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Procházka, P..  2019.  Impulse Exciter of Rotating Blades With an Increased Excitation Force. IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement. 68:300–302.
This paper deals with electromagnetic vibration excitation of rotating machine blades in a purpose of dynamic measurement and testing. A novel method for increasing the excitation force is presented. At the same time, the suggested method allows to reduce blade remanent induction. Examples of measurements are shown, and obtained results are discussed.
Machida, H., Fujiwara, T., Fujimoto, C., Kanamori, Y., Tanaka, J., Takezawa, M..  2019.  Magnetic Domain Structures and Magnetic Properties of Lightly Nd-Doped Sm–Co Magnets With High Squareness and High Heat Resistance. IEEE Transactions on Magnetics. 55:1–4.
The relationship between magnetic domain structures and magnetic properties of Nd-doped Sm(Fe, Cu, Zr, Co)7.5 was investigated. In the preparation process, slow cooling between sintering and solution treatment was employed to promote homogenization of microstructures. The developed magnet achieved a maximum energy product, [BH]m, of 33.8 MGOe and coercivity, Hcb, of 11.2 kOe at 25 °C, respectively. Moreover, B-H line at 150 °C was linear, which means that irreversible demagnetization does not occur even at 150 °C. Temperature coefficients of remanent magnetic flux density, Br, and intrinsic coercivity, Hcj, were 0.035%/K and 0.24%/K, respectively, as usual the conventional Sm-Co magnet. Magnetic domain structures were observed with a Kerr effect microscope with a magnetic field applied from 0 to -20 kOe, and then reverse magnetic domains were generated evenly from grain boundaries. Microstructures referred to as “cell structures” were observed with a scanning transmission electron microscope. Fe and Cu were separated to 2-17 and 1-5 phases, respectively. Moreover, without producing impurity phases, Nd showed the same composition behavior with Sm in a cell structure.
Li, X., Deng, M., Wang, X., Li, H., Yu, M..  2019.  Synthesis and magnetic properties of Fe-doped CdS nanorods. Micro Nano Letters. 14:275–279.
Hexagonal CdS and Fe-doped CdS nanorods were synthesised by a facile hydrothermal method and characterised by X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, UV-vis absorption, photoluminescence, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The magnetic properties of undoped and Fe-doped CdS nanorods were investigated at room temperature. The experimental results demonstrate that the ferromagnetism of the Fe-doped CdS nanorods differs from that of the undoped CdS nanorods. The remanence magnetisation (Mr) and the coercive field (Hc) of the Fe-doped CdS nanorods were 4.9 × 10-3 emu/g and 270.6 Oe, respectively, while photoluminescence properties were not influenced by doping. First-principle calculations show that the ferromagnetism in Fe-doped CdS nanocrystal arose not only from the Fe dopants but also from the Cd vacancies, although the main contribution was due to the Fe dopants.
Anyfantis, D. I., Sarigiannidou, E., Rapenne, L., Stamatelatos, A., Ntemogiannis, D., Kapaklis, V., Poulopoulos, P..  2019.  Unexpected Development of Perpendicular Magnetic Anisotropy in Ni/NiO Multilayers After Mild Thermal Annealing. IEEE Magnetics Letters. 10:1–5.
We report on the significant enhancement of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of Ni/NiO multilayers after mild annealing up to 90 min at 250 °C. Transmission electron microscopy shows that after annealing, a partial crystallization of the initially amorphous NiO layers occurs. This turns out to be the source of the anisotropy enhancement. Magnetic measurements reveal that even multilayers with Ni layers as thick as 7 nm, which in the as-deposited state showed inplane anisotropy with square hysteresis loops, show reduced in-plane remanence after thermal treatment. Hysteresis loops recorded with the field in the normal-to-film-plane direction provide evidence for perpendicular magnetic anisotropy with up and down magnetic domains at remanence. A plot of effective uniaxial magnetic anisotropy constant times individual Ni layer thickness as a function of individual Ni layer thickness shows a large change in the slope of the data attributed to a drastic change of volume anisotropy. Surface anisotropy showed a small decrease because of some layer roughening introduced by annealing.
Beran, P., Klöhn, M., Hohe, H..  2019.  Measurement Characteristics of Different Integrated Three-Dimensional Magnetic Field Sensors. IEEE Magnetics Letters. 10:1–5.
