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2021-09-16
Zhao, Bing-Qing, Wang, Hui-Ming, Jiang, Jia-Cheng.  2020.  Safeguarding Backscatter RFID Communication against Proactive Eavesdropping. ICC 2020 - 2020 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC). :1–6.
Passive radio frequency identification (RFID) systems raise new transmission secrecy protection challenges against the special proactive eavesdropper, since it is able to both enhance the information wiretap and interfere with the information detection at the RFID reader simultaneously by broadcasting its own continuous wave (CW) signal. To defend against proactive eavesdropping attacks, we propose an artificial noise (AN) aided secure transmission scheme for the RFID reader, which superimposes an AN signal on the CW signal to confuse the proactive eavesdropper. The power allocation between the AN signal and the CW signal are optimized to maximize the secrecy rate. Furthermore, we model the attack and defense process between the proactive eavesdropper and the RFID reader as a hierarchical security game, and prove it can achieve the equilibrium. Simulation results show the superiority of our proposed scheme in terms of the secrecy rate and the interactions between the RFID reader and the proactive eavesdropper.
Prodanoff, Zornitza Genova, Penkunas, Andrew, Kreidl, Patrick.  2020.  Anomaly Detection in RFID Networks Using Bayesian Blocks and DBSCAN. 2020 SoutheastCon. :1–7.
The use of modeling techniques such as Knuth's Rule or Bayesian Blocks for the purposes of real-time traffic characterization in RFID networks has been proposed already. This study examines the applicability of using Voronoi polygon maps or alternatively, DBSCAN clustering, as initial density estimation techniques when computing 2-Dimentional Bayesian Blocks models of RFID traffic. Our results are useful for the purposes of extending the constant-piecewise adaptation of Bayesian Blocks into 2D piecewise models for the purposes of more precise detection of anomalies in RFID traffic based on multiple log features such as command type, location, UID values, security support, etc. Automatic anomaly detection of RFID networks is an essential first step in the implementation of intrusion detection as well as a timely response to equipment malfunction such as tag hardware failure.
Liu, Mujie, Yu, Wei, Xu, Ming.  2020.  Security Job Management System Based on RFID and IOT Technology. 2020 6th International Conference on Control, Automation and Robotics (ICCAR). :44–48.
As it was difficult for the State Grid Corporation of China (SGCC) to manage a large amount of safety equipment efficiently, resulting in the frequent occurrence of safety accidents caused by the quality of equipment. Therefore, this paper presents a design of a self-powered wireless communication radio frequency identification tag system based on the Si24R1. The system uses blockchain technology to provide a full-length, chain-like path for RFID big data to achieve data security management. Using low-power Si24R1 chips to make tags can extend the use time of tags and achieve full life cycle management of equipment. In addition, a transmission scheme was designed to reduce the packet loss rate, in this paper. Finally, the result showed that the device terminal received and processed information from the six tags simultaneously. According to calculations, this electronic tag could be used for up to three years. This system can be widely used for safe operation management, which can effectively reduce the investment of manpower and material resources.
Ayoub, Ahmed A., Aagaard, Mark D..  2020.  Application-Specific Instruction Set Architecture for an Ultralight Hardware Security Module. 2020 IEEE International Symposium on Hardware Oriented Security and Trust (HOST). :69–79.
Due to the rapid growth of using Internet of Things (IoT) devices in the daily life, the need to achieve an acceptable level of security and privacy according to the real security risks for these devices is rising. Security risks may include privacy threats like gaining sensitive information from a device, and authentication problems from counterfeit or cloned devices. It becomes more challenging to add strong security features to extremely constrained devices compared to battery operated devices that have more computational and storage capabilities. We propose a novel application specific instruction-set architecture that allows flexibility on many design levels and achieves the required security level for the Electronic Product Code (EPC) passive Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tag device. Our solution moves a major design effort from hardware to software, which largely reduces the final unit cost. The proposed architecture can be implemented with 4,662 gate equivalent units (GEs) for 65 nm CMOS technology excluding the memory and the cryptographic units. The synthesis results fulfill the requirements of extremely constrained devices and allow the inclusion of cryptographic units into the datapath of the proposed application-specific instruction set processor (ASIP).
