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Ding, Xinyao, Wang, Yan.  2020.  False Data Injection Attack Detection Before Decoding in DF Cooperative Relay Network. 2020 Asia Conference on Computers and Communications (ACCC). :57—61.
False data injection (FDI) attacks could happen in decode-and-forward (DF) wireless cooperative relay networks. Although physical integrity check (PIC) can combat that by applying physical layer detection, the detector depends on the decoding results and low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) further deteriorates the detecting results. In this paper, a physical layer detect-before-decode (DbD) method is proposed, which has low computational complexity with no sacrifice of false alarm and miss detection rates. One significant advantage of this method is the detector does not depend on the decoding results. In order to implement the proposed DbD method, a unified error sufficient statistic (UESS) containing the full information of FDI attacks is constructed. The proposed UESS simplifies the detector because it is applicable to all link conditions, which means there is no need to deal each link condition with a specialized sufficient statistic. Moreover, the source to destination outage probability (S2Dop) of the DF cooperative relay network utilizing the proposed DbD method is studied. Finally, numerical simulations verify the good performance of this DbD method.
Wang, Xiaoyu, Gao, Yuanyuan, Zhang, Guangna, Guo, Mingxi.  2020.  Prediction of Optimal Power Allocation for Enhancing Security-Reliability Tradeoff with the Application of Artificial Neural Networks. 2020 2nd International Conference on Advances in Computer Technology, Information Science and Communications (CTISC). :40–45.
In this paper, we propose a power allocation scheme in order to improve both secure and reliable performance in the wireless two-hop threshold-selection decode-and-forward (DF) relaying networks, which is so crucial to set a threshold value related the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the source signal at relay nodes for perfect decoding. We adapt the maximal-ratio combining (MRC) receiving SNR from the direct and relaying paths both at the destination and at the eavesdropper. Particularly worth mentioning is that the closed expression form of outage probability and intercept probability is driven, which can quantify the security and reliability, respectively. We also make endeavors to utilize a metric to tradeoff the security and the reliability (SRT) and find out the relevance between them in the balanced case. But beyond that, in the pursuit of tradeoff performance, power allocation tends to depend on the threshold value. In other words, it provides a new method optimizing total power to the source and the relay by the threshold value. The results are obtained from analysis, confirmed by simulation, and predicted by artificial neural networks (ANNs), which is trained with back propagation (BP) algorithm, and thus the feasibility of the proposed method is verified.
Tang, Sirui, Liu, Zhaoxi, Wang, Lingfeng.  2020.  Power System Reliability Analysis Considering External and Insider Attacks on the SCADA System. 2020 IEEE/PES Transmission and Distribution Conference and Exposition (T D). :1—5.

Cybersecurity of the supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system, which is the key component of the cyber-physical systems (CPS), is facing big challenges and will affect the reliability of the smart grid. System reliability can be influenced by various cyber threats. In this paper, the reliability of the electric power system considering different cybersecurity issues in the SCADA system is analyzed by using Semi-Markov Process (SMP) and mean time-to-compromise (MTTC). External and insider attacks against the SCADA system are investigated with the SMP models and the results are compared. The system reliability is evaluated by reliability indexes including loss of load probability (LOLP) and expected energy not supplied (EENS) through Monte Carlo Simulations (MCS). The lurking threats of the cyberattacks are also analyzed in the study. Case studies were conducted on the IEEE Reliability Test System (RTS-96). The results show that with the increase of the MTTCs of the cyberattacks, the LOLP values decrease. When insider attacks are considered, both the LOLP and EENS values dramatically increase owing to the decreased MTTCs. The results provide insights into the establishment of the electric power system reliability enhancement strategies.

Phillips, T., McJunkin, T., Rieger, C., Gardner, J., Mehrpouyan, H..  2020.  An Operational Resilience Metric for Modern Power Distribution Systems. 2020 IEEE 20th International Conference on Software Quality, Reliability and Security Companion (QRS-C). :334—342.

The electrical power system is the backbone of our nations critical infrastructure. It has been designed to withstand single component failures based on a set of reliability metrics which have proven acceptable during normal operating conditions. However, in recent years there has been an increasing frequency of extreme weather events. Many have resulted in widespread long-term power outages, proving reliability metrics do not provide adequate energy security. As a result, researchers have focused their efforts resilience metrics to ensure efficient operation of power systems during extreme events. A resilient system has the ability to resist, adapt, and recover from disruptions. Therefore, resilience has demonstrated itself as a promising concept for currently faced challenges in power distribution systems. In this work, we propose an operational resilience metric for modern power distribution systems. The metric is based on the aggregation of system assets adaptive capacity in real and reactive power. This metric gives information to the magnitude and duration of a disturbance the system can withstand. We demonstrate resilience metric in a case study under normal operation and during a power contingency on a microgrid. In the future, this information can be used by operators to make more informed decisions based on system resilience in an effort to prevent power outages.

