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Thanuja, T. C., Daman, K. A., Patil, A. S..  2020.  Optimized Spectrum sensing Techniques for Enhanced Throughput in Cognitive Radio Network. 2020 International Conference on Emerging Smart Computing and Informatics (ESCI). :137–141.
The wireless communication is a backbone for a development of a nation. But spectrum is finite resource and issues like spectrum scarcity, loss of signal quality, transmission delay, raised in wireless communication system due to growth of wireless applications and exponentially increased number of users. Secondary use of a spectrum using Software Defined Radio (SDR) is one of the solutions which is also supported by TRAI. The spectrum sensing is key process in communication based on secondary use of spectrum. But energy consumption, added delay, primary users security are some threats in this system. Here in this paper we mainly focused on throughput optimization in secondary use of spectrum based on optimal sensing time and number of Secondary users during cooperative spectrum sensing in Cognitive radio networks.
Taggu, Amar, Marchang, Ningrinla.  2019.  Random-Byzantine Attack Mitigation in Cognitive Radio Networks using a Multi-Hidden Markov Model System. 2019 International Conference on Electrical and Computing Technologies and Applications (ICECTA). :1—5.
Cognitive Radio Networks (CRN) are opportunistic networks which aim to harness the white space in the television frequency spectrum, on a need-to-need basis, without interfering the incumbent, called the Primary User (PU). Cognitive radios (CR) that sense the spectrum periodically for sensing the PU activity, are called Secondary Users (SU). CRNs are susceptible to two major attacks, Byzantine attacks and Primary User Emulation Attack (PUEA). Both the attacks are capable of rendering a CRN useless, by either interfering with the PU itself or capturing the entire channel for themselves. Byzantine attacks detection and mitigation is an important security issue in CRN. Hence, the current work proposes using a multi-Hidden Markov Model system with an aim to detect different types of random-Byzantine attacks. Simulation results show good detection rate across all the attacks.
Simpson, Oluyomi, Sun, Yichuang.  2019.  A Stochastic based Physical Layer Security in Cognitive Radio Networks: Cognitive Relay to Fusion Center. 2019 IEEE 38th International Performance Computing and Communications Conference (IPCCC). :1—7.
Cognitive radio networks (CRNs) are found to be, without difficulty wide-open to external malicious threats. Secure communication is an important prerequisite for forthcoming fifth-generation (5G) systems, and CRs are not exempt. A framework for developing the accomplishable benefits of physical layer security (PLS) in an amplify-and-forward cooperative spectrum sensing (AF-CSS) in a cognitive radio network (CRN) using a stochastic geometry is proposed. In the CRN the spectrum sensing data from secondary users (SU) are collected by a fusion center (FC) with the assistance of access points (AP) as cognitive relays, and when malicious eavesdropping SU are listening. In this paper we focus on the secure transmission of active APs relaying their spectrum sensing data to the FC. Closed expressions for the average secrecy rate are presented. Analytical formulations and results substantiate our analysis and demonstrate that multiple antennas at the APs is capable of improving the security of an AF-CSSCRN. The obtained numerical results also show that increasing the number of FCs, leads to an increase in the secrecy rate between the AP and its correlated FC.
Grissa, Mohamed, Yavuz, Attila A., Hamdaoui, Bechir.  2019.  TrustSAS: A Trustworthy Spectrum Access System for the 3.5 GHz CBRS Band. IEEE INFOCOM 2019 - IEEE Conference on Computer Communications. :1495–1503.
As part of its ongoing efforts to meet the increased spectrum demand, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has recently opened up 150 MHz in the 3.5 GHz band for shared wireless broadband use. Access and operations in this band, aka Citizens Broadband Radio Service (CBRS), will be managed by a dynamic spectrum access system (SAS) to enable seamless spectrum sharing between secondary users (SUs) and incumbent users. Despite its benefits, SAS's design requirements, as set by FCC, present privacy risks to SUs, merely because SUs are required to share sensitive operational information (e.g., location, identity, spectrum usage) with SAS to be able to learn about spectrum availability in their vicinity. In this paper, we propose TrustSAS, a trustworthy framework for SAS that synergizes state-of-the-art cryptographic techniques with blockchain technology in an innovative way to address these privacy issues while complying with FCC's regulatory design requirements. We analyze the security of our framework and evaluate its performance through analysis, simulation and experimentation. We show that TrustSAS can offer high security guarantees with reasonable overhead, making it an ideal solution for addressing SUs' privacy issues in an operational SAS environment.
Yadav, Kuldeep, Roy, Sanjay Dhar, Kundu, Sumit.  2018.  Total Error Reduction in Presence of Malicious User in a Cognitive Radio Network. 2018 2nd International Conference on Electronics, Materials Engineering Nano-Technology (IEMENTech). :1-4.

