Visible to the public Biblio

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2021-01-28
Romashchenko, V., Brutscheck, M., Chmielewski, I..  2020.  Organisation and Implementation of ResNet Face Recognition Architectures in the Environment of Zigbee-based Data Transmission Protocol. 2020 Fourth International Conference on Multimedia Computing, Networking and Applications (MCNA). :25—30.

This paper describes a realisation of a ResNet face recognition method through Zigbee-based wireless protocol. The system uses a CC2530 Zigbee-based radio frequency chip with connected VC0706 camera on it. The Arduino Nano had been used for organisation of data compression and effective division of Zigbee packets. The proposed solution also simplifies a data transmission within a strict bandwidth of Zigbee protocol and reliable packet forwarding in case of frequency distortion. The following investigation model uses Raspberry Pi 3 with connected Zigbee End Device (ZED) for successful receiving of important images and acceleration of deep learning interfaces. The model is integrated into a smart security system based on Zigbee modules, MySQL database, Android application and works in the background by using daemons procedures. To protect data, all wireless connections had been encrypted by the 128-bit Advanced Encryption Standard (AES-128) algorithm. Experimental results show a possibility to implement complex systems under restricted requirements of available transmission protocols.

2021-01-25
Mazlisham, M. H., Adnan, S. F. Syed, Isa, M. A. Mat, Mahad, Z., Asbullah, M. A..  2020.  Analysis of Rabin-P and RSA-OAEP Encryption Scheme on Microprocessor Platform. 2020 IEEE 10th Symposium on Computer Applications Industrial Electronics (ISCAIE). :292–296.

This paper presents an analysis of Rabin-P encryption scheme on microprocessor platform in term of runtime and energy consumption. A microprocessor is one of the devices utilized in the Internet of Things (IoT) structure. Therefore, in this work, the microprocessor selected is the Raspberry Pi that is powered with a smaller version of the Linux operating system for embedded devices, the Raspbian OS. A comparative analysis is then conducted for Rabin-p and RSA-OAEP cryptosystem in the Raspberry Pi setup. A conclusion can be made that Rabin-p performs faster in comparison to the RSA-OAEP cryptosystem in the microprocessor platform. Rabin-p can improve decryption efficiency by using only one modular exponentiation while produces a unique message after the decryption process.

Rizki, R. P., Hamidi, E. A. Z., Kamelia, L., Sururie, R. W..  2020.  Image Processing Technique for Smart Home Security Based On the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) Methods. 2020 6th International Conference on Wireless and Telematics (ICWT). :1–4.
Smart home is one application of the pervasive computing branch of science. Three categories of smart homes, namely comfort, healthcare, and security. The security system is a part of smart home technology that is very important because the intensity of crime is increasing, especially in residential areas. The system will detect the face by the webcam camera if the user enters the correct password. Face recognition will be processed by the Raspberry pi 3 microcontroller with the Principal Component Analysis method using OpenCV and Python software which has outputs, namely actuators in the form of a solenoid lock door and buzzer. The test results show that the webcam can perform face detection when the password input is successful, then the buzzer actuator can turn on when the database does not match the data taken by the webcam or the test data and the solenoid door lock actuator can run if the database matches the test data taken by the sensor. webcam. The mean response time of face detection is 1.35 seconds.
2021-01-11
Khudhair, A. B., Ghani, R. F..  2020.  IoT Based Smart Video Surveillance System Using Convolutional Neural Network. 2020 6th International Engineering Conference “Sustainable Technology and Development" (IEC). :163—168.