Kummerow, A., Monsalve, C., Rösch, D., Schäfer, K., Nicolai, S..  2020.  Cyber-physical data stream assessment incorporating Digital Twins in future power systems. 2020 International Conference on Smart Energy Systems and Technologies (SEST). :1—6.

Reliable and secure grid operations become more and more challenging in context of increasing IT/OT convergence and decreasing dynamic margins in today's power systems. To ensure the correct operation of monitoring and control functions in control centres, an intelligent assessment of the different information sources is necessary to provide a robust data source in case of critical physical events as well as cyber-attacks. Within this paper, a holistic data stream assessment methodology is proposed using an expert knowledge based cyber-physical situational awareness for different steady and transient system states. This approach goes beyond existing techniques by combining high-resolution PMU data with SCADA information as well as Digital Twin and AI based anomaly detection functionalities.

Fajri, M., Hariyanto, N., Gemsjaeger, B..  2020.  Automatic Protection Implementation Considering Protection Assessment Method of DER Penetration for Smart Distribution Network. 2020 International Conference on Technology and Policy in Energy and Electric Power (ICT-PEP). :323—328.
Due to geographical locations of Indonesia, some technology such as hydro and solar photovoltaics are very attractive to be used and developed. Distribution Energy Resources (DER) is the appropriate schemes implemented to achieve optimal operation respecting the location and capacity of the plant. The Gorontalo sub-system network was chosen as a case study considering both of micro-hydro and PV as contributed to supply the grid. The needs of a smart electrical system are required to improve reliability, power quality, and adaptation to any circumstances during DER application. While the topology was changing over time, intermittent of DER output and bidirectional power flow can be overcome with smart grid systems. In this study, an automation algorithm has been conducted to aid the engineers in solving the protection problems caused by DER implementation. The Protection Security Assessment (PSA) method is used to evaluate the state of the protection system. Determine the relay settings using an adaptive rule-based method on expert systems. The application with a Graphical User Interface (GUI) has been developed to make user easier to get the specific relay settings and locations which are sensitive, fast, reliable, and selective.
Chen, Z., Bai, B., Chen, D., Chai, W..  2018.  Design of Distribution Devices for Smart Grid Based on Magnetically Tunable Nanocomposite. IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics. 33:2083–2099.
This paper designs three distribution devices for the smart grid, which are, respectively, novel transformer with dc bias restraining ability, energy-saving contactor, and controllable reactor with adjustable intrinsic magnetic state based on the magnetically tunable nanocomposite material core. First, the magnetic performance of this magnetic material was analyzed and the magnetic properties processing method was put forward. One kind of nanocomposite which is close to the semihard magnetic state with low coercivity and high remanence was attained. Nanocomposite with four magnetic properties was processed and prepared using the distribution devices design. Second, in order to adjust the magnetic state better, the magnetization and demagnetization control circuit based on the single-phase supply power of rectification and inverter for the nanocomposite magnetic performance adjustment has been designed, which can mutual transform the material's soft and hard magnetic phases. Finally, based on the nanocomposite and the control circuit, a novel power transformer, an energy-saving contactor, and a magnetically controllable reactor were manufactured for the smart grid. The maintained remanence of the nanocomposite core after the magnetization could neutralize the dc bias magnetic flux in the transformer main core without changing the transformer neutral point connection mode, could pull in the contactor movable core instead of the traditional electromagnetic-type fixed core, and could adjust the reactor core saturation degree instead of the traditional electromagnetic coil. The simulation and experimental results verify the correctness of the design, which provides reliable, intelligent, interactive, and energy-saving power equipment for the smart power grids safe operation.
Nuqui, Reynaldo, Hong, Junho, Kondabathini, Anil, Ishchenko, Dmitry, Coats, David.  2018.  A Collaborative Defense for Securing Protective Relay Settings in Electrical Cyber Physical Systems. 2018 Resilience Week (RWS). :49—54.
Modern power systems today are protected and controlled increasingly by embedded systems of computing technologies with a great degree of collaboration enabled by communication. Energy cyber-physical systems such as power systems infrastructures are increasingly vulnerable to cyber-attacks on the protection and control layer. We present a method of securing protective relays from malicious change in protective relay settings via collaboration of devices. Each device checks the proposed setting changes of its neighboring devices for consistency and coordination with its own settings using setting rules based on relay coordination principles. The method is enabled via peer-to-peer communication between IEDs. It is validated in a cyber-physical test bed containing a real time digital simulator and actual relays that communicate via IEC 61850 GOOSE messages. Test results showed improvement in cyber physical security by using domain based rules to block malicious changes in protection settings caused by simulated cyber-attacks. The method promotes the use of defense systems that are aware of the physical systems which they are designed to secure.
