proving the validity and feasibility of the proposed scheme.
Altun, Hüseyin, Sünter, Sedat, Aydoğmuş, Ömür.  2019.  Modeling and Simulation of Magnetizing Inrush Current in A Single-Phase Transformer. 2019 4th International Conference on Power Electronics and their Applications (ICPEA). :1–6.
In this paper, a transformer model has been developed. The model is based on the equivalent electrical circuit used in transient simulation studies which considers the non-linearity of the iron core. The non-linear ferromagnetic behavior of the iron core was obtained by using the Jiles-Atherton hysteresis model. The magnetizing inrush current of a core type single-phase transformer was analyzed under four different energization conditions. The primary winding of the transformer was connected to the supply at various instants while there was either some level of remanent flux or no remanent flux in the iron core. Corresponding simulation results are presented and discussed.
Lisec, Thomas, Bodduluri, Mani Teja, Schulz-Walsemann, Arne-Veit, Blohm, Lars, Pieper, Isa, Gu-Stoppel, Shanshan, Niekiel, Florian, Lofink, Fabian, Wagner, Bernhard.  2019.  Integrated High Power Micro Magnets for MEMS Sensors and Actuators. 2019 20th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems Eurosensors XXXIII (TRANSDUCERS EUROSENSORS XXXIII). :1768–1771.
Back-end-of-line compatible integration of NdFeB-based micro magnets onto 8 inch Si substrates is presented. Substrate conditioning procedures to enable further processing in a cleanroom environment are discussed. It is shown that permanent magnetic structures with lateral dimensions between 25μm and 2000μm and a depth up to 500μm can be fabricated reliably and reproducibly with a remanent magnetization of 340mT at a standard deviation as low as 5% over the substrate. To illustrate post-processing capabilities, the fabrication of micro magnet arrangements embedded in silicon frames is described.
Suzuki, Yuhei, Ichikawa, Yuichi, Yamada, Hisato, Ikushima, Kenji.  2019.  Nondestructive evaluation of residual stress through acoustically stimulated electromagnetic response in welded steel. 2019 IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium (IUS). :1564–1566.
Tensile residual stresses combined with an applied tensile stress can reduce the reliability of steel components. Nondestructive evaluation of residual stress is thus important to avoid unintended fatigue or cracking. Because magnetic hysteresis properties of ferromagnetic materials are sensitive to stress, nondestructive evaluation of residual stress through magnetic properties can be expected. The spatial mapping of local magnetic hysteresis properties becomes possible by using the acoustically stimulated electromagnetic (ASEM) method and the tensile stress dependence of the hysteresis properties has been investigated in steel. It is found that the coercivity Hc and the remanent magnetization signal Vr monotonically decrease with increasing the tensile stress. In this work, we verified the detection of residual stresses through the ASEM response in a welded steel plate. Tensile stresses are intentionally introduced on the opposite side of the partially welded face by controlling welding temperatures. We found that Hc and Vr clearly decrease in the welded region, suggesting that the presence of tensile residual stresses is well detected by the hysteresis parameters.
Li, Baiqiang, Ma, Shaohua, Cai, Zhiyuan, Zheng, Yahong.  2019.  A Novel Method for Calculating Residual Magnetic Flux of DC Contactors. 2019 5th International Conference on Electric Power Equipment - Switching Technology (ICEPE-ST). :535–538.
Reliable calculation model of electromagnetic mechanism characteristics of DC contactor is of great significance to its structural optimization. In this paper, the excitation process of contactor magnet is summarized, and a new calculation model of hysteresis-finite element method is proposed. It can effectively calculate the remanence of the electromagnetic mechanism under different excitation conditions, and give the relationship curve between the remanence flux and the anti-remanence gap.
Liu, Y., Li, L., Gao, Q., Cao, J., Wang, R., Sun, Z..  2019.  Analytical Model of Torque-Prediction for a Novel Hybrid Rotor Permanent Magnet Machines. IEEE Access. 7:109528–109538.

