Visible to the public Biblio

Filters: Keyword is Bayes methods  [Clear All Filters]
Moran, Kevin, Palacio, David N., Bernal-Cárdenas, Carlos, McCrystal, Daniel, Poshyvanyk, Denys, Shenefiel, Chris, Johnson, Jeff.  2020.  Improving the Effectiveness of Traceability Link Recovery using Hierarchical Bayesian Networks. 2020 IEEE/ACM 42nd International Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE). :873—885.
Traceability is a fundamental component of the modern software development process that helps to ensure properly functioning, secure programs. Due to the high cost of manually establishing trace links, researchers have developed automated approaches that draw relationships between pairs of textual software artifacts using similarity measures. However, the effectiveness of such techniques are often limited as they only utilize a single measure of artifact similarity and cannot simultaneously model (implicit and explicit) relationships across groups of diverse development artifacts. In this paper, we illustrate how these limitations can be overcome through the use of a tailored probabilistic model. To this end, we design and implement a HierarchiCal PrObabilistic Model for SoftwarE Traceability (Comet) that is able to infer candidate trace links. Comet is capable of modeling relationships between artifacts by combining the complementary observational prowess of multiple measures of textual similarity. Additionally, our model can holistically incorporate information from a diverse set of sources, including developer feedback and transitive (often implicit) relationships among groups of software artifacts, to improve inference accuracy. We conduct a comprehensive empirical evaluation of Comet that illustrates an improvement over a set of optimally configured baselines of ≈14% in the best case and ≈5% across all subjects in terms of average precision. The comparative effectiveness of Comet in practice, where optimal configuration is typically not possible, is likely to be higher. Finally, we illustrate Comet's potential for practical applicability in a survey with developers from Cisco Systems who used a prototype Comet Jenkins plugin.
Gu, Yanyang, Zhang, Ping, Chen, Zhifeng, Cao, Fei.  2020.  UEFI Trusted Computing Vulnerability Analysis Based on State Transition Graph. 2020 IEEE 6th International Conference on Computer and Communications (ICCC). :1043–1052.
In the face of increasingly serious firmware attacks, it is of great significance to analyze the vulnerability security of UEFI. This paper first introduces the commonly used trusted authentication mechanisms of UEFI. Then, aiming at the loopholes in the process of UEFI trust verification in the startup phase, combined with the state transition diagram, PageRank algorithm and Bayesian network theory, the analysis model of UEFI trust verification startup vulnerability is constructed. And according to the example to verify the analysis. Through the verification and analysis of the data obtained, the vulnerable attack paths and key vulnerable nodes are found. Finally, according to the analysis results, security enhancement measures for UEFI are proposed.
Xing, Hang, Zhou, Chunjie, Ye, Xinhao, Zhu, Meipan.  2020.  An Edge-Cloud Synergy Integrated Security Decision-Making Method for Industrial Cyber-Physical Systems. 2020 IEEE 9th Data Driven Control and Learning Systems Conference (DDCLS). :989–995.
With the introduction of new technologies such as cloud computing and big data, the security issues of industrial cyber-physical systems (ICPSs) have become more complicated. Meanwhile, a lot of current security research lacks adaptation to industrial system upgrades. In this paper, an edge-cloud synergy framework for security decision-making is proposed, which takes advantage of the huge convenience and advantages brought by cloud computing and edge computing, and can make security decisions on a global perspective. Under this framework, a combination of Bayesian network-based risk assessment and stochastic game model-based security decision-making is proposed to generate an optimal defense strategy to minimize system losses. This method trains models in the clouds and infers at the edge computing nodes to achieve rapid defense strategy generation. Finally, a case study on the hardware-in-the-loop simulation platform proves the feasibility of the approach.
Matthews, I., Mace, J., Soudjani, S., Moorsel, A. van.  2020.  Cyclic Bayesian Attack Graphs: A Systematic Computational Approach. 2020 IEEE 19th International Conference on Trust, Security and Privacy in Computing and Communications (TrustCom). :129–136.
