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Li, R., Wu, B..  2020.  Early detection of DDoS based on φ-entropy in SDN networks. 2020 IEEE 4th Information Technology, Networking, Electronic and Automation Control Conference (ITNEC). 1:731—735.
Software defined network (SDN) is an emerging network architecture. Its control logic and forwarding logic are separated. SDN has the characteristics of centralized management, which makes it easier for malicious attackers to use the security vulnerabilities of SDN networks to implement distributed denial Service (DDoS) attack. Information entropy is a kind of lightweight DDoS early detection method. This paper proposes a DDoS attack detection method in SDN networks based on φ-entropy. φ-entropy can adjust related parameters according to network conditions and enlarge feature differences between normal and abnormal traffic, which can make it easier to detect attacks in the early stages of DDoS traffic formation. Firstly, this article demonstrates the basic properties of φ-entropy, mathematically illustrates the feasibility of φ-entropy in DDoS detection, and then we use Mini-net to conduct simulation experiments to compare the detection effects of DDoS with Shannon entropy.
Saxena, U., Sodhi, J., Singh, Y..  2020.  A Comprehensive Approach for DDoS Attack Detection in Smart Home Network Using Shortest Path Algorithm. 2020 8th International Conference on Reliability, Infocom Technologies and Optimization (Trends and Future Directions) (ICRITO). :392—395.
A Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attack is an attack that compromised the bandwidth of the whole network by choking down all the available network resources which are publically available, thus makes access to that resource unavailable. The DDoS attack is more vulnerable than a normal DoS attack because here the sources of attack origin are more than one, so users cannot even estimate how to detect and where to take actions so that attacks can be dissolved. This paper proposed a unique approach for DDoS detection using the shortest path algorithm. This Paper suggests that the remedy that must be taken in order to counter-affect the DDoS attack in a smart home network.
Sumantra, I., Gandhi, S. Indira.  2020.  DDoS attack Detection and Mitigation in Software Defined Networks. 2020 International Conference on System, Computation, Automation and Networking (ICSCAN). :1—5.
This work aims to formulate an effective scheme which can detect and mitigate of Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attack in Software Defined Networks. Distributed Denial of Service attacks are one of the most destructive attacks in the internet. Whenever you heard of a website being hacked, it would have probably been a victim of a DDoS attack. A DDoS attack is aimed at disrupting the normal operation of a system by making service and resources unavailable to legitimate users by overloading the system with excessive superfluous traffic from distributed source. These distributed set of compromised hosts that performs the attack are referred as Botnet. Software Defined Networking being an emerging technology, offers a solution to reduce network management complexity. It separates the Control plane and the data plane. This decoupling provides centralized control of the network with programmability and flexibility. This work harness this programming ability and centralized control of SDN to obtain the randomness of the network flow data. This statistical approach utilizes the source IP in the network and various attributes of TCP flags and calculates entropy from them. The proposed technique can detect volume based and application based DDoS attacks like TCP SYN flood, Ping flood and Slow HTTP attacks. The methodology is evaluated through emulation using Mininet and Detection and mitigation strategies are implemented in POX controller. The experimental results show the proposed method have improved performance evaluation parameters including the Attack detection time, Delay to serve a legitimate request in the presence of attacker and overall CPU utilization.
Sultana, Subrina, Nasrin, Sumaiya, Lipi, Farhana Kabir, Hossain, Md Afzal, Sultana, Zinia, Jannat, Fatima.  2019.  Detecting and Preventing IP Spoofing and Local Area Network Denial (LAND) Attack for Cloud Computing with the Modification of Hop Count Filtering (HCF) Mechanism. 2019 International Conference on Computer, Communication, Chemical, Materials and Electronic Engineering (IC4ME2). :1–6.