Widergren, Steve, Melton, Ron, Khandekar, Aditya, Nordman, Bruce, Knight, Mark.  2019.  The Plug-and-Play Electricity Era: Interoperability to Integrate Anything, Anywhere, Anytime. IEEE Power and Energy Magazine. 17:47–58.
The inforrmation age continues to transform the mechanics of integrating electric power devices and systems, from coordinated operations based purely on the physics of electric power engineering to an increasing blend of power with information and communication technology. Integrating electric system components is not just about attaching wires. It requires the connection of computer-based automation systems to associated sensing and communication equipment. The architectural impacts are significant. Well-considered and commonly held concepts, principles, and organizational structures continue to emerge to address the complexity of the integrated operational challenges that drive our society to expect more flexibility in configuring the electric power system, while simultaneously achieving greater efficiency, reliability, and resilience. Architectural concepts, such as modularity and composability, contribute to the creation of structures that enable the connection of power system equipment characterized by clearly defined interfaces consisting of physical and cyberlinks. The result of successful electric power system component connection is interoperation: the discipline that drives integration to be simple and reliable.
Onaolapo, A.K., Akindeji, K.T..  2019.  Application of Artificial Neural Network for Fault Recognition and Classification in Distribution Network. 2019 Southern African Universities Power Engineering Conference/Robotics and Mechatronics/Pattern Recognition Association of South Africa (SAUPEC/RobMech/PRASA). :299–304.
Occurrence of faults in power systems is unavoidable but their timely recognition and location enhances the reliability and security of supply; thereby resulting in economic gain to consumers and power utility alike. Distribution Network (DN) is made smarter by the introduction of sensors and computers into the system. In this paper, detection and classification of faults in DN using Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is emphasized. This is achieved through the employment of Back Propagation Algorithm (BPA) of the Feed Forward Neural Network (FFNN) using three phase voltages and currents as inputs. The simulations were carried out using the MATLAB® 2017a. ANN with various hidden layers were analyzed and the results authenticate the effectiveness of the method.
Babay, Amy, Tantillo, Thomas, Aron, Trevor, Platania, Marco, Amir, Yair.  2018.  Network-Attack-Resilient Intrusion-Tolerant SCADA for the Power Grid. 2018 48th Annual IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks (DSN). :255–266.
As key components of the power grid infrastructure, Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems are likely to be targeted by nation-state-level attackers willing to invest considerable resources to disrupt the power grid. We present Spire, the first intrusion-tolerant SCADA system that is resilient to both system-level compromises and sophisticated network-level attacks and compromises. We develop a novel architecture that distributes the SCADA system management across three or more active sites to ensure continuous availability in the presence of simultaneous intrusions and network attacks. A wide-area deployment of Spire, using two control centers and two data centers spanning 250 miles, delivered nearly 99.999% of all SCADA updates initiated over a 30-hour period within 100ms. This demonstrates that Spire can meet the latency requirements of SCADA for the power grid.
Qiu, Yu, Wang, Jin-Yuan, Lin, Sheng-Hong, Wang, Jun-Bo, Lin, Min.  2019.  Secrecy Outage Probability Analysis for Visible Light Communications with SWIPT and Random Terminals. 2019 11th International Conference on Wireless Communications and Signal Processing (WCSP). :1–6.
This paper investigates the physical-layer data secure transmission for indoor visible light communications (VLC) with simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) and random terminals. A typical indoor VLC system including one transmitter, one desired information receiver and one energy receiver is considered. The two receivers are randomly deployed on the floor, and the random channel characteristics is analyzed. Based on the possibility that the energy receiver is a passive information eavesdropper, the secrecy outage probability (SOP) is employed to evaluate the system performance. A closed-from expression for the lower bound of the SOP is obtained. For the derived lower bound of SOP, the theoretical results match the simulation results very well, which indicates that the derived lower bound can be used to evaluate the secrecy performance. Moreover, the gap between the results of the lower bound and the exact simulation results is also small, which verifies the correctness of the analysis method to obtain the lower bound.