Attack graphs are commonly used to analyse the security of medium-sized to large networks. Based on a scan of the network and likelihood information of vulnerabilities, attack graphs can be transformed into Bayesian Attack Graphs (BAGs). These BAGs are used to evaluate how security controls affect a network and how changes in topology affect security. A challenge with these automatically generated BAGs is that cycles arise naturally, which make it impossible to use Bayesian network theory to calculate state probabilities. In this paper we provide a systematic approach to analyse and perform computations over cyclic Bayesian attack graphs. We present an interpretation of Bayesian attack graphs based on combinational logic circuits, which facilitates an intuitively attractive systematic treatment of cycles. We prove properties of the associated logic circuit and present an algorithm that computes state probabilities without altering the attack graphs (e.g., remove an arc to remove a cycle). Moreover, our algorithm deals seamlessly with any cycle without the need to identify their type. A set of experiments demonstrates the scalability of the algorithm on computer networks with hundreds of machines, each with multiple vulnerabilities.
Xie, J., She, H., Chen, X., Zhang, H., Niu, Y..  2020.  Test Method for Automatic Detection Capability of Civil Aviation Security Equipment Using Bayesian Estimation. 2020 IEEE 2nd International Conference on Civil Aviation Safety and Information Technology (ICCASIT. :831–835.
There are a lot of emerging security equipment required to be tested on detection rate (DR) and false alarm rate (FAR) for prohibited items. This article imports Bayesian approach to accept or reject DR and FAR. The detailed quantitative predictions can be made through the posterior distribution obtained by Markov chain Monte Carlo method. Based on this, HDI + ROPE decision rule is established. For the tests that need to make early decision, HDI + ROPE stopping rule is presented with biased estimate value, and criterial precision rule is presented with unbiased estimate value. Choosing the stopping rule according to the test purpose can achieve the balance of efficiency and accuracy.
Zhang, T., Zhao, P..  2010.  Insider Threat Identification System Model Based on Rough Set Dimensionality Reduction. 2010 Second World Congress on Software Engineering. 2:111—114.
Insider threat makes great damage to the security of information system, traditional security methods are extremely difficult to work. Insider attack identification plays an important role in insider threat detection. Monitoring user's abnormal behavior is an effective method to detect impersonation, this method is applied to insider threat identification, to built user's behavior attribute information database based on weights changeable feedback tree augmented Bayes network, but data is massive, using the dimensionality reduction based on rough set, to establish the process information model of user's behavior attribute. Using the minimum risk Bayes decision can effectively identify the real identity of the user when user's behavior departs from the characteristic model.
Dai, Q., Shi, L..  2020.  A Game-Theoretic Analysis of Cyber Attack-Mitigation in Centralized Feeder Automation System. 2020 IEEE Power Energy Society General Meeting (PESGM). :1–5.
The intelligent electronic devices widely deployed across the distribution network are inevitably making the feeder automation (FA) system more vulnerable to cyber-attacks, which would lead to disastrous socio-economic impacts. This paper proposes a three-stage game-theoretic framework that the defender allocates limited security resources to minimize the economic impacts on FA system while the attacker deploys limited attack resources to maximize the corresponding impacts. Meanwhile, the probability of successful attack is calculated based on the Bayesian attack graph, and a fault-tolerant location technique for centralized FA system is elaborately considered during analysis. The proposed game-theoretic framework is converted into a two-level zero-sum game model and solved by the particle swarm optimization (PSO) combined with a generalized reduced gradient algorithm. Finally, the proposed model is validated on distribution network for RBTS bus 2.
Liu, F., Eugenio, E., Jin, I. H., Bowen, C..  2020.  Differentially Private Generation of Social Networks via Exponential Random Graph Models. 2020 IEEE 44th Annual Computers, Software, and Applications Conference (COMPSAC). :1695—1700.
Many social networks contain sensitive relational information. One approach to protect the sensitive relational information while offering flexibility for social network research and analysis is to release synthetic social networks at a pre-specified privacy risk level, given the original observed network. We propose the DP-ERGM procedure that synthesizes networks that satisfy the differential privacy (DP) via the exponential random graph model (EGRM). We apply DP-ERGM to a college student friendship network and compare its original network information preservation in the generated private networks with two other approaches: differentially private DyadWise Randomized Response (DWRR) and Sanitization of the Conditional probability of Edge given Attribute classes (SCEA). The results suggest that DP-EGRM preserves the original information significantly better than DWRR and SCEA in both network statistics and inferences from ERGMs and latent space models. In addition, DP-ERGM satisfies the node DP, a stronger notion of privacy than the edge DP that DWRR and SCEA satisfy.
Gao, L., Sun, J., Li, J..  2020.  Security of Networked Control Systems with Incomplete Information Based on Game Theory. 2020 39th Chinese Control Conference (CCC). :6701—6706.