In today's world the number of consumers of cloud computing is increasing day by day. So, security is a big concern for cloud computing environment to keep user's data safe and secure. Among different types of attacks in cloud one of the harmful and frequently occurred attack is Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attack. DDoS is one type of flooding attack which is initiated by sending a large number of invalid packets to limit the services of the victim server. As a result, server can not serve the legitimate requests. DDoS attack can be done by a lot of strategies like malformed packets, IP spoofing, smurf attack, teardrop attack, syn flood attack, local area network denial (LAND) attack etc. This paper focuses on IP spoofing and LAND based DDoS attack. The objective of this paper is to propose an algorithm to detect and prevent IP spoofing and LAND attack. To achieve this objective a new approach is proposed combining two existing solutions of DDoS attack caused by IP spoofing and ill-formed packets. The proposed approach will provide a transparent solution, filter out the spoofed packets and minimize memory exhaustion through minimizing the number of insertions and updates required in the datatable. Finally, the approach is implemented and simulated using CloudSim 3.0 toolkit (a virtual cloud environment) followed by result analysis and comparison with existing algorithms.
Ahuja, Nisha, Singal, Gaurav.  2019.  DDOS Attack Detection Prevention in SDN using OpenFlow Statistics. 2019 IEEE 9th International Conference on Advanced Computing (IACC). :147–152.
Software defined Network is a network defined by software, which is one of the important feature which makes the legacy old networks to be flexible for dynamic configuration and so can cater to today's dynamic application requirement. It is a programmable network but it is prone to different type of attacks due to its centralized architecture. The author provided a solution to detect and prevent Distributed Denial of service attack in the paper. Mininet [5] which is a popular emulator for Software defined Network is used. We followed the approach in which collection of the traffic statistics from the various switches is done. After collection we calculated the packet rate and bandwidth which shoots up to high values when attack take place. The abrupt increase detects the attack which is then prevented by changing the forwarding logic of the host nodes to drop the packets instead of forwarding. After this, no more packets will be forwarded and then we also delete the forwarding rule in the flow table. Hence, we are finding out the change in packet rate and bandwidth to detect the attack and to prevent the attack we modify the forwarding logic of the switch flow table to drop the packets coming from malicious host instead of forwarding it.
Giri, Nupur, Jaisinghani, Rahul, Kriplani, Rohit, Ramrakhyani, Tarun, Bhatia, Vinay.  2019.  Distributed Denial Of Service(DDoS) Mitigation in Software Defined Network using Blockchain. 2019 Third International conference on I-SMAC (IoT in Social, Mobile, Analytics and Cloud) (I-SMAC). :673–678.
A DDoS attack is a spiteful attempt to disrupt legitimate traffic to a server by overwhelming the target with a flood of requests from geographically dispersed systems. Today attackers prefer DDoS attack methods to disrupt target services as they generate GBs to TBs of random data to flood the target. In existing mitigation strategies, because of lack of resources and not having the flexibility to cope with attacks by themselves, they are not considered to be that effective. So effective DDoS mitigation techniques can be provided using emerging technologies such as blockchain and SDN(Software-Defined Networking). We propose an architecture where a smart contract is deployed in a private blockchain, which facilitates a collaborative DDoS mitigation architecture across multiple network domains. Blockchain application is used as an additional security service. With Blockchain, shared protection is enabled among all hosts. With help of smart contracts, rules are distributed among all hosts. In addition, SDN can effectively enable services and security policies dynamically. This mechanism provides ASes(Autonomous Systems) the possibility to deploy their own DPS(DDoS Prevention Service) and there is no need to transfer control of the network to the third party. This paper focuses on the challenges of protecting a hybridized enterprise from the ravages of rapidly evolving Distributed Denial of Service(DDoS) attack.
Ateş, Çağatay, Özdel, Süleyman, Yıldırım, Metehan, Anarım, Emin.  2019.  DDoS Attack Detection Using Greedy Algorithm and Frequency Modulation. 2019 27th Signal Processing and Communications Applications Conference (SIU). :1–4.
Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attack is one of the major threats to the network services. In this paper, we propose a DDoS attack detection algorithm based on the probability distributions of source IP addresses and destination IP addresses. According to the behavior of source and destination IP addresses during DDoS attack, the distance between these features is calculated and used.It is calculated with using the Greedy algorithm which eliminates some requirements associated with Kullback-Leibler divergence such as having the same rank of the probability distributions. Then frequency modulation is proposed in the detection phase to reduce false alarm rates and to avoid using static threshold. This algorithm is tested on the real data collected from Boğaziçi University network.
Liu, Zhenpeng, He, Yupeng, Wang, Wensheng, Wang, Shuo, Li, Xiaofei, Zhang, Bin.  2019.  AEH-MTD: Adaptive Moving Target Defense Scheme for SDN. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Smart Internet of Things (SmartIoT). :142–147.