Cui, Ying, Yao, Yifan, Xu, GuanNan.  2020.  Research of Ubiquitous Power Internet of Things Security Authentication Method Based on CPK and RIFD. 2020 IEEE 4th Information Technology, Networking, Electronic and Automation Control Conference (ITNEC). 1:1519–1523.
As RFID system has fewer calculation and storage resources for RF tag, it is difficult to adopt the traditional encryption algorithm technology with higher security, which leads to the system being vulnerable to counterfeiting, tampering, leakage and other problems. To this end, a lightweight bidirectional security authentication method based on the combined public key is proposed. The method deals with the key management problem of the power Internet of things (IoT) in the terminal layer device by studying the combined public key (CPK) technology. The elliptic curve cryptosystem in the CPK has the advantages of short key length, fast calculation speed and small occupied bandwidth, which is very suitable for the hardware environment of RFID system with limited performance. It also ensures the security of the keys used in the access of the IoT terminal equipment to the authentication, and achieves overall optimization of speed, energy consumption, processing capacity and security.
Rachini, Ali S., Khatoun, R..  2020.  Distributed Key Management Authentication Algorithm in Internet of Things (IOT). 2020 Sixth International Conference on Mobile And Secure Services (MobiSecServ). :1–5.
Radio frequency identification system (RFID) is a wireless technology based on radio waves. These radio waves transmit data from the tag to a reader, which then transmits the information to a server. RFID tags have several advantages, they can be used in merchandise, to track vehicles, and even patients. Connecting RFID tags to internet terminal or server it called Internet of Things (IoT). Many people have shown interest in connected objects or the Internet of Things (IoT). The IoT is composed of many complementary elements each having their own specificities. The RFID is often seen as a prerequisite for the IoT. The main challenge of RFID is the security issues. Connecting RFID with IoT poses security threats and challenges which are needed to be discussed properly before deployment. In this paper, we proposed a new distributed encryption algorithm to be used in the IoT structure in order to reduce the security risks that are confronted in RFID technology.
Liu, Zixuan, Yu, Jie.  2020.  Design and Analysis of a New RFID Security Protocol for Internet of Things. 2020 5th International Conference on Information Science, Computer Technology and Transportation (ISCTT). :16–18.
As the core of the third information revolution, the Internet of things plays an important role in the development of the times. According to the relevant investigation and research, we can find that the research on the Internet of things is still in the stage of LAN and private network, and its open advantages have not been fully utilized[1]. In this context, RFID technology as the core technology of the Internet of things, the security protocol plays an important role in the normal use of the technology. With the continuous development of Internet information technology, the disadvantages of security protocol become more and more obvious. These problems seriously affect the popularity of Internet of things technology. Therefore, in the future work, the relevant staff need to continue to strengthen research, according to the future development plan, effectively play the advantages of technology, and further promote its development.
He, Hongqi, Lin, Hui, Wang, Ruimin, Wang, Huanwei.  2020.  Research on RFID Technology Security. 2020 IEEE 3rd International Conference on Automation, Electronics and Electrical Engineering (AUTEEE). :423–427.
In recent years, the Internet of Things technology has developed rapidly. RFID technology, as an important branch of the Internet of Things technology, is widely used in logistics, medical, military and other fields. RFID technology not only brings convenience to people's production and life, but also hides many security problems. However, the current research on RFID technology mainly focuses on the technology application, and there are relatively few researches on its security analysis. This paper firstly studies the authentication mechanism and storage mechanism of RFID technology, then analyzes the common vulnerabilities of RFID, and finally gives the security protection suggestions.
Asci, Cihan, Wang, Wei, Sonkusale, Sameer.  2020.  Security Monitoring System Using Magnetically-Activated RFID Tags. 2020 IEEE SENSORS. :1–4.
Existing methods for home security monitoring depend on expensive custom battery-powered solutions. In this article, we present a battery-free solution that leverages any off-the-shelf passive radio frequency identification (RFID) tag for real-time entry detection. Sensor consists of a printed RFID antenna on paper, coupled to a magnetic reed switch and is affixed on the door. Opening of the door triggers the reed switch causing RFID signal transmission detected by any off-the-shelf passive RFID reader. This paper shows simulation and experimental results for such magnetically-actuated RFID (or magRFID) opening sensor.