Video surveillance plays an important role in our times. It is a great help in reducing the crime rate, and it can also help to monitor the status of facilities. The performance of the video surveillance system is limited by human factors such as fatigue, time efficiency, and human resources. It would be beneficial for all if fully automatic video surveillance systems are employed to do the job. The automation of the video surveillance system is still not satisfying regarding many problems such as the accuracy of the detector, bandwidth consumption, storage usage, etc. This scientific paper mainly focuses on a video surveillance system using Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN), IoT and cloud. The system contains multi nods, each node consists of a microprocessor(Raspberry Pi) and a camera, the nodes communicate with each other using client and server architecture. The nodes can detect humans using a pretraining MobileNetv2-SSDLite model and Common Objects in Context(COCO) dataset, the captured video will stream to the main node(only one node will communicate with cloud) in order to stream the video to the cloud. Also, the main node will send an SMS notification to the security team to inform the detection of humans. The security team can check the videos captured using a mobile application or web application. Operating the Object detection model of Deep learning will be required a large amount of the computational power, for instance, the Raspberry Pi with a limited in performance for that reason we used the MobileNetv2-SSDLite model.

2020-12-17
Kumar, R., Sarupria, G., Panwala, V., Shah, S., Shah, N..  2020.  Power Efficient Smart Home with Voice Assistant. 2020 11th International Conference on Computing, Communication and Networking Technologies (ICCCNT). :1—5.

The popularity and demand of home automation has increased exponentially in recent years because of the ease it provides. Recently, development has been done in this domain and few systems have been proposed that either use voice assistants or application for controlling the electrical appliances. However; less emphasis is laid on power efficiency and this system cannot be integrated with the existing appliances and hence, the entire system needs to be upgraded adding to a lot of additional cost in purchasing new appliances. In this research, the objective is to design such a system that emphasises on power efficiency as well as can be integrated with the already existing appliances. NodeMCU, along with Raspberry Pi, Firebase realtime database, is used to create a system that accomplishes such endeavours and can control relays, which can control these appliances without the need of replacing them. The experiments in this paper demonstrate triggering of electrical appliances using voice assistant, fire alarm on the basis of flame sensor and temperature sensor. Moreover; use of android application was presented for operating electrical appliances from a remote location. Lastly, the system can be modified by adding security cameras, smart blinds, robot vacuums etc.

2020-09-04
Chatterjee, Urbi, Santikellur, Pranesh, Sadhukhan, Rajat, Govindan, Vidya, Mukhopadhyay, Debdeep, Chakraborty, Rajat Subhra.  2019.  United We Stand: A Threshold Signature Scheme for Identifying Outliers in PLCs. 2019 56th ACM/IEEE Design Automation Conference (DAC). :1—2.

This work proposes a scheme to detect, isolate and mitigate malicious disruption of electro-mechanical processes in legacy PLCs where each PLC works as a finite state machine (FSM) and goes through predefined states depending on the control flow of the programs and input-output mechanism. The scheme generates a group-signature for a particular state combining the signature shares from each of these PLCs using \$(k,\textbackslashtextbackslash l)\$-threshold signature scheme.If some of them are affected by the malicious code, signature can be verified by k out of l uncorrupted PLCs and can be used to detect the corrupted PLCs and the compromised state. We use OpenPLC software to simulate Legacy PLC system on Raspberry Pi and show İ/O\$ pin configuration attack on digital and pulse width modulation (PWM) pins. We describe the protocol using a small prototype of five instances of legacy PLCs simultaneously running on OpenPLC software. We show that when our proposed protocol is deployed, the aforementioned attacks get successfully detected and the controller takes corrective measures. This work has been developed as a part of the problem statement given in the Cyber Security Awareness Week-2017 competition.