Distributed Denial of Service attack is very harmful to software-defined networking. Effective defense measures are the key to ensure SDN security. An adaptive moving target defense scheme based on end information hopping for SDN is proposed. The source address entropy value and the flow rate method are used to detect the network condition. According to the detection result, the end information is adjusted by time adaptive or space adaptive. A model of active network defense is constructed. The experimental results show that the proposed scheme enhances the anti-attack capability and serviceability compared with other methods, and has greater dynamics and flexibility.

Zhang, Naiji, Jaafar, Fehmi, Malik, Yasir.  2019.  Low-Rate DoS Attack Detection Using PSD Based Entropy and Machine Learning. 2019 6th IEEE International Conference on Cyber Security and Cloud Computing (CSCloud)/ 2019 5th IEEE International Conference on Edge Computing and Scalable Cloud (EdgeCom). :59–62.
The Distributed Denial of Service attack is one of the most common attacks and it is hard to mitigate, however, it has become more difficult while dealing with the Low-rate DoS (LDoS) attacks. The LDoS exploits the vulnerability of TCP congestion-control mechanism by sending malicious traffic at the low constant rate and influence the victim machine. Recently, machine learning approaches are applied to detect the complex DDoS attacks and improve the efficiency and robustness of the intrusion detection system. In this research, the algorithm is designed to balance the detection rate and its efficiency. The detection algorithm combines the Power Spectral Density (PSD) entropy function and Support Vector Machine to detect LDoS traffic from normal traffic. In our solution, the detection rate and efficiency are adjustable based on the parameter in the decision algorithm. To have high efficiency, the detection method will always detect the attacks by calculating PSD-entropy first and compare it with the two adaptive thresholds. The thresholds can efficiently filter nearly 19% of the samples with a high detection rate. To minimize the computational cost and look only for the patterns that are most relevant for detection, Support Vector Machine based machine learning model is applied to learn the traffic pattern and select appropriate features for detection algorithm. The experimental results show that the proposed approach can detect 99.19% of the LDoS attacks and has an O (n log n) time complexity in the best case.
M, Suchitra, S M, Renuka, Sreerekha, Lingaraj K..  2018.  DDoS Prevention Using D-PID. 2018 Second International Conference on Intelligent Computing and Control Systems (ICICCS). :453-457.

In recent years, the attacks on systems have increased and among such attack is Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attack. The path identifiers (PIDs) used for inter-domain routing are static, which makes it easier the attack easier. To address this vulnerability, this paper addresses the usage of Dynamic Path Identifiers (D-PIDs) for routing. The PID of inter-domain path connector is kept oblivious and changes dynamically, thus making it difficult to attack the system. The prototype designed with major components like client, server and router analyses the outcome of D-PID usage instead of PIDs. The results show that, DDoS attacks can be effectively prevented if Dynamic Path Identifiers (D-PIDs) are used instead of Static Path Identifiers (PIDs).

Prakash, A., Priyadarshini, R..  2018.  An Intelligent Software defined Network Controller for preventing Distributed Denial of Service Attack. 2018 Second International Conference on Inventive Communication and Computational Technologies (ICICCT). :585–589.

Software Defined Network (SDN) architecture is a new and novel way of network management mechanism. In SDN, switches do not process the incoming packets like conventional network computing environment. They match for the incoming packets in the forwarding tables and if there is none it will be sent to the controller for processing which is the operating system of the SDN. A Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attack is a biggest threat to cyber security in SDN network. The attack will occur at the network layer or the application layer of the compromised systems that are connected to the network. In this paper a machine learning based intelligent method is proposed which can detect the incoming packets as infected or not. The different machine learning algorithms adopted for accomplishing the task are Naive Bayes, K-Nearest neighbor (KNN) and Support vector machine (SVM) to detect the anomalous behavior of the data traffic. These three algorithms are compared according to their performances and KNN is found to be the suitable one over other two. The performance measure is taken here is the detection rate of infected packets.

Madhupriya, G., Shalinie, S. M., Rajeshwari, A. R..  2018.  Detecting DDoS Attack in Cloud Computing Using Local Outlier Factors. 2018 2nd International Conference on Trends in Electronics and Informatics (ICOEI). :859–863.