Datasheets of different commercially available integrated sensors for vector measurements of magnetic fields provide typical specifications, such as measurement range, sampling rate, resolution, and noise. Other characteristics of interest, such as linearity, cross-sensitivity, remanent magnetization, and drifts over temperature, are mostly missing. This letter presents testing results of those characteristics of integrated three-dimensional (3-D) sensors working with different sensor principles and technologies in a reproducible measuring process. The sensors are exposed to temperatures from -20 °C to 80 °C and are cycled in hysteresis loops in fields up to 2.5 mT. For applying high-accuracy magnetic fields, a calibrated 3-D Helmholtz coil setup is used. Commercially available integrated 3-D magnetic field sensors are put in operation on a printed circuit board using nonmagnetic passive components. All sensors are configured for best measurement accuracy according to their data-sheets. The results show that sensors based on anisotropic magnetoresistance have high accuracy and low offsets yet also a high degree of nonlinearity. Hall-based sensors show good linearity but also high cross-sensitivity. A magnetic remanence appears for Hall-based sensors with integrated magnetic concentrators as well as for sensors using anisotropic magnetoresistance. Nearly all sensors show remaining drifts over temperature regarding offset and sensitivity up to several percentages.
Hsu, W., Victora, R. H..  2019.  Micromagnetic Study of Media Noise Plateau in Heat-Assisted Magnetic Recording. IEEE Transactions on Magnetics. 55:1–4.
The relationship between integrated media noise power and linear density in heat-assisted magnetic recording (HAMR) is discussed. A noise plateau for intermediate recording density has been observed in HAMR, similar to that found in perpendicular magnetic recording (PMR). Here, we show, by changing the temperature profile of the heat spot in HAMR, that we can tune the noise plateau regions to different recording densities. The heat spot with sharp temperature gradient favors a plateau at high recording density, while the heat spot with gradual temperature gradient favors a plateau at low recording density. This effect is argued to be a consequence of the competition between transition noise and remanence noise in HAMR.
Guerra, Y., Peña-Garcia, R., Padrón-Hernández, E..  2019.  Remanence State and Coercivity in 1-D Chain of Polycrystalline Hollow Cobalt Nanospheres. IEEE Transactions on Magnetics. 55:1–5.
In this paper, we present a study about the remanence state and coercivity in 1-D chain of cobalt hollow nanospheres, by using micromagnetic simulation. The high coercivity values (Hc is determined in the range of 600-1800 Oe) and the monotonic decrease of remanence are attributed to the shape anisotropy effect due to an increase in the aspect ratio value. The configuration of magnetization in remanence showed the onion state for hollow spheres (HSs) with Re = 15 nm, whereas for Re = 30 nm, appear the curling-vortex (CV) state. Finally for a cluster of chains, constituted by cobalt HSs, with random orientations the CV state is preserved.
Guan, L., Lin, J., Ma, Z., Luo, B., Xia, L., Jing, J..  2018.  Copker: A Cryptographic Engine Against Cold-Boot Attacks. IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing. 15:742–754.
Cryptosystems are essential for computer and communication security, e.g., RSA or ECDSA in PGP Email clients and AES in full disk encryption. In practice, the cryptographic keys are loaded and stored in RAM as plain-text, and therefore vulnerable to cold-boot attacks exploiting the remanence effect of RAM chips to directly read memory data. To tackle this problem, we propose Copker, a cryptographic engine that implements asymmetric cryptosystems entirely within the CPU, without storing any plain-text sensitive data in RAM. Copker supports the popular asymmetric cryptosystems (i.e., RSA and ECDSA), and deterministic random bit generators (DRBGs) used in ECDSA signing. In its active mode, Copker stores kilobytes of sensitive data, including the private key, the DRBG seed and intermediate states, only in on-chip CPU caches (and registers). Decryption/signing operations are performed without storing any sensitive information in RAM. In the suspend mode, Copker stores symmetrically-encrypted private keys and DRBG seeds in memory, while employs existing solutions to keep the key-encryption key securely in CPU registers. Hence, Copker releases the system resources in the suspend mode. We implement Copker with the support of multiple private keys. With security analyses and intensive experiments, we demonstrate that Copker provides cryptographic services that are secure against cold-boot attacks and introduce reasonable overhead.
Gerdroodbari, Y. Z., Davarpanah, M., Farhangi, S..  2018.  Remanent Flux Negative Effects on Transformer Diagnostic Test Results and a Novel Approach for Its Elimination. IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery. 33:2938–2945.
Influence of remanent flux on hysteresis curve of the transformer core is addressed in this paper. In addition, its significant negative effect on transformer diagnostic tests is quantified based on experimental studies. Furthermore, a novel approach is proposed to efficiently and quickly eliminate the remanent flux. This approach is evaluated based on simulation studies on a 230/63-kV power transformer. Meanwhile, experimental studies are performed on both 0.2/0.2 and 20/0.4 kV transformers. These studies reveal that the approach not only is well able to eliminate the remanent flux, but also it has various advantages over the commonly used method. In addition, this approach is equally applicable for various power, distribution, and instrument transformer types.