2020-08-17
Hu, Jianxing, Huo, Dongdong, Wang, Meilin, Wang, Yazhe, Zhang, Yan, Li, Yu.  2019.  A Probability Prediction Based Mutable Control-Flow Attestation Scheme on Embedded Platforms. 2019 18th IEEE International Conference On Trust, Security And Privacy In Computing And Communications/13th IEEE International Conference On Big Data Science And Engineering (TrustCom/BigDataSE). :530–537.
Control-flow attacks cause powerful threats to the software integrity. Remote attestation for control flow is a crucial security service for ensuring the software integrity on embedded platforms. The fine-grained remote control-flow attestation with execution-profiling Control-Flow Graph (CFG) is applied to defend against control-flow attacks. It is a safe scheme but it may influence the runtime efficiency. In fact, we find out only the vulnerable parts of a program need being attested at costly fine-grained level to ensure the security, and the remaining normal parts just need a lightweight coarse-grained check to reduce the overhead. We propose Mutable Granularity Control-Flow Attestation (MGC-FA) scheme, which bases on a probabilistic model, to distinguish between the vulnerable and normal parts in the program and combine fine-grained and coarse-grained control-flow attestation schemes. MGC-FA employs the execution-profiling CFG to apply the remote control-flow attestation scheme on embedded devices. MGC-FA is implemented on Raspberry Pi with ARM TrustZone and the experimental results show its effect on balancing the relationship between runtime efficiency and control-flow security.
2020-06-26
Karthika, P., Babu, R. Ganesh, Nedumaran, A..  2019.  Machine Learning Security Allocation in IoT. 2019 International Conference on Intelligent Computing and Control Systems (ICCS). :474—478.

The progressed computational abilities of numerous asset compelled gadgets mobile phones have empowered different research zones including picture recovery from enormous information stores for various IoT applications. The real difficulties for picture recovery utilizing cell phones in an IoT situation are the computational intricacy and capacity. To manage enormous information in IoT condition for picture recovery a light-weighted profound learning base framework for vitality obliged gadgets. The framework initially recognizes and crop face areas from a picture utilizing Viola-Jones calculation with extra face classifier to take out the identification issue. Besides, the utilizes convolutional framework layers of a financially savvy pre-prepared CNN demonstrate with characterized highlights to speak to faces. Next, highlights of the huge information vault are listed to accomplish a quicker coordinating procedure for constant recovery. At long last, Euclidean separation is utilized to discover comparability among question and archive pictures. For exploratory assessment, we made a nearby facial pictures dataset it including equally single and gathering face pictures. In the dataset can be utilized by different specialists as a scale for examination with other ongoing facial picture recovery frameworks. The trial results demonstrate that our planned framework beats other cutting edge highlight extraction strategies as far as proficiency and recovery for IoT-helped vitality obliged stages.

2020-06-15
ALshukri, Dawoud, R, Vidhya Lavanya, P, Sumesh E, Krishnan, Pooja.  2019.  Intelligent Border Security Intrusion Detection using IoT and Embedded systems. 2019 4th MEC International Conference on Big Data and Smart City (ICBDSC). :1–3.
Border areas are generally considered as places where great deal of violence, intrusion and cohesion between several parties happens. This often led to danger for the life of employees, soldiers and common man working or living in border areas. Further geographical conditions like mountains, snow, forest, deserts, harsh weather and water bodies often lead to difficult access and monitoring of border areas. Proposed system uses thermal imaging camera (FLIR) for detection of various objects and infiltrators. FLIR is assigned an IP address and connected through local network to the control center. Software code captures video and subsequently the intrusion detection. A motor controlled spotlight with infrared and laser gun is used to illuminate under various conditions at the site. System also integrates sound sensor to detect specific sounds and motion sensors to sense suspicious movements. Based on the decision, a buzzer and electric current through fence for further protection can be initiated. Sensors are be integrated through IoT for an efficient control of large border area and connectivity between sites.
2020-06-01
Xenya, Michael Christopher, Kwayie, Crentsil, Quist-Aphesti, Kester.  2019.  Intruder Detection with Alert Using Cloud Based Convolutional Neural Network and Raspberry Pi. 2019 International Conference on Computing, Computational Modelling and Applications (ICCMA). :46–464.
In this paper, an intruder detection system has been built with an implementation of convolutional neural network (CNN) using raspberry pi, Microsoft's Azure and Twilio cloud systems. The CNN algorithm which is stored in the cloud is implemented to basically classify input data as either intruder or user. By using the raspberry pi as the middleware and raspberry pi camera for image acquisition, efficient execution of the learning and classification operations are performed using higher resources that cloud computing offers. The cloud system is also programmed to alert designated users via multimedia messaging services (MMS) when intruders or users are detected. Furthermore, our work has demonstrated that, though convolutional neural network could impose high computing demands on a processor, the input data could be obtained with low-cost modules and middleware which are of low processing power while subjecting the actual learning algorithm execution to the cloud system.
2019-12-30
Alias, Yasin Fitri, Hashim, Habibah.  2018.  Timing Analysis for Diffie Hellman Key Exchange In U-BOOT Using Raspberry Pi. 2018 IEEE Symposium on Computer Applications Industrial Electronics (ISCAIE). :212-216.

In Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange (DHKE), two parties need to communicate to each other by sharing their secret key (cipher text) over an unsecure communication channel. An adversary or cryptanalyst can easily get their secret keys but cannot get the information (plaintext). Brute force is one the common tools used to obtain the secret key, but when the key is too large (etc. 1024 bits and 2048 bits) this tool is no longer suitable. Thus timing attacks have become more attractive in the new cryptographic era where networked embedded systems security present several vulnerabilities such as lower processing power and high deployment scale. Experiments on timing attacks are useful in helping cryptographers make security schemes more resistant. In this work, we timed the computations of the Discrete Log Hard Problem of the Diffie Hellman Key Exchange (DHKE) protocol implemented on an embedded system network and analyzed the timing patterns of 1024-bit and 2048-bit keys that was obtained during the attacks. We have chosen to implement the protocol on the Raspberry-pi board over U-BOOT Bare Metal and we used the GMP bignum library to compute numbers greater than 64 bits on the embedded system.

2019-04-01
Imran, Laiqa Binte, Farhan, Muhammad, Latif, Rana M. Amir, Rafiq, Ahsan.  2018.  Design of an IoT Based Warfare Car Robot Using Sensor Network Connectivity. Proceedings of the 2Nd International Conference on Future Networks and Distributed Systems. :55:1–55:8.
Robots remain the focus of researchers and developers, and now they are moving towards IoT based devices and mobile robots to take advantage of the different sensor enables facilities. A robot is a machine capable of carrying out a complex series of actions automatically, especially one programmable by a computer. A robot can be controlled by a human and can be modified by its functionality at runtime by the operator. From past few decades, researchers are contributing towards Robotics. There is no end of technology, creativity, and innovation. The project is designed to develop a robot using android application for remote operation attached to the wireless camera for monitoring purpose. Surveillance using the camera can help the soldier team to make strategies at run-time. This kind of robot can be helpful for spying purpose in war fields. The android application loaded on mobile devices can connect to the security system and easy to use GUI and visualization of the Warfield. The security system then acts on these commands and responds to the user. The camera and the motion detector are attached to the system for remote surveillance using wireless protocol 802.11, ZigBee and Bluetooth protocols. This robot is having the functionality of mines detection, object detection, GPS used for location and navigation and a gun to fire the enemy at the runtime.
2019-02-13
Fawaz, A. M., Noureddine, M. A., Sanders, W. H..  2018.  POWERALERT: Integrity Checking Using Power Measurement and a Game-Theoretic Strategy. 2018 48th Annual IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks (DSN). :514–525.
We propose POWERALERT, an efficient external integrity checker for untrusted hosts. Current attestation systems suffer from shortcomings, including requiring a complete checksum of the code segment, from being static, use of timing information sourced from the untrusted machine, or using imprecise timing information such as network round-trip time. We address those shortcomings by (1) using power measurements from the host to ensure that the checking code is executed and (2) checking a subset of the kernel space over an extended period. We compare the power measurement against a learned power model of the execution of the machine and validate that the execution was not tampered. Finally, POWERALERT randomizes the integrity checking program to prevent the attacker from adapting. We model the interaction between POWERALERT and an attacker as a time-continuous game. The Nash equilibrium strategy of the game shows that POWERALERT has two optimal strategy choices: (1) aggressive checking that forces the attacker into hiding, or (2) slow checking that minimizes cost. We implement a prototype of POWERALERT using Raspberry Pi and evaluate the performance of the integrity checking program generation.
2018-08-23
Wong, K., Hunter, A..  2017.  Bluetooth for decoy systems: A practical study. 2017 IEEE Conference on Communications and Network Security (CNS). :86–387.