The security problem of networked control systems (NCSs) suffering denial of service(DoS) attacks with incomplete information is investigated in this paper. Data transmission among different components in NCSs may be blocked due to DoS attacks. We use the concept of security level to describe the degree of security of different components in an NCS. Intrusion detection system (IDS) is used to monitor the invalid data generated by DoS attacks. At each time slot, the defender considers which component to monitor while the attacker considers which place for invasion. A one-shot game between attacker and defender is built and both the complete information case and the incomplete information case are considered. Furthermore, a repeated game model with updating beliefs is also established based on the Bayes' rule. Finally, a numerical example is provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Rashid, A., Siddique, M. J., Ahmed, S. M..  2020.  Machine and Deep Learning Based Comparative Analysis Using Hybrid Approaches for Intrusion Detection System. 2020 3rd International Conference on Advancements in Computational Sciences (ICACS). :1—9.

Intrusion detection is one of the most prominent and challenging problem faced by cybersecurity organizations. Intrusion Detection System (IDS) plays a vital role in identifying network security threats. It protects the network for vulnerable source code, viruses, worms and unauthorized intruders for many intranet/internet applications. Despite many open source APIs and tools for intrusion detection, there are still many network security problems exist. These problems are handled through the proper pre-processing, normalization, feature selection and ranking on benchmark dataset attributes prior to the enforcement of self-learning-based classification algorithms. In this paper, we have performed a comprehensive comparative analysis of the benchmark datasets NSL-KDD and CIDDS-001. For getting optimal results, we have used the hybrid feature selection and ranking methods before applying self-learning (Machine / Deep Learning) classification algorithmic approaches such as SVM, Naïve Bayes, k-NN, Neural Networks, DNN and DAE. We have analyzed the performance of IDS through some prominent performance indicator metrics such as Accuracy, Precision, Recall and F1-Score. The experimental results show that k-NN, SVM, NN and DNN classifiers perform approx. 100% accuracy regarding performance evaluation metrics on the NSL-KDD dataset whereas k-NN and Naïve Bayes classifiers perform approx. 99% accuracy on the CIDDS-001 dataset.

Cheng, Z., Chow, M.-Y..  2020.  An Augmented Bayesian Reputation Metric for Trustworthiness Evaluation in Consensus-based Distributed Microgrid Energy Management Systems with Energy Storage. 2020 2nd IEEE International Conference on Industrial Electronics for Sustainable Energy Systems (IESES). 1:215–220.
Consensus-based distributed microgrid energy management system is one of the most used distributed control strategies in the microgrid area. To improve its cybersecurity, the system needs to evaluate the trustworthiness of the participating agents in addition to the conventional cryptography efforts. This paper proposes a novel augmented reputation metric to evaluate the agents' trustworthiness in a distributed fashion. The proposed metric adopts a novel augmentation method to substantially improve the trust evaluation and attack detection performance under three typical difficult-to-detect attack patterns. The proposed metric is implemented and validated on a real-time HIL microgrid testbed.
Habibi, G., Surantha, N..  2020.  XSS Attack Detection With Machine Learning and n-Gram Methods. 2020 International Conference on Information Management and Technology (ICIMTech). :516–520.