Ambareen, Javeria, M, Prabhakar, Ara, Tabassum.  2020.  Edge Data Security for RFID-Based Devices. 2020 International Conference on Smart Technologies in Computing, Electrical and Electronics (ICSTCEE). :272–277.
Radio-frequency identification (RFID) has become a preferred technology for monitoring in industrial internet of things (IIoT) applications like supply chain, medical industry, vehicle tracking and warehouse monitoring where information is required continually. Typical security threats seen in these applications are denial of service (DOS) attack, transmission attack etc. We propose a novel edge data security schema based on spike modulation along with backscatter communication technique to modulate both sensor and identification (ID) information. It is observed that this data encoding schema works well even in a multi-tag single-reader environment. Further, it uses lower power and offers a low-cost solution for Industrial IoT applications.
2020-03-23
Kaul, Sonam Devgan, Hatzinakos, Dimitrios.  2019.  Learning Automata Based Secure Multi Agent RFID Authentication System. 2019 10th International Conference on Computing, Communication and Networking Technologies (ICCCNT). :1–7.
Radio frequency identification wireless sensing technology widely adopted and developed from last decade and has been utilized for monitoring and autonomous identification of objects. However, wider utilization of RFID technologies has introduced challenges such as preserving security and privacy of sensitive data while maintaining the high quality of service. Thus, in this work, we will deliberately build up a RFID system by utilizing learning automata based multi agent intelligent system to greatly enhance and secure message transactions and to improve operational efficiency. The incorporation of these two advancements and technological developments will provide maximum benefit in terms of expertly and securely handle data in RFID scenario. In proposed work, learning automata inbuilt RFID tags or assumed players choose their optimal strategy via enlarging its own utility function to achieve long term benefit. This is possible if they transmit their utility securely to back end server and then correspondingly safely get new utility function from server to behave optimally in its environment. Hence, our proposed authentication protocol, expertly transfer utility from learning automata inbuilt tags to reader and then to server. Moreover, we verify the security and privacy of our proposed system by utilizing automatic formal prover Scyther tool.
Xiao-Mei, Liu, Yong, Qian.  2019.  Research on LED lightweight cryptographic algorithm based on RFID tag of Internet of things. 2019 IEEE 8th Joint International Information Technology and Artificial Intelligence Conference (ITAIC). :1717–1720.
In recent years, with the rapid development of Internet of things, RFID tags have been widely used, in due to the chip used in radio frequency identification (RFID) tags is more demanding for resources, which also brings a great threat to the safety performance of cryptographic algorithms in differential power analysis (DPA). For this purpose, it is necessary to study the LED lightweight cryptography algorithm of RFID tags in the Internet of things, so as to explore a lightweight and secure cryptographic algorithm which can be applied to RFID Tags. In this paper, through the combination of Piccolo cryptographic algorithm and the new DPA protection technology threshold, we propose a LED lightweight cryptographic algorithm which can be applied to the RFID tag of the Internet of things. With the help of improve d exhaustive search and Boolean expression reconstruction, the two methods share the implementation of the S -box and the InvS-box, thereby effectively solves the burr threat problem of the S-box and the InvS-box in the sharing implementation process, the security performance of the algorithm is evaluated by the DPA attack of FPGA. The results show that the algorithm can achieve lightweight and security performance at the same time, can effectively meet the light and security requirements of RFID tag chip of Internet of things for cryptographic algorithms.
Al-Adhami, Ayad H., Ambroze, Marcel, Stengel, Ingo, Tomlinson, Martin.  2019.  An Effencient Improvement of RFID Authentication Protocol Using Hash Function ZKP. 2019 2nd Scientific Conference of Computer Sciences (SCCS). :87–92.