Now a days, Cloud computing has brought a unbelievable change in companies, organizations, firm and institutions etc. IT industries is advantage with low investment in infrastructure and maintenance with the growth of cloud computing. The Virtualization technique is examine as the big thing in cloud computing. Even though, cloud computing has more benefits; the disadvantage of the cloud computing environment is ensuring security. Security means, the Cloud Service Provider to ensure the basic integrity, availability, privacy, confidentiality, authentication and authorization in data storage, virtual machine security etc. In this paper, we presented a Local outlier factors mechanism, which may be helpful for the detection of Distributed Denial of Service attack in a cloud computing environment. As DDoS attack becomes strong with the passing of time, and then the attack may be reduced, if it is detected at first. So we fully focused on detecting DDoS attack to secure the cloud environment. In addition, our scheme is able to identify their possible sources, giving important clues for cloud computing administrators to spot the outliers. By using WEKA (Waikato Environment for Knowledge Analysis) we have analyzed our scheme with other clustering algorithm on the basis of higher detection rates and lower false alarm rate. DR-LOF would serve as a better DDoS detection tool, which helps to improve security framework in cloud computing.

Leaden, G., Zimmermann, M., DeCusatis, C., Labouseur, A. G..  2017.  An API Honeypot for DDoS and XSS Analysis. 2017 IEEE MIT Undergraduate Research Technology Conference (URTC). :1–4.

Honeypots are servers or systems built to mimic critical parts of a network, distracting attackers while logging their information to develop attack profiles. This paper discusses the design and implementation of a honeypot disguised as a REpresentational State Transfer (REST) Application Programming Interface (API). We discuss the motivation for this work, design features of the honeypot, and experimental performance results under various traffic conditions. We also present analyses of both a distributed denial of service (DDoS) attack and a cross-site scripting (XSS) malware insertion attempt against this honeypot.

Wang, A., Mohaisen, A., Chen, S..  2017.  An Adversary-Centric Behavior Modeling of DDoS Attacks. 2017 IEEE 37th International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS). :1126–1136.

Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks are some of the most persistent threats on the Internet today. The evolution of DDoS attacks calls for an in-depth analysis of those attacks. A better understanding of the attackers' behavior can provide insights to unveil patterns and strategies utilized by attackers. The prior art on the attackers' behavior analysis often falls in two aspects: it assumes that adversaries are static, and makes certain simplifying assumptions on their behavior, which often are not supported by real attack data. In this paper, we take a data-driven approach to designing and validating three DDoS attack models from temporal (e.g., attack magnitudes), spatial (e.g., attacker origin), and spatiotemporal (e.g., attack inter-launching time) perspectives. We design these models based on the analysis of traces consisting of more than 50,000 verified DDoS attacks from industrial mitigation operations. Each model is also validated by testing its effectiveness in accurately predicting future DDoS attacks. Comparisons against simple intuitive models further show that our models can more accurately capture the essential features of DDoS attacks.

Guri, M., Mirsky, Y., Elovici, Y..  2017.  9-1-1 DDoS: Attacks, Analysis and Mitigation. 2017 IEEE European Symposium on Security and Privacy (EuroS P). :218–232.

The 911 emergency service belongs to one of the 16 critical infrastructure sectors in the United States. Distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks launched from a mobile phone botnet pose a significant threat to the availability of this vital service. In this paper we show how attackers can exploit the cellular network protocols in order to launch an anonymized DDoS attack on 911. The current FCC regulations require that all emergency calls be immediately routed regardless of the caller's identifiers (e.g., IMSI and IMEI). A rootkit placed within the baseband firmware of a mobile phone can mask and randomize all cellular identifiers, causing the device to have no genuine identification within the cellular network. Such anonymized phones can issue repeated emergency calls that cannot be blocked by the network or the emergency call centers, technically or legally. We explore the 911 infrastructure and discuss why it is susceptible to this kind of attack. We then implement different forms of the attack and test our implementation on a small cellular network. Finally, we simulate and analyze anonymous attacks on a model of current 911 infrastructure in order to measure the severity of their impact. We found that with less than 6K bots (or \$100K hardware), attackers can block emergency services in an entire state (e.g., North Carolina) for days. We believe that this paper will assist the respective organizations, lawmakers, and security professionals in understanding the scope of this issue in order to prevent possible 911-DDoS attacks in the future.