Cross-Site Scripting (XSS) is an attack most often carried out by attackers to attack a website by inserting malicious scripts into a website. This attack will take the user to a webpage that has been specifically designed to retrieve user sessions and cookies. Nearly 68% of websites are vulnerable to XSS attacks. In this study, the authors conducted a study by evaluating several machine learning methods, namely Support Vector Machine (SVM), K-Nearest Neighbour (KNN), and Naïve Bayes (NB). The machine learning algorithm is then equipped with the n-gram method to each script feature to improve the detection performance of XSS attacks. The simulation results show that the SVM and n-gram method achieves the highest accuracy with 98%.

Jie, Y., Zhou, L., Ming, N., Yusheng, X., Xinli, S., Yongqiang, Z..  2018.  Integrated Reliability Analysis of Control and Information Flow in Energy Internet. 2018 2nd IEEE Conference on Energy Internet and Energy System Integration (EI2). :1—9.
In this paper, according to the electricity business process including collecting and transmitting power information and sending control instructions, a coupling model of control-communication flow is built which is composed of three main matrices: control-communication, communication-communication, communication-control incidence matrices. Furthermore, the effective path change between two communication nodes is analyzed and a calculation method of connectivity probability for information network is proposed when considering a breakdown in communication links. Then, based on Bayesian conditional probability theory, the effect of the communication interruption on the energy Internet is analyzed and the metric matrix of controllability is given under communication congestion. Several cases are given in the final of paper to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method for calculating controllability matrix by considering different link interruption scenarios. This probability index can be regarded as a quantitative measure of the controllability of the power service based on the communication transmission instructions, which can be used in the power business decision-making in order to improve the control reliability of the energy Internet.
Abdulhammed, R., Faezipour, M., Musafer, H., Abuzneid, A..  2019.  Efficient Network Intrusion Detection Using PCA-Based Dimensionality Reduction of Features. 2019 International Symposium on Networks, Computers and Communications (ISNCC). :1—6.

Designing a machine learning based network intrusion detection system (IDS) with high-dimensional features can lead to prolonged classification processes. This is while low-dimensional features can reduce these processes. Moreover, classification of network traffic with imbalanced class distributions has posed a significant drawback on the performance attainable by most well-known classifiers. With the presence of imbalanced data, the known metrics may fail to provide adequate information about the performance of the classifier. This study first uses Principal Component Analysis (PCA) as a feature dimensionality reduction approach. The resulting low-dimensional features are then used to build various classifiers such as Random Forest (RF), Bayesian Network, Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) and Quadratic Discriminant Analysis (QDA) for designing an IDS. The experimental findings with low-dimensional features in binary and multi-class classification show better performance in terms of Detection Rate (DR), F-Measure, False Alarm Rate (FAR), and Accuracy. Furthermore, in this paper, we apply a Multi-Class Combined performance metric Combi ned Mc with respect to class distribution through incorporating FAR, DR, Accuracy, and class distribution parameters. In addition, we developed a uniform distribution based balancing approach to handle the imbalanced distribution of the minority class instances in the CICIDS2017 network intrusion dataset. We were able to reduce the CICIDS2017 dataset's feature dimensions from 81 to 10 using PCA, while maintaining a high accuracy of 99.6% in multi-class and binary classification.

Hu, Y., Sanjab, A., Saad, W..  2019.  Dynamic Psychological Game Theory for Secure Internet of Battlefield Things (IoBT) Systems. IEEE Internet of Things Journal. 6:3712—3726.

In this paper, a novel anti-jamming mechanism is proposed to analyze and enhance the security of adversarial Internet of Battlefield Things (IoBT) systems. In particular, the problem is formulated as a dynamic psychological game between a soldier and an attacker. In this game, the soldier seeks to accomplish a time-critical mission by traversing a battlefield within a certain amount of time, while maintaining its connectivity with an IoBT network. The attacker, on the other hand, seeks to find the optimal opportunity to compromise the IoBT network and maximize the delay of the soldier's IoBT transmission link. The soldier and the attacker's psychological behavior are captured using tools from psychological game theory, with which the soldier's and attacker's intentions to harm one another are considered in their utilities. To solve this game, a novel learning algorithm based on Bayesian updating is proposed to find an ∈ -like psychological self-confirming equilibrium of the game.