Primary user emulation (PUE) attack causes security issues in a cognitive radio network (CRN) while sensing the unused spectrum. In PUE attack, malicious users transmit an emulated primary signal in spectrum sensing interval to secondary users (SUs) to forestall them from accessing the primary user (PU) spectrum bands. In the present paper, the defense against such attack by Neyman-Pearson criterion is shown in terms of total error probability. Impact of several parameters such as attacker strength, attacker's presence probability, and signal-to-noise ratio on SU is shown. Result shows proposed method protect the harmful effects of PUE attack in spectrum sensing.

Guan, C., Mohaisen, A., Sun, Z., Su, L., Ren, K., Yang, Y..  2017.  When Smart TV Meets CRN: Privacy-Preserving Fine-Grained Spectrum Access. 2017 IEEE 37th International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS). :1105–1115.

Dynamic spectrum sharing techniques applied in the UHF TV band have been developed to allow secondary WiFi transmission in areas with active TV users. This technique of dynamically controlling the exclusion zone enables vastly increasing secondary spectrum re-use, compared to the "TV white space" model where TV transmitters determine the exclusion zone and only "idle" channels can be re-purposed. However, in current such dynamic spectrum sharing systems, the sensitive operation parameters of both primary TV users (PUs) and secondary users (SUs) need to be shared with the spectrum database controller (SDC) for the purpose of realizing efficient spectrum allocation. Since such SDC server is not necessarily operated by a trusted third party, those current systems might cause essential threatens to the privacy requirement from both PUs and SUs. To address this privacy issue, this paper proposes a privacy-preserving spectrum sharing system between PUs and SUs, which realizes the spectrum allocation decision process using efficient multi-party computation (MPC) technique. In this design, the SDC only performs secure computation over encrypted input from PUs and SUs such that none of the PU or SU operation parameters will be revealed to SDC. The evaluation of its performance illustrates that our proposed system based on efficient MPC techniques can perform dynamic spectrum allocation process between PUs and SUs efficiently while preserving users' privacy.

Chen, G., Coon, J..  2017.  Enhancing secrecy by full-duplex antenna selection in cognitive networks. 2017 IEEE Symposium on Computers and Communications (ISCC). :540–545.

We consider an underlay cognitive network with secondary users that support full-duplex communication. In this context, we propose the application of antenna selection at the secondary destination node to improve the secondary user secrecy performance. Antenna selection rules for cases where exact and average knowledge of the eavesdropping channels are investigated. The secrecy outage probabilities for the secondary eavesdropping network are analyzed, and it is shown that the secrecy performance improvement due to antenna selection is due to coding gain rather than diversity gain. This is very different from classical antenna selection for data transmission, which usually leads to a higher diversity gain. Numerical simulations are included to verify the performance of the proposed scheme.

Petrov, D., Znati, T..  2017.  Location privacy preserving protocols in database-enabled cognitive radio networks. 2017 13th International Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing Conference (IWCMC). :147–152.

The exponential growth in the number of mobile devices, combined with the rapid demand for wireless services, has steadily stressed the wireless spectrum, calling for new techniques to improve spectrum utilization. A geo-location database has been proposed as a viable solution for wireless users to determine spectrum availability in cognitive radio networks. The protocol used by secondary users (SU) to request spectral availability for a specific location, time and duration, may reveal confidential information about these users. In this paper, we focus on SUs' location privacy in database-enabled wireless networks and propose a framework to address this threat. The basic tenet of the framework is obfuscation, whereby channel requests for valid locations are interwoven with requests for fake locations. Traffic redirection is also used to deliberately confuse potential query monitors from inferring users' location information. Within this framework, we propose two privacy-preserving schemes. The Master Device Enabled Location Privacy Preserving scheme utilizes trusted master devices to prevent leaking information of SUs' locations to attackers. The Crowd Sourced Location Privacy Preserving scheme builds a guided tour of randomly selected volunteers to deliver users channel availability queries and ensure location privacy. Security analysis and computational and communication overhead of these schemes are discussed.