Bhaya, W., EbadyManaa, M..  2017.  DDoS attack detection approach using an efficient cluster analysis in large data scale. 2017 Annual Conference on New Trends in Information Communications Technology Applications (NTICT). :168–173.

Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attack is a congestion-based attack that makes both the network and host-based resources unavailable for legitimate users, sending flooding attack packets to the victim's resources. The non-existence of predefined rules to correctly identify the genuine network flow made the task of DDoS attack detection very difficult. In this paper, a combination of unsupervised data mining techniques as intrusion detection system are introduced. The entropy concept in term of windowing the incoming packets is applied with data mining technique using Clustering Using Representative (CURE) as cluster analysis to detect the DDoS attack in network flow. The data is mainly collected from DARPA2000, CAIDA2007 and CAIDA2008 datasets. The proposed approach has been evaluated and compared with several existing approaches in terms of accuracy, false alarm rate, detection rate, F. measure and Phi coefficient. Results indicates the superiority of the proposed approach with four out five detected phases, more than 99% accuracy rate 96.29% detection rate, around 0% false alarm rate 97.98% F-measure, and 97.98% Phi coefficient.

Meng, B., Andi, W., Jian, X., Fucai, Z..  2017.  DDOS Attack Detection System Based on Analysis of Users' Behaviors for Application Layer. 2017 IEEE International Conference on Computational Science and Engineering (CSE) and IEEE International Conference on Embedded and Ubiquitous Computing (EUC). 1:596–599.

Aiming at the problem of internal attackers of database system, anomaly detection method of user behaviour is used to detect the internal attackers of database system. With using Discrete-time Markov Chains (DTMC), an anomaly detection system of user behavior is proposed, which can detect the internal threats of database system. First, we make an analysis on SQL queries, which are user behavior features. Then, we use DTMC model extract behavior features of a normal user and the detected user and make a comparison between them. If the deviation of features is beyond threshold, the detected user behavior is judged as an anomaly behavior. The experiments are used to test the feasibility of the detction system. The experimental results show that this detction system can detect normal and abnormal user behavior precisely and effectively.

Mallikarjunan, K. N., Muthupriya, K., Shalinie, S. M..  2016.  A survey of distributed denial of service attack. 2016 10th International Conference on Intelligent Systems and Control (ISCO). :1–6.

Information security deals with a large number of subjects like spoofed message detection, audio processing, video surveillance and cyber-attack detections. However the biggest threat for the homeland security is cyber-attacks. Distributed Denial of Service attack is one among them. Interconnected systems such as database server, web server, cloud computing servers etc., are now under threads from network attackers. Denial of service is common attack in the internet which causes problem for both the user and the service providers. Distributed attack sources can be used to enlarge the attack in case of Distributed Denial of Service so that the effect of the attack will be high. Distributed Denial of Service attacks aims at exhausting the communication and computational power of the network by flooding the packets through the network and making malicious traffic in the network. In order to be an effective service the DDoS attack must be detected and mitigated quickly before the legitimate user access the attacker's target. The group of systems that is used to perform the DoS attack is known as the botnets. This paper introduces the overview of the state of art in DDoS attack detection strategies.

Foroushani, V.A., Zincir-Heywood, A.N..  2014.  TDFA: Traceback-Based Defense against DDoS Flooding Attacks. Advanced Information Networking and Applications (AINA), 2014 IEEE 28th International Conference on. :597-604.

Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks are one of the challenging network security problems to address. The existing defense mechanisms against DDoS attacks usually filter the attack traffic at the victim side. The problem is exacerbated when there are spoofed IP addresses in the attack packets. In this case, even if the attacking traffic can be filtered by the victim, the attacker may reach the goal of blocking the access to the victim by consuming the computing resources or by consuming a big portion of the bandwidth to the victim. This paper proposes a Trace back-based Defense against DDoS Flooding Attacks (TDFA) approach to counter this problem. TDFA consists of three main components: Detection, Trace back, and Traffic Control. In this approach, the goal is to place the packet filtering as close to the attack source as possible. In doing so, the traffic control component at the victim side aims to set up a limit on the packet forwarding rate to the victim. This mechanism effectively reduces the rate of forwarding the attack packets and therefore improves the throughput of the legitimate traffic. Our results based on real world data sets show that TDFA is effective to reduce the attack traffic and to defend the quality of service for the legitimate traffic.