Okutan, Ahmet, Cheng, Fu-Yuan, Su, Shao-Hsuan, Yang, Shanchieh Jay.  2019.  Dynamic Generation of Empirical Cyberattack Models with Engineered Alert Features. MILCOM 2019 - 2019 IEEE Military Communications Conference (MILCOM). :1–6.
Due to the increased diversity and complexity of cyberattacks, innovative and effective analytics are needed in order to identify critical cyber incidents on a corporate network even if no ground truth data is available. This paper develops an automated system which processes a set of intrusion alerts to create behavior aggregates and then classifies these aggregates into empirical attack models through a dynamic Bayesian approach with innovative feature engineering methods. Each attack model represents a unique collective attack behavior that helps to identify critical activities on the network. Using 2017 National Collegiate Penetration Testing Competition data, it is demonstrated that the developed system is capable of generating and refining unique attack models that make sense to human, without a priori knowledge.
Rudd-Orthner, Richard N M, Mihaylova, Lyudmilla.  2019.  An Algebraic Expert System with Neural Network Concepts for Cyber, Big Data and Data Migration. 2019 IEEE International Symposium on Signal Processing and Information Technology (ISSPIT). :1–6.

This paper describes a machine assistance approach to grading decisions for values that might be missing or need validation, using a mathematical algebraic form of an Expert System, instead of the traditional textual or logic forms and builds a neural network computational graph structure. This Experts System approach is also structured into a neural network like format of: input, hidden and output layers that provide a structured approach to the knowledge-base organization, this provides a useful abstraction for reuse for data migration applications in big data, Cyber and relational databases. The approach is further enhanced with a Bayesian probability tree approach to grade the confidences of value probabilities, instead of the traditional grading of the rule probabilities, and estimates the most probable value in light of all evidence presented. This is ground work for a Machine Learning (ML) experts system approach in a form that is closer to a Neural Network node structure.

Abusitta, Adel, Bellaiche, Martine, Dagenais, Michel.  2018.  A trust-based game theoretical model for cooperative intrusion detection in multi-cloud environments. 2018 21st Conference on Innovation in Clouds, Internet and Networks and Workshops (ICIN). :1—8.

Cloud systems are becoming more complex and vulnerable to attacks. Cyber attacks are also becoming more sophisticated and harder to detect. Therefore, it is increasingly difficult for a single cloud-based intrusion detection system (IDS) to detect all attacks, because of limited and incomplete knowledge about attacks. The recent researches in cyber-security have shown that a co-operation among IDSs can bring higher detection accuracy in such complex computer systems. Through collaboration, a cloud-based IDS can consult other IDSs about suspicious intrusions and increase the decision accuracy. The problem of existing cooperative IDS approaches is that they overlook having untrusted (malicious or not) IDSs that may negatively effect the decision about suspicious intrusions in the cloud. Moreover, they rely on a centralized architecture in which a central agent regulates the cooperation, which contradicts the distributed nature of the cloud. In this paper, we propose a framework that enables IDSs to distributively form trustworthy IDSs communities. We devise a novel decentralized algorithm, based on coalitional game theory, that allows a set of cloud-based IDSs to cooperatively set up their coalition in such a way to make their individual detection accuracy increase, even in the presence of untrusted IDSs.