This paper presents an analytical method for predicting the electromagnetic performance in permanent magnet (PM) machine with the spoke-type rotor (STR) and a proposed hybrid rotor structure (HRS), respectively. The key of this method is to combine magnetic field analysis model (MFAM) with the magnetic equivalent circuit model. The influence of the irregular PM shape is considered by the segmentation calculation. To obtain the boundary condition in the MFAM, respectively, two equivalent methods on the rotor side are proposed. In the STR, the average flux density of the rotor core outer-surface is calculated to solve the Laplace's equation with considering for the rotor core outer-surface eccentric. In the HRS, based on the Thevenin's theorem, the equivalent parameters of PM remanence BreB and thickness hpme are obtained as a given condition, which can be utilized to compute the air-gap flux density by conventional classic magnetic field analysis model of surface-mounted PMs with air-gap region. Finally, the proposed analytical models are verified by the finite element analysis (FEA) with comparisons of the air-gap flux density, flux linkage, back-EMF and electromagnetic torque, respectively. Furthermore, the performance that the machine with the proposed hybrid structure rotor can improve the torque density as explained.

Xu, F., Peng, R., Zheng, T., Xu, X..  2019.  Development and Validation of Numerical Magnetic Force and Torque Model for Magnetically Levitated Actuator. IEEE Transactions on Magnetics. 55:1–9.

To decouple the multi-axis motion in the 6 degrees of freedom magnetically levitated actuators (MLAs), this paper introduces a numerical method to model the force and torque distribution. Taking advantage of the Gaussian quadrature, the concept of coil node is developed to simplify the Lorentz integral into the summation of the interaction between each magnetic node in the remanence region and each coil node in the coil region. Utilizing the coordinate transformation in the numerical method, the computation burden is independent of the position and the rotation angle of the moving part. Finally, the experimental results prove that the force and torque predicted by the numerical model are rigidly consistent with the measurement, and the force and torque in all directions are decoupled properly based on the numerical solution. Compared with the harmonic model, the numerical wrench model is more suitable for the MLAs undertaking both the translational and rotational displacements.

Liren, Z., Xin, Y., Yang, P., Li, Z..  2017.  Magnetic performance measurement and mathematical model establishment of main core of magnetic modulator. 2017 13th IEEE International Conference on Electronic Measurement Instruments (ICEMI). :12–16.

In order to investigate the relationship and effect on the performance of magnetic modulator among applied DC current, excitation source, excitation loop current, sensitivity and induced voltage of detecting winding, this paper measured initial permeability, maximum permeability, saturation magnetic induction intensity, remanent magnetic induction intensity, coercivity, saturated magnetic field intensity, magnetization curve, permeability curve and hysteresis loop of main core 1J85 permalloy of magnetic modulator based on ballistic method. On this foundation, employ curve fitting tool of MATLAB; adopt multiple regression method to comprehensively compare and analyze the sum of squares due to error (SSE), coefficient of determination (R-square), degree-of-freedom adjusted coefficient of determination (Adjusted R-square), and root mean squared error (RMSE) of fitting results. Finally, establish B-H curve mathematical model based on the sum of arc-hyperbolic sine function and polynomial.

Chandrasekaran, S. K., Crawford, A. C..  2017.  Demagnetization of a Complete Superconducting Radiofrequency Cryomodule: Theory and Practice. IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity. 27:1–6.

A significant advance in magnetic field management in a fully assembled superconducting radiofrequency cryomodule has been achieved and is reported here. Demagnetization of the entire cryomodule after assembly is a crucial step toward the goal of average magnetic flux density less than 0.5 μT at the location of the superconducting radio frequency cavities. An explanation of the physics of demagnetization and experimental results are presented.

Ferraris, L., Franchini, F., Pošković, E..  2016.  Hybrid magnetic composite (HMC) materials for sensor applications. 2016 IEEE Sensors Applications Symposium (SAS). :1–6.

Several applications adopt electromagnetic sensors, that base their principle on the presence of magnets realized with specific magnetic materials that show a rather high remanence, but low coercivity. This work concerns the production, analysis and characterization of hybrid composite materials, with the use of metal powders, which aim to reach those specific properties. In order to obtain the best coercivity and remanence characteristics various "recipes" have been used with different percentages of soft and hard magnetic materials, bonded together by a plastic binder. The goal was to find out the interdependence between the magnetic powder composition and the characteristics of the final material. Soft magnetic material (special Fe powder) has been used to obtain a low coercivity value, while hard materials were primarily used for maintaining a good induction remanence; by increasing the soft proportion a higher magnetic permeability has been also obtained. All the selected materials have been characterized and then tested; in order to verify the validity of the proposed materials two practical tests have been performed. Special magnets have been realized for a comparison with original ones (AlNiCo and ferrite) for two experimental cases: the first is consisting in an encoder realized through a toothed wheel, the second regards the special system used for the electric guitars.