Chen, Z., Bai, B., Chen, D., Chai, W..  2018.  Design of Distribution Devices for Smart Grid Based on Magnetically Tunable Nanocomposite. IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics. 33:2083–2099.
This paper designs three distribution devices for the smart grid, which are, respectively, novel transformer with dc bias restraining ability, energy-saving contactor, and controllable reactor with adjustable intrinsic magnetic state based on the magnetically tunable nanocomposite material core. First, the magnetic performance of this magnetic material was analyzed and the magnetic properties processing method was put forward. One kind of nanocomposite which is close to the semihard magnetic state with low coercivity and high remanence was attained. Nanocomposite with four magnetic properties was processed and prepared using the distribution devices design. Second, in order to adjust the magnetic state better, the magnetization and demagnetization control circuit based on the single-phase supply power of rectification and inverter for the nanocomposite magnetic performance adjustment has been designed, which can mutual transform the material's soft and hard magnetic phases. Finally, based on the nanocomposite and the control circuit, a novel power transformer, an energy-saving contactor, and a magnetically controllable reactor were manufactured for the smart grid. The maintained remanence of the nanocomposite core after the magnetization could neutralize the dc bias magnetic flux in the transformer main core without changing the transformer neutral point connection mode, could pull in the contactor movable core instead of the traditional electromagnetic-type fixed core, and could adjust the reactor core saturation degree instead of the traditional electromagnetic coil. The simulation and experimental results verify the correctness of the design, which provides reliable, intelligent, interactive, and energy-saving power equipment for the smart power grids safe operation.
Wang, Y., Huang, F., Hu, Y., Cao, R., Shi, T., Liu, Q., Bi, L., Liu, M..  2018.  Proton Radiation Effects on Y-Doped HfO2-Based Ferroelectric Memory. IEEE Electron Device Letters. 39:823–826.
In this letter, ferroelectric memory performance of TiN/Y-doped-HfO2 (HYO)/TiN capacitors is investigated under proton radiation with 3-MeV energy and different fluence (5e13, 1e14, 5e14, and 1e15 ions/cm2). X-ray diffraction patterns confirm that the orthorhombic phase Pbc21 of HYOfilm has no obvious change after proton radiation. Electrical characterization results demonstrate slight variations of the permittivity and ferroelectric hysteresis loop after proton radiation. The remanent polarization (2Pr) of the capacitor decreases with increasing proton fluence. But the decreasing trend of 2Pr is suppressed under high electric fields. Furthermore, the 2Pr degradation with cycling is abated by proton radiation. These results show that the HYO-based ferroelectric memory is highly resistive to proton radiation, which is potentially useful for space applications.
Peng, Y., Yue, M., Li, H., Li, Y., Li, C., Xu, H., Wu, Q., Xi, W..  2018.  The Effect of Easy Axis Deviations on the Magnetization Reversal of Co Nanowire. IEEE Transactions on Magnetics. 54:1–5.
Macroscopic hysteresis loops and microscopic magnetic moment distributions have been determined by 3-D model for Co nanowire with various easy axis deviations from applied field. It is found that both the coercivity and the remanence decrease monotonously with the increase of easy axis deviation as well as the maximum magnetic product, indicating the large impact of the easy axis orientation on the magnetic performance. Moreover, the calculated angular distributions and the evolution of magnetic moments have been shown to explain the magnetic reversal process. It is demonstrated that the large demagnetization field in the two ends of the nanowire makes the occurrence of reversal domain nucleation easier, hence the magnetic reversal. In addition, the magnetic reversal was illustrated in terms of the analysis of the energy evolution.
Song, W., Li, X., Lou, L., Hua, Y., Zhang, Q., Huang, G., Hou, F., Zhang, X..  2018.  High-Temperature Magnetic Properties of Anisotropic SmCo7/Fe(Co) Bulk Nanocomposite Magnets. IEEE Transactions on Magnetics. 54:1–5.
High-temperature magnetic properties of the anisotropic bulk SmCo7/Fe(Co) nanocomposite magnets prepared by multistep deformation have been investigated and compared with the corresponding isotropic nanocomposites. The anisotropic SmCo7/Fe(Co) nanocomposites with a Fe(Co) fraction of 28% exhibit much higher energy products than the corresponding isotropic nanocomposites at both room and high temperatures. These magnets show a small remanence (α = -0.022%/K) and a coercivity (β = -0.25%/K) temperature coefficient which can be comparable to those of the conventional SmCo5 and Sm2Co17 high-temperature magnets. The magnetic properties of these nanocomposites at high temperatures are sensitive to the weight fractions of the Fe(Co) phase. This paper demonstrates that the anisotropic bulk SmCo7/Fe(Co) nanocomposites have better high-temperature magnetic properties than the corresponding isotropic ones.