The applications of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology has been rapidly developed to be used in different fields that require automatic identification of objects and managing information. The advantage of employing RFID systems is to facilitate automatic identification of objects from distance without any interaction with tagged objects and without using a line of sight as compared with barcode. However, security and privacy constitute a challenge to RFID system as RFID systems use the wireless communication. Many researchers have introduced elliptical curve cryptographic (ECC) solutions to the security and privacy in RFID system as an ideal cryptosystem to be implemented with RFID technology. However, most of these solutions do not have provide adequate protection. Moreover, in terms of integrity and confidentiality level, most of these authentication protocols still vulnerable to some of security and privacy attacks. Based on these facts, this paper proposes a mutual authentication protocol that aims at enhancing an existing RFID authentication protocol that suffers from tracking attack and man-in-the-middle attack (MITM). The enhancement is accomplished by improving the security and privacy level against MITM, tracking attack and other related attacks. The proposed protocol is dependent on use the elliptical curve version of Schnorr identification protocol in combination with Keccak hash function. This combination leads to enhance the confidentiality and integrity level of the RFID authentication system and increase the privacy protection.
Essam, Gehad, Shehata, Heba, Khattab, Tamer, Abualsaud, Khalid, Guizani, Mohsen.  2019.  Novel Hybrid Physical Layer Security Technique in RFID Systems. 2019 15th International Wireless Communications Mobile Computing Conference (IWCMC). :1299–1304.
In this paper, we propose a novel PHY layer security technique in radio frequency identification (RFID) backscatter communications system. In order to protect the RFID tag information confidentiality from the eavesdroppers attacks, the proposed technique deploys beam steering (BS) using a one dimensional (1-D) antenna array in the tag side in addition to noise injection from the reader side. The performance analysis and simulation results show that the new technique outperforms the already-existing noise injection security technique and overcomes its design limitations.
Tian, Mengfan, Qi, Junpeng, Ma, Rui.  2019.  UHF RFID Information Security Transmission Technology and Application Based on Domestic Cryptographic Algorithm. 2019 6th International Conference on Behavioral, Economic and Socio-Cultural Computing (BESC). :1–4.
With the continuous development of the Internet of Things, intelligent manufacturing has gradually entered the application stage, which urgently needs to solve the problem of information transmission security. In order to realize data security with transmission encryption, the UHF RFID tag based on domestic cryptographic algorithm SM7 is proposed. By writing the anti-counterfeiting authentication identification code when the tag leaves the factory, verifying the identification code when the tag is issued, and using the authentication code of the tag to participate in the sectoral key dispersion, the purpose of data security protection is achieved. Through this scheme, the security of tag information and transmission is guaranteed, and a new idea is provided for the follow-up large-scale extension of intelligent manufacturing.
Wang, Song, Zhang, Bo.  2019.  Research on RFID Information Security Technology Based on Elliptic Curve Algorithms. 2019 International Conference on Communications, Information System and Computer Engineering (CISCE). :386–389.
The security problem of RFID system is a great potential security hazard in its application. Due to the limitation of hardware conditions, traditional public key cryptography can not be directly used in security mechanism. Compared with the traditional RSA public key cryptography, the elliptic curve cryptography has the advantages of shorter key, faster processing speed and smaller storage space, which is very suitable for use in the RFID system.
Bothe, Alexander, Bauer, Jan, Aschenbruck, Nils.  2019.  RFID-assisted Continuous User Authentication for IoT-based Smart Farming. 2019 IEEE International Conference on RFID Technology and Applications (RFID-TA). :505–510.
Smart Farming is driven by the emergence of precise positioning systems and Internet of Things technologies which have already enabled site-specific applications, sustainable resource management, and interconnected machinery. Nowadays, so-called Farm Management Information Systems (FMISs) enable farm-internal interconnection of agricultural machines and implements and, thereby, allow in-field data exchange and the orchestration of collaborative agricultural processes. Machine data is often directly logged during task execution. Moreover, interconnection of farms, agricultural contractors, and marketplaces ease the collaboration. However, current FMISs lack in security and particularly in user authentication. In this paper, we present a security architecture for a decentralized, manufacturer-independent, and open-source FMIS. Special attention is turned on the Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)-based continuous user authentication which greatly improves security and credibility of automated documentation, while at the same time preserves usability in practice.
2019-10-02
Alkadi, A., Chi, H., Prodanoff, Z. G., Kreidl, P..  2018.  Evaluation of Two RFID Traffic Models with Potential in Anomaly Detection. SoutheastCon 2018. :1–5.