Chen, Zhiwei, Bai, Baodong, Chen, DeZhi, Chai, Wenping.  2016.  Design of distribution devices for smart grid based on nanocomposite magnetic material. 2016 IEEE 8th International Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference (IPEMC-ECCE Asia). :3546–3553.

This paper design three distribution devices for the strong and smart grid, respectively are novel transformer with function of dc bias restraining, energy-saving contactor and controllable reactor with adjustable intrinsic magnetic state based on nanocomposite magnetic material core. The magnetic performance of this material was analyzed and the relationship between the remanence and coercivity was determined. The magnetization and demagnetization circuit for the nanocomposite core has been designed based on three-phase rectification circuit combined with a capacitor charging circuit. The remanence of the nanocomposite core can neutralize the dc bias flux occurred in transformer main core, can pull in the movable core of the contactor instead of the traditional fixed core and adjust the saturation degree of the reactor core. The electromagnetic design of the three distribution devices was conducted and the simulation, experiment results verify correctness of the design which provides intelligent and energy-saving power equipment for the smart power grids safe operation.

Balluff, M., Naumoski, H., Hameyer, K..  2016.  Sensitivity analysis on tolerance induced torque fluctuation of a synchronous machine. 2016 6th International Electric Drives Production Conference (EDPC). :128–134.

The manufacturing process of electrical machines influences the geometric dimensions and material properties, e.g. the yoke thickness. These influences occur by statistical variation as manufacturing tolerances. The effect of these tolerances and their potential impact on the mechanical torque output is not fully studied up to now. This paper conducts a sensitivity analysis for geometric and material parameters. For the general approach these parameters are varied uniformly in a range of 10 %. Two dimensional finite element analysis is used to simulate the influences at three characteristic operating points. The studied object is an internal permanent magnet machine in the 100 kW range used for hybrid drive applications. The results show a significant dependency on the rotational speed. The general validity is studied by using boundary condition variations and two further machine designs. This procedure offers the comparison of matching qualitative results for small quantitative deviations. For detecting the impact of the manufacturing process realistic tolerance ranges are used. This investigation identifies the airgap and magnet remanence induction as the main parameters for potential torque fluctuation.

Zhang, Q., Ma, Z., Li, G., Qian, Z., Guo, X..  2016.  Temperature-dependent demagnetization nonlinear Wiener model with neural network for PM synchronous machines in electric vehicle. 2016 19th International Conference on Electrical Machines and Systems (ICEMS). :1–4.

The inevitable temperature raise leads to the demagnetization of permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM), that is undesirable in the application of electrical vehicle. This paper presents a nonlinear demagnetization model taking into account temperature with the Wiener structure and neural network characteristics. The remanence and intrinsic coercivity are chosen as intermediate variables, thus the relationship between motor temperature and maximal permanent magnet flux is described by the proposed neural Wiener model. Simulation and experimental results demonstrate the precision of temperature dependent demagnetization model. This work makes the basis of temperature compensation for the output torque from PMSM.

Neubauer, A., Fritsch, K. M., Elsässer, A..  2016.  Optimized electromagnetic and manufacturing design for a BLDC-motor substituting rare earth magnets. 2016 6th International Electric Drives Production Conference (EDPC). :207–210.

Substituting neodymium with ferrite based magnets comes with the penalty of significant reduced magnetic field energy. Several possibilities to compensate for the negative effects of a lower remanence and coercivity provided by ferrite magnets are presented and finally combined into the development of a new kind of BLDC-machine design. The new design is compared to a conventional machine on the application example of an electric 800 W/48 V automotive coolant pump.

Kolzer, J. F., Bazzo, T., Carlson, R..  2016.  Optimal design and performance analysis of a ferrite permanent magnet synchronous generator. 2016 12th IEEE International Conference on Industry Applications (INDUSCON). :1–7.

This paper presents the analysis and the design of a ferrite permanent magnet synchronous generator (FePMSG) with flux concentration. Despite the well-known advantages of rare earth permanent magnet synchronous generators (REPMSG), the high cost of the rare earth permanent magnets represents an important drawback, particularly in competitive markets like the wind power. To reduce the cost of permanent magnet machines it is possible to replace the expensive rare earth materials by ferrite. Once ferrite has low remanent magnetization, flux concentration techniques are used to design a cheaper generator. The designed FePMSG is compared with a reference rare earth (NdFeB) permanent magnet synchronous generator (REPMSG), both with 3 kW, 220 V and 350 rpm. The results, validated with finite element analysis, show that the FePMSG can replace the REPMSG reducing significantly the active material cost.