Chen, Z., Bai, B., Chen, D., Chai, W..  2018.  Direct-Current and Alternate-Decay-Current Hybrid Integrative Power Supplies Design Applied to DC Bias Treatment. IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics. 33:10251–10264.
This paper proposes a novel kind of direct-current and alternate-decay-current hybrid integrative magnetization and demagnetization power supplies applied to transformer dc bias treatment based on a nanocomposite magnetic material. First, according to the single-phase transformer structure, one dc bias magnetic compensation mechanism was provided. The dc bias flux in the transformer main core could be eliminated directionally by utilizing the material remanence. Second, for the rapid response characteristic of the magnetic material to an external magnetic field, one positive and negative dc magnetization superimposed decaying ac demagnetization hybrid integrative power supplies based on single-phase rectifier circuit and inverter circuit was designed. In order to accurately control the magnetic field strength by which a good de/-magnetization effect could be achieved, this paper adopts the double-loop control technology of the magnetic field strength and magnetizing current for the nanocomposite magnetic state adjustment. Finally, two 10 kVA transformers and the experiment module of the hybrid integrative power supplies were manufactured and built. Experimental results showed that the integrated power supplies have good de/-magnetization effect and practicability, proving the validity and feasibility of the proposed scheme.
Coey, M., Stamenov, P. S., Venkatesan, M., Porter, S. B., Iriyama, T..  2018.  Remanence enhancement melt-spun Nitroquench Sm2Fe17N3. M.. 2018 IEEE International Magnetics Conference (INTERMAG). :1–1.
The discovery of the interstitial rare earth nitride Sm2Fe17N3 came about seven years after the discovery of the rare earth iron boride Nd2Fe [1],[2], and the nitride initially seemed to offer intrinsic magnetic properties that were superior (Curie temperature TC, magnetocrystalline anisotropy K1 or comparable (spontaneous magnetization Ms to those of its illustrious predecessor. However, the promise of the new material to seriously challenge Nd2Fe14B was not realized. The 2:17 nitride powder, prepared by a low-temperature gas-phase interstitial modification process proved difficult to orient and worse still, it lost its nitrogen at the temperatures needed to process dense sintered magnets [3]. Attempts at explosive compaction [4] or spark sintering [5] failed to yield material with good enough coercivity. Nevertheless, work continued in Japan and China to develop a coercive powder that could be used for bonded magnets. An early realization was zinc-bonded Sm2Fe17N3 [6] with an energy product of 84 kJm3 but a rather low coercivity of 480 kAm-1, less than 5 % of the anisotropy field (Ha = 2K1/Ms ≈ 11 MAm-1). The anisotropy field of Nd2Fe14B is significantly less (6 MAm-1) yet several decades of intensive development have led to higher values and continuous improvements of the coercivity, even in unsubstituted material. Historical experience with permanent magnets shows that a long period of materials development is needed to arrive at the best composition and processing conditions for a microstructure that allows the hard magnetism to be optimized. Coercivities of about 25% of the anisotropy field are ultimately achieved. Here we compare the magnetic properties of melt-spun material. Our Nitroquench powder, produced by Daido Steel, was in the form of flakes 10 μm thick and up to 100 μm in diameter. A crystal-lite size of approximately 15 nm deduced from Scherrer broadening of the X-ray reflections. Composition was checked by EDX microprobe analysis. Hysteresis loops have been measured in applied fields of up to 14 T, at room temperature and at 4 K.The material exhibits a room-temperature coercivity of 690 kAm-1 after saturation in 14 T, with a remanence of 700 kAm-1 in zero applied field and an extrapolated saturation magnetization of 1230 kAm-1. The remanence ratio Mr/Ms of 63% when the remanence is corrected to zero internal field, is reflected in a preferred orientation seen in the X-ray powder diffraction patterns and in 57Fe Mössbauer spectra of magnetized powder. Spectra obtained after saturation of an immobilized powder absorber either in-plane or perpendicular to the sample plane exhibit distinctly different relative intensities of the ΔM=0 absorption lines. The maximum energy product for the powder, assuming full density, is 162 kJm-3. The remanence enhancement is attributed to fact that the nanocrystallite size is not much greater than the exchange length. Melt-spun Sm-Fe-N powder has superior corrosion resistance and thermal stability compared to melt-spun Nd-Fe-B. The Nitroquench powder may be used to produce polymer-bonded magnets with an energy product in excess of 100 kJm-3.
Elbidweihy, H., Arrott, A. S., Provenzano, V..  2018.  Modeling the Role of the Buildup of Magnetic Charges in Low Anisotropy Polycrystalline Materials. IEEE Transactions on Magnetics. 54:1–5.