Shuvro, Rezoan A., Das, Pankaz, Hayat, Majeed M., Talukder, Mitun.  2019.  Predicting Cascading Failures in Power Grids using Machine Learning Algorithms. 2019 North American Power Symposium (NAPS). :1—6.
Although there has been notable progress in modeling cascading failures in power grids, few works included using machine learning algorithms. In this paper, cascading failures that lead to massive blackouts in power grids are predicted and classified into no, small, and large cascades using machine learning algorithms. Cascading-failure data is generated using a cascading failure simulator framework developed earlier. The data set includes the power grid operating parameters such as loading level, level of load shedding, the capacity of the failed lines, and the topological parameters such as edge betweenness centrality and the average shortest distance for numerous combinations of two transmission line failures as features. Then several machine learning algorithms are used to classify cascading failures. Further, linear regression is used to predict the number of failed transmission lines and the amount of load shedding during a cascade based on initial feature values. This data-driven technique can be used to generate cascading failure data set for any real-world power grids and hence, power-grid engineers can use this approach for cascade data generation and hence predicting vulnerabilities and enhancing robustness of the grid.
Ha, Dinh Truc, Retière, Nicolas, Caputo, Jean-Guy.  2019.  A New Metric to Quantify the Vulnerability of Power Grids. 2019 International Conference on System Science and Engineering (ICSSE). :206—213.
Major blackouts are due to cascading failures in power systems. These failures usually occur at vulnerable links of the network. To identify these, indicators have already been defined using complex network theory. However, most of these indicators only depend on the topology of the grid; they fail to detect the weak links. We introduce a new metric to identify the vulnerable lines, based on the load-flow equations and the grid geometry. Contrary to the topological indicators, ours is built from the electrical equations and considers the location and magnitude of the loads and of the power generators. We apply this new metric to the IEEE 118-bus system and compare its prediction of weak links to the ones given by an industrial software. The agreement is very well and shows that using our indicator a simple examination of the network and its generator and load distribution suffices to find the weak lines.
Jianfeng, Dai, Jian, Qiu, Jing, Wu, Xuesong, Wang.  2019.  A Vulnerability Assessment Method of Cyber Physical Power System Considering Power-Grid Infrastructures Failure. 2019 IEEE Sustainable Power and Energy Conference (iSPEC). :1492—1496.
In order to protect power grid network, the security assessment techniques which include both cyber side and the physical side should be considered. In this paper, we present a method for evaluating the dynamic vulnerability of cyber-physical power system (CPPS) considering the power grid infrastructures failure. First, according to the functional characteristics of different components, the impact of a single component function failure on CPPS operation is analyzed and quantified, such as information components, communication components and power components; then, the dynamic vulnerability of multiple components synchronization function failure is calculated, and the full probability evaluation formula of CPPS operational dynamic vulnerability is built; Thirdly, from an attacker's perspective to identify the most hazardous component combinations for CPPS multi-node collaborative attack; Finally, a local CPPS model is established based on the IEEE-9 bus system to quantify its operational dynamic vulnerability, and the effectiveness of proposed method is verified.
Eneh, Joy Nnenna, Onyekachi Orah, Harris, Emeka, Aka Benneth.  2019.  Improving the Reliability and Security of Active Distribution Networks Using SCADA Systems. 2019 IEEE PES/IAS PowerAfrica. :110–115.
The traditional electricity distribution system is rapidly shifting from the passive infrastructure to a more active infrastructure, giving rise to a smart grid. In this project an active electricity distribution network and its components have been studied. A 14-node SCADA-based active distribution network model has been proposed for managing this emerging network infrastructure to ensure reliability and protection of the network The proposed model was developed using matlab /simulink software and the fuzzy logic toolbox. Surge arresters and circuit breakers were modelled and deployed in the network at different locations for protection and isolation of fault conditions. From the reliability analysis of the proposed model, the failure rate and outage hours were reduced due to better response of the system to power fluctuations and fault conditions.
Xie, Yuanpeng, Jiang, Yixin, Liao, Runfa, Wen, Hong, Meng, Jiaxiao, Guo, Xiaobin, Xu, Aidong, Guan, Zewu.  2015.  User Privacy Protection for Cloud Computing Based Smart Grid. 2015 IEEE/CIC International Conference on Communications in China - Workshops (CIC/ICCC). :7–11.