Akbay, Abdullah Basar, Wang, Weina, Zhang, Junshan.  2019.  Data Collection from Privacy-Aware Users in the Presence of Social Learning. 2019 57th Annual Allerton Conference on Communication, Control, and Computing (Allerton). :679–686.
We study a model where a data collector obtains data from users through a payment mechanism to learn the underlying state from the elicited data. The private signal of each user represents her individual knowledge about the state. Through social interactions, each user can also learn noisy versions of her friends' signals, which is called group signals. Based on both her private signal and group signals, each user makes strategic decisions to report a privacy-preserved version of her data to the data collector. We develop a Bayesian game theoretic framework to study the impact of social learning on users' data reporting strategies and devise the payment mechanism for the data collector accordingly. Our findings reveal that, the Bayesian-Nash equilibrium can be in the form of either a symmetric randomized response (SR) strategy or an informative non-disclosive (ND) strategy. A generalized majority voting rule is applied by each user to her noisy group signals to determine which strategy to follow. When a user plays the ND strategy, she reports privacy-preserving data completely based on her group signals, independent of her private signal, which indicates that her privacy cost is zero. Both the data collector and the users can benefit from social learning which drives down the privacy costs and helps to improve the state estimation at a given payment budget. We derive bounds on the minimum total payment required to achieve a given level of state estimation accuracy.
Chandrala, M S, Hadli, Pooja, Aishwarya, R, Jejo, Kevin C, Sunil, Y, Sure, Pallaviram.  2019.  A GUI for Wideband Spectrum Sensing using Compressive Sampling Approaches. 2019 10th International Conference on Computing, Communication and Networking Technologies (ICCCNT). :1–6.
Cognitive Radio is a prominent solution for effective spectral resource utilization. The rapidly growing device to device (D2D) communications and the next generation networks urge the cognitive radio networks to facilitate wideband spectrum sensing in order to assure newer spectral opportunities. As Nyquist sampling rates are formidable owing to complexity and cost of the ADCs, compressive sampling approaches are becoming increasingly popular. One such approach exploited in this paper is the Modulated Wideband Converter (MWC) to recover the spectral support. On the multiple measurement vector (MMV) framework provided by the MWC, threshold based Orthogonal Matching Pursuit (OMP) and Sparse Bayesian Learning (SBL) algorithms are employed for support recovery. We develop a Graphical User Interface (GUI) that assists a beginner to simulate the RF front-end of a MWC and thereby enables the user to explore support recovery as a function of Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR), number of measurement vectors and threshold. The GUI enables the user to explore spectrum sensing in DVB-T, 3G and 4G bands and recovers the support using OMP or SBL approach. The results show that the performance of SBL is better than that of OMP at a lower SNR values.
Feng, Qi, Huang, Jianjun, Yang, Zhaocheng.  2019.  Jointly Optimized Target Detection and Tracking Using Compressive Samples. IEEE Access. 7:73675–73684.
In this paper, we consider the problem of joint target detection and tracking in compressive sampling and processing (CSP-JDT). CSP can process the compressive samples of sparse signals directly without signal reconstruction, which is suitable for handling high-resolution radar signals. However, in CSP, the radar target detection and tracking problems are usually solved separately or by a two-stage strategy, which cannot obtain a globally optimal solution. To jointly optimize the target detection and tracking performance and inspired by the optimal Bayes joint decision and estimation (JDE) framework, a jointly optimized target detection and tracking algorithm in CSP is proposed. Since detection and tracking are highly correlated, we first develop a measurement matrix construction method to acquire the compressive samples, and then a joint CSP Bayesian approach is developed for target detection and tracking. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms the two-stage algorithms in terms of the joint performance metric.
Zhao, Pu, Liu, Sijia, Chen, Pin-Yu, Hoang, Nghia, Xu, Kaidi, Kailkhura, Bhavya, Lin, Xue.  2019.  On the Design of Black-Box Adversarial Examples by Leveraging Gradient-Free Optimization and Operator Splitting Method. 2019 IEEE/CVF International Conference on Computer Vision (ICCV). :121—130.
Robust machine learning is currently one of the most prominent topics which could potentially help shaping a future of advanced AI platforms that not only perform well in average cases but also in worst cases or adverse situations. Despite the long-term vision, however, existing studies on black-box adversarial attacks are still restricted to very specific settings of threat models (e.g., single distortion metric and restrictive assumption on target model's feedback to queries) and/or suffer from prohibitively high query complexity. To push for further advances in this field, we introduce a general framework based on an operator splitting method, the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) to devise efficient, robust black-box attacks that work with various distortion metrics and feedback settings without incurring high query complexity. Due to the black-box nature of the threat model, the proposed ADMM solution framework is integrated with zeroth-order (ZO) optimization and Bayesian optimization (BO), and thus is applicable to the gradient-free regime. This results in two new black-box adversarial attack generation methods, ZO-ADMM and BO-ADMM. Our empirical evaluations on image classification datasets show that our proposed approaches have much lower function query complexities compared to state-of-the-art attack methods, but achieve very competitive attack success rates.
Traylor, Terry, Straub, Jeremy, Gurmeet, Snell, Nicholas.  2019.  Classifying Fake News Articles Using Natural Language Processing to Identify In-Article Attribution as a Supervised Learning Estimator. 2019 IEEE 13th International Conference on Semantic Computing (ICSC). :445—449.