A Stoner-Wohlfarth-type model is used to demonstrate the effect of the buildup of magnetic charges near the grain boundaries of low anisotropy polycrystalline materials, revealed by measuring the magnetization during positive-field warming after negative-field cooling. The remnant magnetization after negative-field cooling has two different contributions. The temperature-dependent component is modeled as an assembly of particles with thermal relaxation. The temperature-independent component is modeled as an assembly of particles overcoming variable phenomenological energy barriers corresponding to the change in susceptibility when the anisotropy constant changes its sign. The model is applicable to soft-magnetic materials where the buildup of the magnetic charges near the grain boundaries creates demagnetizing fields opposing, and comparable in magnitude to, the anisotropy field. The results of the model are in qualitative agreement with published data revealing the magneto-thermal characteristics of polycrystalline gadolinium.

Hohlfeld, J., Czoschke, P., Asselin, P., Benakli, M..  2019.  Improving Our Understanding of Measured Jitter (in HAMR). IEEE Transactions on Magnetics. 55:1–11.

The understanding of measured jitter is improved in three ways. First, it is shown that the measured jitter is not only governed by written-in jitter and the reader resolution along the cross-track direction but by remanence noise in the vicinity of transitions and the down-track reader resolution as well. Second, a novel data analysis scheme is introduced that allows for an unambiguous separation of these two contributions. Third, based on data analyses involving the first two learnings and micro-magnetic simulations, we identify and explain the root causes for variations of jitter with write current (WC) (write field), WC overshoot amplitude (write-field rise time), and linear disk velocity measured for heat-assisted magnetic recording.