The smart grid aims to improve the efficiency, reliability and safety of the electric system via modern communication system, it's necessary to utilize cloud computing to process and store the data. In fact, it's a promising paradigm to integrate smart grid into cloud computing. However, access to cloud computing system also brings data security issues. This paper focuses on the protection of user privacy in smart meter system based on data combination privacy and trusted third party. The paper demonstrates the security issues for smart grid communication system and cloud computing respectively, and illustrates the security issues for the integration. And we introduce data chunk storage and chunk relationship confusion to protect user privacy. We also propose a chunk information list system for inserting and searching data.

Zhang, Yihan, Wu, Jiajing, Chen, Zhenhao, Huang, Yuxuan, Zheng, Zibin.  2019.  Sequential Node/Link Recovery Strategy of Power Grids Based on Q-Learning Approach. 2019 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS). :1–5.

Cascading failure, which can be triggered by both physical and cyber attacks, is among the most critical threats to the security and resilience of power grids. In current literature, researchers investigate the issue of cascading failure on smart grids mainly from the attacker's perspective. From the perspective of a grid defender or operator, however, it is also an important issue to restore the smart grid suffering from cascading failure back to normal operation as soon as possible. In this paper, we consider cascading failure in conjunction with the restoration process involving repairing of the failed nodes/links in a sequential fashion. Based on a realistic power flow cascading failure model, we exploit a Q-learning approach to develop a practical and effective policy to identify the optimal way of sequential restorations for large-scale smart grids. Simulation results on three power grid test benchmarks demonstrate the learning ability and the effectiveness of the proposed strategy.

Sahu, Abhijeet, Huang, Hao, Davis, Katherine, Zonouz, Saman.  2019.  SCORE: A Security-Oriented Cyber-Physical Optimal Response Engine. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Communications, Control, and Computing Technologies for Smart Grids (SmartGridComm). :1–6.

Automatic optimal response systems are essential for preserving power system resilience and ensuring faster recovery from emergency under cyber compromise. Numerous research works have developed such response engine for cyber and physical system recovery separately. In this paper, we propose a novel cyber-physical decision support system, SCORE, that computes optimal actions considering pure and hybrid cyber-physical states, using Markov Decision Process (MDP). Such an automatic decision making engine can assist power system operators and network administrators to make a faster response to prevent cascading failures and attack escalation respectively. The hybrid nature of the engine makes the reward and state transition model of the MDP unique. Value iteration and policy iteration techniques are used to compute the optimal actions. Tests are performed on three and five substation power systems to recover from attacks that compromise relays to cause transmission line overflow. The paper also analyses the impact of reward and state transition model on computation. Corresponding results verify the efficacy of the proposed engine.

Diahovchenko, Illia, Kandaperumal, Gowtham, Srivastava, Anurag.  2019.  Distribution Power System Resiliency Improvement Using Distributed Generation and Automated Switching. 2019 IEEE 6th International Conference on Energy Smart Systems (ESS). :126–131.

The contemporary power distribution system is facing an increase in extreme weather events, cybersecurity threats and even physical threats such as terrorism. Therefore there is a growing interest towards resiliency estimation and improvement. In this paper the resiliency enhancement strategy by means of Distributed Energy Resources and Automated Switches is presented. Resiliency scores are calculated using Analytical Hierarchy Process. The developed algorithm was validated on the modified IEEE 123 node system. It provides the most resiliency feasible network that satisfies the primary goal of serving the critical loads.