Intentionally deceptive content presented under the guise of legitimate journalism is a worldwide information accuracy and integrity problem that affects opinion forming, decision making, and voting patterns. Most so-called `fake news' is initially distributed over social media conduits like Facebook and Twitter and later finds its way onto mainstream media platforms such as traditional television and radio news. The fake news stories that are initially seeded over social media platforms share key linguistic characteristics such as making excessive use of unsubstantiated hyperbole and non-attributed quoted content. In this paper, the results of a fake news identification study that documents the performance of a fake news classifier are presented. The Textblob, Natural Language, and SciPy Toolkits were used to develop a novel fake news detector that uses quoted attribution in a Bayesian machine learning system as a key feature to estimate the likelihood that a news article is fake. The resultant process precision is 63.333% effective at assessing the likelihood that an article with quotes is fake. This process is called influence mining and this novel technique is presented as a method that can be used to enable fake news and even propaganda detection. In this paper, the research process, technical analysis, technical linguistics work, and classifier performance and results are presented. The paper concludes with a discussion of how the current system will evolve into an influence mining system.

Thirumaran, M., Moshika, A., Padmanaban, R..  2019.  Hybrid Model for Web Application Vulnerability Assessment Using Decision Tree and Bayesian Belief Network. 2019 IEEE International Conference on System, Computation, Automation and Networking (ICSCAN). :1–7.
In the existing situation, most of the business process are running through web applications. This helps the enterprises to grow their business efficiently which creates a good consumer relationship. But the main problem is that they failed to provide a vulnerable free environment. To overcome this issue in web applications, vulnerability assessment should be made periodically. They are many vulnerability assessment methodologies which occur earlier are not much proactive. So, machine learning is needed to provide a combined solution to determine vulnerability occurrence and percentage of vulnerability occurred in logical web pages. We use Decision Tree and Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) as a collective solution to find either vulnerability occur in web applications and the vulnerability occurred percentage on different logical web pages.
Sophakan, Natnaree, Sathitwiriyawong, Chanboon.  2019.  A Secured OpenFlow-Based Software Defined Networking Using Dynamic Bayesian Network. 2019 19th International Conference on Control, Automation and Systems (ICCAS). :1517–1522.
OpenFlow has been the main standard protocol of software defined networking (SDN) since the launch of this new networking paradigm. It is a programmable network protocol that controls traffic flows among switches and routers regardless of their platforms. Its security relies on the optional implementation of Transport Layer Security (TLS) which has been proven vulnerable. The aim of this research was to develop a secured OpenFlow, so-called Secured-OF. A stateful firewall was used to store state information for further analysis. Dynamic Bayesian Network (DBN) was used to learn denial-of-service attack and distributed denial-of-service attack. It analyzes packet states to determine the nature of an attack and adds that piece of information to the flow table entry. The proposed Secured-OF model in Ryu controller was evaluated with several performance metrics. The analytical evaluation of the proposed Secured-OF scheme was performed on an emulated network. The results showed that the proposed Secured-OF scheme offers a high attack detection accuracy at 99.5%. In conclusion, it was able to improve the security of the OpenFlow controller dramatically with trivial performance degradation compared to an SDN with no security implementation.