Davila, Y. G., Júnior, F. A. Revoredo, Peña-Garcia, R., Padrón-Hernández, E..  2019.  Peak in Angular Dependence of Coercivity in a Hexagonal Array of Permalloy Spherical Nanocaps. IEEE Magnetics Letters. 10:1–3.

Micromagnetic simulations of coercivity as a function of external magnetic field direction were performed for a hexagonal array of hemispherical Permalloy nanocaps. The analysis was based on hysteresis loops for arrangements of nanocaps of variable thickness (5 nm and 10 nm). The angular dependence of coercivity had a maximum at about 80° with respect to the arrangement plane. An increase in coercivity with nanocap thickness is related to the magnetization reversal mechanism, where the dipole energy of individual caps generates an effective intermediate axis, locking the magnetic moments. The coercivity has maximum values of 109 Oe for 5 nm and 156 Oe for 10 nm thickness. The remanence decreases monotonically with angle. This is associated with the influence of shape anisotropy, where the demagnetizing field in the plane of the array is much smaller than the demagnetizing field perpendicular to the plane.

Liu, B., He, L., Zhang, H., Sfarra, S., Fernandes, H., Perilli, S., Ren, J..  2019.  Research on stress detection technology of long-distance pipeline applying non-magnetic saturation. IET Science, Measurement Technology. 13:168–174.

In order to study the stress detection method on long-distance oil and gas pipeline, the distribution characteristics of the surface remanence signals in the stress concentration regions must be known. They were studied by using the magnetic domain model in the non-magnetic saturation state. The finite element method was used herein with the aim to analyse the static and mechanical characteristics of a ferromagnetic specimen. The variation law of remanence signal in stress concentration regions was simulated. The results show that a residue signal in the stress concentration region exists. In addition, a one-to-one correspondence in the non-magnetic saturation environment is evident. In the case of magnetic saturation, the remanence signal of the stress concentration region is covered and the signal cannot be recognised.

Jiao, Y., Hohlfield, J., Victora, R. H..  2018.  Understanding Transition and Remanence Noise in HAMR. IEEE Transactions on Magnetics. 54:1–5.

Transition noise and remanence noise are the two most important types of media noise in heat-assisted magnetic recording. We examine two methods (spatial splitting and principal components analysis) to distinguish them: both techniques show similar trends with respect to applied field and grain pitch (GP). It was also found that PW50can be affected by GP and reader design, but is almost independent of write field and bit length (larger than 50 nm). Interestingly, our simulation shows a linear relationship between jitter and PW50NSRrem, which agrees qualitatively with experimental results.

Ciovati, G., Cheng, G., Drury, M., Fischer, J., Geng, R..  2017.  Impact of Remanent Magnetic Field on the Heat Load of Original CEBAF Cryomodule. IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity. 27:1–6.

The heat load of the original cryomodules for the continuous electron beam accelerator facility is 50% higher than the target value of 100 W at 2.07 K for refurbished cavities operating at an accelerating gradient of 12.5 MV/m. This issue is due to the quality factor of the cavities being 50% lower in the cryomodule than when tested in a vertical cryostat, even at low RF field. Previous studies were not conclusive about the origin of the additional losses. We present the results of a systematic study of the additional losses in a five-cell cavity from a decommissioned cryomodule after attaching components, which are part of the cryomodule, such as the cold tuner, the He tank, and the cold magnetic shield, prior to cryogenic testing in a vertical cryostat. Flux-gate magnetometers and temperature sensors are used as diagnostic elements. Different cool-down procedures and tests in different residual magnetic fields were investigated during the study. Three flux-gate magnetometers attached to one of the cavities installed in the refurbished cryomodule C50-12 confirmed the hypothesis of high residual magnetic field as a major cause for the increased RF losses.

Ferraris, L., Franchini, F., Pošković, E..  2016.  Hybrid magnetic composite (HMC) materials for sensor applications. 2016 IEEE Sensors Applications Symposium (SAS). :1–6.

Several applications adopt electromagnetic sensors, that base their principle on the presence of magnets realized with specific magnetic materials that show a rather high remanence, but low coercivity. This work concerns the production, analysis and characterization of hybrid composite materials, with the use of metal powders, which aim to reach those specific properties. In order to obtain the best coercivity and remanence characteristics various "recipes" have been used with different percentages of soft and hard magnetic materials, bonded together by a plastic binder. The goal was to find out the interdependence between the magnetic powder composition and the characteristics of the final material. Soft magnetic material (special Fe powder) has been used to obtain a low coercivity value, while hard materials were primarily used for maintaining a good induction remanence; by increasing the soft proportion a higher magnetic permeability has been also obtained. All the selected materials have been characterized and then tested; in order to verify the validity of the proposed materials two practical tests have been performed. Special magnets have been realized for a comparison with original ones (AlNiCo and ferrite) for two experimental cases: the first is consisting in an encoder realized through a toothed wheel, the second regards the special system used for the electric guitars.