The use of Knuth's Rule and Bayesian Blocks constant piecewise models for characterization of RFID traffic has been proposed already. This study presents an evaluation of the application of those two modeling techniques for various RFID traffic patterns. The data sets used in this study consist of time series of binned RFID command counts. More specifically., we compare the shape of several empirical plots of raw data sets we obtained from experimental RIFD readings., against the constant piecewise graphs produced as an output of the two modeling algorithms. One issue limiting the applicability of modeling techniques to RFID traffic is the fact that there are a large number of various RFID applications available. We consider this phenomenon to present the main motivation for this study. The general expectation is that the RFID traffic traces from different applications would be sequences with different histogram shapes. Therefore., no modeling technique could be considered universal for modeling the traffic from multiple RFID applications., without first evaluating its model performance for various traffic patterns. We postulate that differences in traffic patterns are present if the histograms of two different sets of RFID traces form visually different plot shapes.

Wang, S., Zhu, S., Zhang, Y..  2018.  Blockchain-Based Mutual Authentication Security Protocol for Distributed RFID Systems. 2018 IEEE Symposium on Computers and Communications (ISCC). :00074–00077.

Since radio frequency identification (RFID) technology has been used in various scenarios such as supply chain, access control system and credit card, tremendous efforts have been made to improve the authentication between tags and readers to prevent potential attacks. Though effective in certain circumstances, these existing methods usually require a server to maintain a database of identity related information for every tag, which makes the system vulnerable to the SQL injection attack and not suitable for distributed environment. To address these problems, we now propose a novel blockchain-based mutual authentication security protocol. In this new scheme, there is no need for the trusted third parties to provide security and privacy for the system. Authentication is executed as an unmodifiable transaction based on blockchain rather than database, which applies to distributed RFID systems with high security demand and relatively low real-time requirement. Analysis shows that our protocol is logically correct and can prevent multiple attacks.