Ullah, N., Ali, S. M., Khan, B., Mehmood, C. A., Anwar, S. M., Majid, M., Farid, U., Nawaz, M. A., Ullah, Z..  2019.  Energy Efficiency: Digital Signal Processing Interactions Within Smart Grid. 2019 International Conference on Engineering and Emerging Technologies (ICEET). :1–6.
Smart Grid (SG) is regarded as complex electrical power system due to massive penetration of Renewable Energy Resources and Distribution Generations. The implementation of adjustable speed drives, advance power electronic devices, and electric arc furnaces are incorporated in SG (the transition from conventional power system). Moreover, SG is an advance, automated, controlled, efficient, digital, and intelligent system that ensures pertinent benefits, such as: (a) consumer empowerment, (b) advanced communication infrastructure, (c) user-friendly system, and (d) supports bi-directional power flow. Digital Signal Processing (DSP) is key tool for SG deployment and provides key solutions to a vast array of complex SG challenges. This research provides a comprehensive study on DSP interactions within SG. The prominent challenges posed by conventional grid, such as: (a) monitoring and control, (b) Electric Vehicles infrastructure, (c) cyber data injection attack, (d) Demand Response management and (e) cyber data injection attack are thoroughly investigated in this research.
Neema, Himanshu, Vardhan, Harsh, Barreto, Carlos, Koutsoukos, Xenofon.  2019.  Web-Based Platform for Evaluation of Resilient and Transactive Smart-Grids. 2019 7th Workshop on Modeling and Simulation of Cyber-Physical Energy Systems (MSCPES). :1–6.
Today's smart-grids have seen a clear rise in new ways of energy generation, transmission, and storage. This has not only introduced a huge degree of variability, but also a continual shift away from traditionally centralized generation and storage to distributed energy resources (DERs). In addition, the distributed sensors, energy generators and storage devices, and networking have led to a huge increase in attack vectors that make the grid vulnerable to a variety of attacks. The interconnection between computational and physical components through a largely open, IP-based communication network enables an attacker to cause physical damage through remote cyber-attacks or attack on software-controlled grid operations via physical- or cyber-attacks. Transactive Energy (TE) is an emerging approach for managing increasing DERs in the smart-grids through economic and control techniques. Transactive Smart-Grids use the TE approach to improve grid reliability and efficiency. However, skepticism remains in their full-scale viability for ensuring grid reliability. In addition, different TE approaches, in specific situations, can lead to very different outcomes in grid operations. In this paper, we present a comprehensive web-based platform for evaluating resilience of smart-grids against a variety of cyber- and physical-attacks and evaluating impact of various TE approaches on grid performance. We also provide several case-studies demonstrating evaluation of TE approaches as well as grid resilience against cyber and physical attacks.
Mu, Li, Mianquan, Li, Yuzhen, Huang, Hao, Yin, Yan, Wang, Baoquan, Ren, Xiaofei, Qu, Rui, Yu.  2018.  Security Analysis of Overlay Cognitive Wireless Networks with an Untrusted Secondary User. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Signal Processing, Communications and Computing (ICSPCC). :1-5.

In this article, we study the transmission secrecy performance of primary user in overlay cognitive wireless networks, in which an untrusted energy-limited secondary cooperative user assists the primary transmission to exchange for the spectrum resource. In the network, the information can be simultaneously transmitted through the direct and relay links. For the enhancement of primary transmission security, a maximum ratio combining (MRC) scheme is utilized by the receiver to exploit the two copies of source information. For the security analysis, we firstly derive the tight lower bound expression for secrecy outage probability (SOP). Then, three asymptotic expressions for SOP are also expressed to further analyze the impacts of the transmit power and the location of secondary cooperative node on the primary user information security. The findings show that the primary user information secrecy performance enhances with the improvement of transmit power. Moreover, the smaller the distance between the secondary node and the destination, the better the primary secrecy performance.

Chao, H., Ringlee, R. J..  2018.  Analytical Challenges in Reliability and Resiliency Modeling. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Probabilistic Methods Applied to Power Systems (PMAPS). :1–5.
A significant number of the generation, transmission and distribution facilities in the North America were designed and configured for serving electric loads and economic activities under certain reliability and resiliency requirements over 30 years ago. With the changing generation mix, the electric grid is tasked to deliver electricity made by fuel uncertain and energy limited resources. How adequate are the existing facilities to meet the industry expectations on reliability? What level of grid resiliency should be designed and built to sustain reliable electric services given the increasing exposure to frequent and lasting severe weather conditions? There is a need to review the modeling assumptions, operating and maintenance records before we can answer these questions.
Kolosok, I., Korkina, E., Mahnitko, A., Gavrilovs, A..  2018.  Supporting Cyber-Physical Security of Electric Power System by the State Estimation Technique. 2018 IEEE 59th International Scientific Conference on Power and Electrical Engineering of Riga Technical University (RTUCON). :1–6.

Security is one of the most important properties of electric power system (EPS). We consider the state estimation (SE) tool as a barrier to the corruption of data on current operating conditions of the EPS. An algorithm for a two-level SE on the basis of SCADA and WAMS measurements is effective in terms of detection of malicious attacks on energy system. The article suggests a methodology to identify cyberattacks on SCADA and WAMS.