Chen, Zhiwei, Bai, Baodong, Chen, DeZhi, Chai, Wenping.  2016.  Design of distribution devices for smart grid based on nanocomposite magnetic material. 2016 IEEE 8th International Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference (IPEMC-ECCE Asia). :3546–3553.

This paper design three distribution devices for the strong and smart grid, respectively are novel transformer with function of dc bias restraining, energy-saving contactor and controllable reactor with adjustable intrinsic magnetic state based on nanocomposite magnetic material core. The magnetic performance of this material was analyzed and the relationship between the remanence and coercivity was determined. The magnetization and demagnetization circuit for the nanocomposite core has been designed based on three-phase rectification circuit combined with a capacitor charging circuit. The remanence of the nanocomposite core can neutralize the dc bias flux occurred in transformer main core, can pull in the movable core of the contactor instead of the traditional fixed core and adjust the saturation degree of the reactor core. The electromagnetic design of the three distribution devices was conducted and the simulation, experiment results verify correctness of the design which provides intelligent and energy-saving power equipment for the smart power grids safe operation.

Guerra, Y., Gomes, J. L., Peña-Garcia, R., Delgado, A., Farias, B. V. M., Fuentes, G. P., Gonçalves, L. A. P., Padrón-Hernández, E..  2016.  Micromagnetic Simulation in Hexagonal Arrays of Nanosized Hollow Nickel Spheres. IEEE Transactions on Magnetics. 52:1–6.

Arrays of nanosized hollow spheres of Ni were studied using micromagnetic simulation by the Object Oriented Micromagnetic Framework. Before all the results, we will present an analysis of the properties for an individual hollow sphere in order to separate the real effects due to the array. The results in this paper are divided into three parts in order to analyze the magnetic behaviors in the static and dynamic regimes. The first part presents calculations for the magnetic field applied parallel to the plane of the array; specifically, we present the magnetization for equilibrium configurations. The obtained magnetization curves show that decreasing the thickness of the shell decreases the coercive field and it is difficult to obtain magnetic saturation. The values of the coercive field obtained in our work are of the same order as reported in experimental studies in the literature. The magnetic response in our study is dominated by the shape effects and we obtained high values for the reduced remanence, Mr/MS = 0.8. In the second part of this paper, we have changed the orientation of the magnetic field and calculated hysteresis curves to study the angular dependence of the coercive field and remanence. In thin shells, we have observed how the moments are oriented tangentially to the spherical surface. For the inversion of the magnetic moments we have observed the formation of vortex and onion modes. In the third part of this paper, we present an analysis for the process of magnetization reversal in the dynamic regime. The analysis showed that inversion occurs in the nonhomogeneous configuration. We could see that self-demagnetizing effects are predominant in the magnetic properties of the array. We could also observe that there are two contributions: one due to the shell as an independent object and the other due to the effects of the array.

Gonzalez, A. G., Millinger, J., Soulard, J..  2016.  Magnet losses in inverter-fed two-pole PM machines. 2016 XXII International Conference on Electrical Machines (ICEM). :1854–1860.

This article deals with the estimation of magnet losses in a permanent-magnet motor inserted in a nut-runner. This type of machine has interesting features such as being two-pole, slot-less and running at a high speed (30000 rpm). Two analytical models were chosen from the literature. A numerical estimation of the losses with 2D Finite Element Method was carried out. A detailed investigation of the effect of simulation settings (e.g., mesh size, time-step, remanence flux density in the magnet, superposition of the losses, etc.) was performed. Finally, calculation of losses with 3D-FEM were also run in order to compare the calculated losses with both analytical and 2D-FEM results. The estimation of the losses focuses on a range of frequencies between 10 and 100 kHz.