Cherneva, V., Trahan, J..  2019.  A Secure and Efficient Parallel-Dependency RFID Grouping-Proof Protocol. 2019 IEEE International Conference on RFID (RFID). :1–8.

In this time of ubiquitous computing and the evolution of the Internet of Things (IoT), the deployment and development of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is becoming more extensive. Proving the simultaneous presence of a group of RFID tagged objects is a practical need in many application areas within the IoT domain. Security, privacy, and efficiency are central issues when designing such a grouping-proof protocol. This work is motivated by our serial-dependent and Sundaresan et al.'s grouping-proof protocols. In this paper, we propose a light, improved offline protocol: parallel-dependency grouping-proof protocol (PDGPP). The protocol focuses on security, privacy, and efficiency. PDGPP tackles the challenges of including robust privacy mechanisms and accommodates missing tags. It is scalable and complies with EPC C1G2.

Sharma, V., Vithalkar, A., Hashmi, M..  2018.  Lightweight Security Protocol for Chipless RFID in Internet of Things (IoT) Applications. 2018 10th International Conference on Communication Systems Networks (COMSNETS). :468–471.

The RFID based communication between objects within the framework of IoT is potentially very efficient in terms of power requirements and system complexity. The new design incorporating the emerging chipless RFID tags has the potential to make the system more efficient and simple. However, these systems are prone to privacy and security risks and these challenges associated with such systems have not been addressed appropriately in the broader IoT framework. In this context, a lightweight collision free algorithm based on n-bit pseudo random number generator, X-OR hash function, and rotations for chipless RFID system is presented. The algorithm has been implemented on an 8-bit open-loop resonator based chipless RFID tag based system and is validated using BASYS 2 FPGA board based platform. The proposed scheme has been shown to possess security against various attacks such as Denial of Service (DoS), tag/reader anonymity, and tag impersonation.

Sharma, V., Malhotra, S., Hashmi, M..  2018.  An Emerging Application Centric RFID Framework Based on New Web Technology. 2018 IEEE International Conference on RFID Technology Application (RFID-TA). :1–6.

In the context of emerging applications such as IoT, an RFID framework that can dynamically incorporate, identify, and seamlessly regulate the RFID tags is considered exciting. Earlier RFID frameworks developed using the older web technologies were limited in their ability to provide complete information about the RFID tags and their respective locations. However, the new and emerging web technologies have transformed this scenario and now framework can be developed to include all the required flexibility and security for seamless applications such as monitoring of RFID tags. This paper revisits and proposes a generic scenario of an RFID framework built using latest web technology and demonstrates its ability to customize using an application for tracking of personal user objects. This has been shown that the framework based on newer web technologies can be indeed robust, uniform, unified, and integrated.

Damghani, H., Hosseinian, H., Damghani, L..  2019.  Investigating Attacks to Improve Security and Privacy in RFID Systems Using the Security Bit Method. 2019 5th Conference on Knowledge Based Engineering and Innovation (KBEI). :833–838.

The RFID technology is now widely used and combined with everyday life. RFID Tag is a wireless device used to identify individuals and objects, in fact, it is a combination of the chip and antenna that sends the necessary information to an RFID Reader. On the other hand, an RFID Reader converts received radio waves into digital information and then provides facilities such as sending data to the computer and processing them. Radio frequency identification is a comprehensive processing technology that has led to a revolution in industry and medicine as an alternative to commercial barcodes. RFID Tag is used to tracking commodities and personal assets in the chain stores and even the human body and medical science. However, security and privacy problems have not yet been solved satisfactorily. There are many technical and economic challenges in this direction. In this paper, some of the latest technical research on privacy and security problems has been investigated in radio-frequency identification and security bit method, and it has been shown that in order to achieve this level of individual security, multiple technologies of RFID security development should combine with each other. These solutions should be cheap, efficient, reliable, flexible and long-term.

Santo, Walter E., de B. Salgueiro, Ricardo J. P., Santos, Reneilson, Souza, Danilo, Ribeiro, Admilson, Moreno, Edward.  2018.  Internet of Things: A Survey on Communication Protocol Security. Proceedings of the Euro American Conference on Telematics and Information Systems. :17:1–17:5.

This paper presents a survey on the main security problems that affect the communication protocols in the context of Internet of Things, in order to identify possible threats and vulnerabilities. The protocols RFID, NFC, 6LoWPAN, 6TiSCH, DTSL, CoAP and MQTT, for a better organization, were explored and categorized in layers according to the TCP / IP reference model. At the end, a summary is presented in tabular form with the security modes used for each protocol is used.

Huang, Shao-Cheng, Tsai, Chia-Wei, Hwang, Tzonelih.  2018.  Comment on "Cryptanalysis of a Novel Ultralightweight Mutual Authentication Protocol for IoT Devices Using RFID Tags". Proceedings of the 2018 International Conference on Data Science and Information Technology. :23–27.

To protect the security of IoT devices, Tewari and Gupta proposed an ultralightweight mutual-authentication protocol for an RFID system. In the protocol, only two simple bitwise operations (XOR and rotation) are used to achieve two-pass mutual authentication. Although the protocol is efficient, we observe that the protocol has a security vulnerability. This security weakness could cause the leaking of all secrets in RFID tags. Compared with other researches that also proposed attacks for Tewari and Gupta's protocol, our attack needs less time and smaller space complexity to implement. The time complexity of our attack is O(1), and the attack can successfully crack the protocol with 100% probability.