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Zhang, J., Ji, X., Xu, W., Chen, Y.-C., Tang, Y., Qu, G..  2020.  MagView: A Distributed Magnetic Covert Channel via Video Encoding and Decoding. IEEE INFOCOM 2020 - IEEE Conference on Computer Communications. :357—366.

Air-gapped networks achieve security by using the physical isolation to keep the computers and network from the Internet. However, magnetic covert channels based on CPU utilization have been proposed to help secret data to escape the Faraday-cage and the air-gap. Despite the success of such cover channels, they suffer from the high risk of being detected by the transmitter computer and the challenge of installing malware into such a computer. In this paper, we propose MagView, a distributed magnetic cover channel, where sensitive information is embedded in other data such as video and can be transmitted over the air-gapped internal network. When any computer uses the data such as playing the video, the sensitive information will leak through the magnetic covert channel. The "separation" of information embedding and leaking, combined with the fact that the covert channel can be created on any computer, overcomes these limitations. We demonstrate that CPU utilization for video decoding can be effectively controlled by changing the video frame type and reducing the quantization parameter without video quality degradation. We prototype MagView and achieve up to 8.9 bps throughput with BER as low as 0.0057. Experiments under different environment are conducted to show the robustness of MagView. Limitations and possible countermeasures are also discussed.

Machida, H., Fujiwara, T., Fujimoto, C., Kanamori, Y., Tanaka, J., Takezawa, M..  2019.  Magnetic Domain Structures and Magnetic Properties of Lightly Nd-Doped Sm–Co Magnets With High Squareness and High Heat Resistance. IEEE Transactions on Magnetics. 55:1–4.
The relationship between magnetic domain structures and magnetic properties of Nd-doped Sm(Fe, Cu, Zr, Co)7.5 was investigated. In the preparation process, slow cooling between sintering and solution treatment was employed to promote homogenization of microstructures. The developed magnet achieved a maximum energy product, [BH]m, of 33.8 MGOe and coercivity, Hcb, of 11.2 kOe at 25 °C, respectively. Moreover, B-H line at 150 °C was linear, which means that irreversible demagnetization does not occur even at 150 °C. Temperature coefficients of remanent magnetic flux density, Br, and intrinsic coercivity, Hcj, were 0.035%/K and 0.24%/K, respectively, as usual the conventional Sm-Co magnet. Magnetic domain structures were observed with a Kerr effect microscope with a magnetic field applied from 0 to -20 kOe, and then reverse magnetic domains were generated evenly from grain boundaries. Microstructures referred to as “cell structures” were observed with a scanning transmission electron microscope. Fe and Cu were separated to 2-17 and 1-5 phases, respectively. Moreover, without producing impurity phases, Nd showed the same composition behavior with Sm in a cell structure.
Lisec, Thomas, Bodduluri, Mani Teja, Schulz-Walsemann, Arne-Veit, Blohm, Lars, Pieper, Isa, Gu-Stoppel, Shanshan, Niekiel, Florian, Lofink, Fabian, Wagner, Bernhard.  2019.  Integrated High Power Micro Magnets for MEMS Sensors and Actuators. 2019 20th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems Eurosensors XXXIII (TRANSDUCERS EUROSENSORS XXXIII). :1768–1771.
Back-end-of-line compatible integration of NdFeB-based micro magnets onto 8 inch Si substrates is presented. Substrate conditioning procedures to enable further processing in a cleanroom environment are discussed. It is shown that permanent magnetic structures with lateral dimensions between 25μm and 2000μm and a depth up to 500μm can be fabricated reliably and reproducibly with a remanent magnetization of 340mT at a standard deviation as low as 5% over the substrate. To illustrate post-processing capabilities, the fabrication of micro magnet arrangements embedded in silicon frames is described.
Gao, J., Wang, J., Zhang, L., Yu, Q., Huang, Y., Shen, Y..  2019.  Magnetic Signature Analysis for Smart Security System Based on TMR Magnetic Sensor Array. IEEE Sensors Journal. :1–1.

This paper presents a novel low power security system based on magnetic anomaly detection by using Tunneling Magnetoresistance (TMR) magnetic sensors. In this work, a smart light has been developed, which consists of TMR sensors array, detection circuits, a micro-controller and a battery. Taking the advantage of low power consumption of TMR magnetic sensors, the smart light powered by Li-ion battery can work for several months. Power Spectrum Density of the obtained signal was analyzed to reject background noise and improve the signal to noise ratio effectively by 1.3 dB, which represented a 30% detection range improvement. Also, by sending the signals to PC, the magnetic fingerprints of the objects have been configured clearly. In addition, the quick scan measurement has been also performed to demonstrate that the system can discriminate the multiple objects with 30 cm separation. Since the whole system was compact and portable, it can be used for security check at office, meeting room or other private places without attracting any attention. Moreover, it is promising to integrate multiply such systems together to achieve a wireless security network in large-scale monitoring.

Guerra, Y., Gomes, J. L., Peña-Garcia, R., Delgado, A., Farias, B. V. M., Fuentes, G. P., Gonçalves, L. A. P., Padrón-Hernández, E..  2016.  Micromagnetic Simulation in Hexagonal Arrays of Nanosized Hollow Nickel Spheres. IEEE Transactions on Magnetics. 52:1–6.

Arrays of nanosized hollow spheres of Ni were studied using micromagnetic simulation by the Object Oriented Micromagnetic Framework. Before all the results, we will present an analysis of the properties for an individual hollow sphere in order to separate the real effects due to the array. The results in this paper are divided into three parts in order to analyze the magnetic behaviors in the static and dynamic regimes. The first part presents calculations for the magnetic field applied parallel to the plane of the array; specifically, we present the magnetization for equilibrium configurations. The obtained magnetization curves show that decreasing the thickness of the shell decreases the coercive field and it is difficult to obtain magnetic saturation. The values of the coercive field obtained in our work are of the same order as reported in experimental studies in the literature. The magnetic response in our study is dominated by the shape effects and we obtained high values for the reduced remanence, Mr/MS = 0.8. In the second part of this paper, we have changed the orientation of the magnetic field and calculated hysteresis curves to study the angular dependence of the coercive field and remanence. In thin shells, we have observed how the moments are oriented tangentially to the spherical surface. For the inversion of the magnetic moments we have observed the formation of vortex and onion modes. In the third part of this paper, we present an analysis for the process of magnetization reversal in the dynamic regime. The analysis showed that inversion occurs in the nonhomogeneous configuration. We could see that self-demagnetizing effects are predominant in the magnetic properties of the array. We could also observe that there are two contributions: one due to the shell as an independent object and the other due to the effects of the array.

Insinga, A. R., Bjørk, R., Smith, A., Bahl, C. R. H..  2016.  Optimally Segmented Permanent Magnet Structures. IEEE Transactions on Magnetics. 52:1–6.

We present an optimization approach that can be employed to calculate the globally optimal segmentation of a 2-D magnetic system into uniformly magnetized pieces. For each segment, the algorithm calculates the optimal shape and the optimal direction of the remanent flux density vector, with respect to a linear objective functional. We illustrate the approach with results for magnet design problems from different areas, such as a permanent magnet electric motor, a beam-focusing quadrupole magnet for particle accelerators, and a rotary device for magnetic refrigeration.