We present an approach to tracking the behaviour of an attacker on a decoy system, where the decoy communicates with the real system only through low energy bluetooth. The result is a low-cost solution that does not interrupt the live system, while limiting potential damage. The attacker has no way to detect that they are being monitored, while their actions are being logged for further investigation. The system has been physically implemented using Raspberry PI and Arduino boards to replicate practical performance.

2018-07-18
Smith, E., Fuller, L..  2017.  Control systems and the internet of things \#x2014; Shrinking the factory. 2017 56th FITCE Congress. :68–73.

In this paper we discuss the Internet of Things (IoT) by exploring aspects which go beyond the proliferation of devices and information enabled by: the growth of the Internet, increased miniaturization, prolonged battery life and an IT literate user base. We highlight the role of feedback mechanisms and illustrate this with reference to implemented computer enabled factory control systems. As the technology has developed, the cost of computing has reduced drastically, programming interfaces have improved, sensors are simpler and more cost effective and high performance communications across a wide area are readily available. We illustrate this by considering an application based on the Raspberry Pi, which is a low cost, small, programmable and network capable computer based on a powerful ARM processor with a programmable I/O interface, which can provide access to sensors (and other devices). The prototype application running on this platform can sense the presence of human being, using inexpensive passive infrared detectors. This can be used to monitor the activity of vulnerable adults, logging the results to a central server using a domestic Internet solution over a Wireless LAN. Whilst this demonstrates the potential for the use of such control/monitoring systems, practical systems spanning thousands of sites will be more complex to deliver and will have more stringent data processing and management demands and security requirements. We will discuss these concepts in the context of delivery of a smart interconnected society.

2018-05-09
Jonsdottir, G., Wood, D., Doshi, R..  2017.  IoT network monitor. 2017 IEEE MIT Undergraduate Research Technology Conference (URTC). :1–5.
IoT Network Monitor is an intuitive and user-friendly interface for consumers to visualize vulnerabilities of IoT devices in their home. Running on a Raspberry Pi configured as a router, the IoT Network Monitor analyzes the traffic of connected devices in three ways. First, it detects devices with default passwords exploited by previous attacks such as the Mirai Botnet, changes default device passwords to randomly generated 12 character strings, and reports the new passwords to the user. Second, it conducts deep packet analysis on the network data from each device and notifies the user of potentially sensitive personal information that is being transmitted in cleartext. Lastly, it detects botnet traffic originating from an IoT device connected to the network and instructs the user to disconnect the device if it has been hacked. The user-friendly IoT Network Monitor will enable homeowners to maintain the security of their home network and better understand what actions are appropriate when a certain security vulnerability is detected. Wide adoption of this tool will make consumer home IoT networks more secure.
2018-05-02
Frieslaar, Ibraheem, Irwin, Barry.  2017.  Investigating the Utilization of the Secure Hash Algorithm to Generate Electromagnetic Noise. Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Signal Processing Systems. :164–169.
This research introduces an electromagnetic (EM) noise generator known as the FRIES noise generator to mitigate and obfuscate Side Channel Analysis (SCA) attacks against a Raspberry Pi. The FRIES noise generator utilizes the implementation of the Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA) from OpenSSL to generate white noise within the EM spectrum. This research further contributes to the body of knowledge by demonstrating that the SHA implementation of libcrypto++ and OpenSSL had different EM signatures. It was further revealed that as a more secure implementation of the SHA was executed additional data lines were used, resulting in increased EM emissions. It was demonstrated that the OpenSSL implementations of the SHA was more optimized as opposed to the libcrypto++ implementation by utilizing less resources and not leaving the device in a bottleneck. The FRIES daemon added noise to the EM leakage which prevents the visual location of the AES-128 cryptographic implementation. Finally, the cross-correlation test demonstrated that the EM features of the AES-128 algorithm was not detected within the FRIES noise.
2018-02-02
Chowdhury, M., Gawande, A., Wang, L..  2017.  Secure Information Sharing among Autonomous Vehicles in NDN. 2017 IEEE/ACM Second International Conference on Internet-of-Things Design and Implementation (IoTDI). :15–26.

Autonomous vehicles must communicate with each other effectively and securely to make robust decisions. However, today's Internet falls short in supporting efficient data delivery and strong data security, especially in a mobile ad-hoc environment. Named Data Networking (NDN), a new data-centric Internet architecture, provides a better foundation for secure data sharing among autonomous vehicles. We examine two potential threats, false data dissemination and vehicle tracking, in an NDN-based autonomous vehicular network. To detect false data, we propose a four-level hierarchical trust model and the associated naming scheme for vehicular data authentication. Moreover, we address vehicle tracking concerns using a pseudonym scheme to anonymize vehicle names and certificate issuing proxies to further protect vehicle identity. Finally, we implemented and evaluated our AutoNDN application on Raspberry Pi-based mini cars in a wireless environment.

Tayeb, S., Pirouz, M., Latifi, S..  2017.  A Raspberry-Pi Prototype of Smart Transportation. 2017 25th International Conference on Systems Engineering (ICSEng). :176–182.

This paper proposes a prototype of a level 3 autonomous vehicle using Raspberry Pi, capable of detecting the nearby vehicles using an IR sensor. We make the first attempt to analyze autonomous vehicles from a microscopic level, focusing on each vehicle and their communications with the nearby vehicles and road-side units. Two sets of passive and active experiments on a pair of prototypes were run, demonstrating the interconnectivity of the developed prototype. Several sensors were incorporated into an emulation based on System-on-Chip to further demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed model.

2018-01-16
Richardson, D. P., Lin, A. C., Pecarina, J. M..  2017.  Hosting distributed databases on internet of things-scale devices. 2017 IEEE Conference on Dependable and Secure Computing. :352–357.

The Internet of Things (IoT) era envisions billions of interconnected devices capable of providing new interactions between the physical and digital worlds, offering new range of content and services. At the fundamental level, IoT nodes are physical devices that exist in the real world, consisting of networking, sensor, and processing components. Some application examples include mobile and pervasive computing or sensor nets, and require distributed device deployment that feed information into databases for exploitation. While the data can be centralized, there are advantages, such as system resiliency and security to adopting a decentralized architecture that pushes the computation and storage to the network edge and onto IoT devices. However, these devices tend to be much more limited in computation power than traditional racked servers. This research explores using the Cassandra distributed database on IoT-representative device specifications. Experiments conducted on both virtual machines and Raspberry Pi's to simulate IoT devices, examined latency issues with network compression, processing workloads, and various memory and node configurations in laboratory settings. We demonstrate that distributed databases are feasible on Raspberry Pi's as IoT representative devices and show findings that may help in application design.

2018-01-10
Frieslaar, Ibraheem, Irwin, Barry.  2017.  Investigating the Effects Various Compilers Have on the Electromagnetic Signature of a Cryptographic Executable. Proceedings of the South African Institute of Computer Scientists and Information Technologists. :15:1–15:10.

This research investigates changes in the electromagnetic (EM) signatures of a cryptographic binary executable based on compile-time parameters to the GNU and clang compilers. The source code was compiled and executed on a Raspberry Pi 2, which utilizes the ARMv7 CPU. Various optimization flags are enabled at compile-time and the output of the binary executable's EM signatures are captured at run-time. It is demonstrated that GNU and clang compilers produced different EM signature on program execution. The results indicated while utilizing the O3 optimization flag, the EM signature of the program changes. Additionally, the g++ compiler demonstrated fewer instructions were required to run the executable; this related to fewer EM emissions leaked. The EM data from the various compilers under different optimization levels was used as input data for a correlation power analysis attack. The results indicated that partial AES-128 encryption keys was possible. In addition, the fewest subkeys recovered was when the clang compiler was used with level O2 optimization. Finally, the research was able to recover 15 of 16 AES-128 cryptographic algorithm's subkeys, from the the Pi.