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2021-04-08
Tyagi, H., Vardy, A..  2015.  Universal Hashing for Information-Theoretic Security. Proceedings of the IEEE. 103:1781–1795.
The information-theoretic approach to security entails harnessing the correlated randomness available in nature to establish security. It uses tools from information theory and coding and yields provable security, even against an adversary with unbounded computational power. However, the feasibility of this approach in practice depends on the development of efficiently implementable schemes. In this paper, we review a special class of practical schemes for information-theoretic security that are based on 2-universal hash families. Specific cases of secret key agreement and wiretap coding are considered, and general themes are identified. The scheme presented for wiretap coding is modular and can be implemented easily by including an extra preprocessing layer over the existing transmission codes.
Venkitasubramaniam, P., Yao, J., Pradhan, P..  2015.  Information-Theoretic Security in Stochastic Control Systems. Proceedings of the IEEE. 103:1914–1931.
Infrastructural systems such as the electricity grid, healthcare, and transportation networks today rely increasingly on the joint functioning of networked information systems and physical components, in short, on cyber-physical architectures. Despite tremendous advances in cryptography, physical-layer security and authentication, information attacks, both passive such as eavesdropping, and active such as unauthorized data injection, continue to thwart the reliable functioning of networked systems. In systems with joint cyber-physical functionality, the ability of an adversary to monitor transmitted information or introduce false information can lead to sensitive user data being leaked or result in critical damages to the underlying physical system. This paper investigates two broad challenges in information security in cyber-physical systems (CPSs): preventing retrieval of internal physical system information through monitored external cyber flows, and limiting the modification of physical system functioning through compromised cyber flows. A rigorous analytical framework grounded on information-theoretic security is developed to study these challenges in a general stochastic control system abstraction-a theoretical building block for CPSs-with the objectives of quantifying the fundamental tradeoffs between information security and physical system performance, and through the process, designing provably secure controller policies. Recent results are presented that establish the theoretical basis for the framework, in addition to practical applications in timing analysis of anonymous systems, and demand response systems in a smart electricity grid.
Bloch, M., Laneman, J. N..  2009.  Information-spectrum methods for information-theoretic security. 2009 Information Theory and Applications Workshop. :23–28.
We investigate the potential of an information-spectrum approach to information-theoretic security. We show how this approach provides conceptually simple yet powerful results that can be used to investigate complex communication scenarios. In particular, we illustrate the usefulness of information-spectrum methods by analyzing the effect of channel state information (CSI) on the secure rates achievable over wiretap channels. We establish a formula for secrecy capacity, which we then specialize to compute achievable rates for ergodic fading channels in the presence of imperfect CSI. Our results confirm the importance of having some knowledge about the eavesdropper's channel, but also show that imperfect CSI does not necessarily preclude security.
Bloch, M., Barros, J., Rodrigues, M. R. D., McLaughlin, S. W..  2008.  Wireless Information-Theoretic Security. IEEE Transactions on Information Theory. 54:2515–2534.
This paper considers the transmission of confidential data over wireless channels. Based on an information-theoretic formulation of the problem, in which two legitimates partners communicate over a quasi-static fading channel and an eavesdropper observes their transmissions through a second independent quasi-static fading channel, the important role of fading is characterized in terms of average secure communication rates and outage probability. Based on the insights from this analysis, a practical secure communication protocol is developed, which uses a four-step procedure to ensure wireless information-theoretic security: (i) common randomness via opportunistic transmission, (ii) message reconciliation, (iii) common key generation via privacy amplification, and (iv) message protection with a secret key. A reconciliation procedure based on multilevel coding and optimized low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes is introduced, which allows to achieve communication rates close to the fundamental security limits in several relevant instances. Finally, a set of metrics for assessing average secure key generation rates is established, and it is shown that the protocol is effective in secure key renewal-even in the presence of imperfect channel state information.
Iwamoto, M., Ohta, K., Shikata, J..  2018.  Security Formalizations and Their Relationships for Encryption and Key Agreement in Information-Theoretic Cryptography. IEEE Transactions on Information Theory. 64:654–685.
This paper analyzes the formalizations of information-theoretic security for the fundamental primitives in cryptography: symmetric-key encryption and key agreement. Revisiting the previous results, we can formalize information-theoretic security using different methods, by extending Shannon's perfect secrecy, by information-theoretic analogues of indistinguishability and semantic security, and by the frameworks for composability of protocols. We show the relationships among the security formalizations and obtain the following results. First, in the case of encryption, there are significant gaps among the formalizations, and a certain type of relaxed perfect secrecy or a variant of information-theoretic indistinguishability is the strongest notion. Second, in the case of key agreement, there are significant gaps among the formalizations, and a certain type of relaxed perfect secrecy is the strongest notion. In particular, in both encryption and key agreement, the formalization of composable security is not stronger than any other formalizations. Furthermore, as an application of the relationships in encryption and key agreement, we simultaneously derive a family of lower bounds on the size of secret keys and security quantities required under the above formalizations, which also implies the importance and usefulness of the relationships.
Wu, X., Yang, Z., Ling, C., Xia, X..  2016.  Artificial-Noise-Aided Message Authentication Codes With Information-Theoretic Security. IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security. 11:1278–1290.
In the past, two main approaches for the purpose of authentication, including information-theoretic authentication codes and complexity-theoretic message authentication codes (MACs), were almost independently developed. In this paper, we consider to construct new MACs, which are both computationally secure and information-theoretically secure. Essentially, we propose a new cryptographic primitive, namely, artificial-noise-aided MACs (ANA-MACs), where artificial noise is used to interfere with the complexity-theoretic MACs and quantization is further employed to facilitate packet-based transmission. With a channel coding formulation of key recovery in the MACs, the generation of standard authentication tags can be seen as an encoding process for the ensemble of codes, where the shared key between Alice and Bob is considered as the input and the message is used to specify a code from the ensemble of codes. Then, we show that artificial noise in ANA-MACs can be well employed to resist the key recovery attack even if the opponent has an unlimited computing power. Finally, a pragmatic approach for the analysis of ANA-MACs is provided, and we show how to balance the three performance metrics, including the completeness error, the false acceptance probability, and the conditional equivocation about the key. The analysis can be well applied to a class of ANA-MACs, where MACs with Rijndael cipher are employed.
2020-06-02
Coiteux-Roy, Xavier, Wolf, Stefan.  2019.  Proving Erasure. 2019 IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory (ISIT). :832—836.

It seems impossible to certify that a remote hosting service does not leak its users' data - or does quantum mechanics make it possible? We investigate if a server hosting data can information-theoretically prove its definite deletion using a "BB84-like" protocol. To do so, we first rigorously introduce an alternative to privacy by encryption: privacy delegation. We then apply this novel concept to provable deletion and remote data storage. For both tasks, we present a protocol, sketch its partial security, and display its vulnerability to eavesdropping attacks targeting only a few bits.

Gong, Shixun, Li, Na, Wu, Huici, Tao, Xiaofeng.  2019.  Cooperative Two-Key Generation in Source-Type Model With Partial-Trusted Helpers. 2019 IEEE/CIC International Conference on Communications in China (ICCC). :689—694.

This paper investigates the problem of generating two secret keys (SKs) simultaneously over a five-terminal system with terminals labelled as 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5. Each of terminal 2 and terminal 3 wishes to generate an SK with terminal 1 over a public channel wiretapped by a passive eavesdropper. Terminal 4 and terminal 5 respectively act as a trusted helper and an untrusted helper to assist the SK generation. All the terminals observe correlated source sequences from discrete memoryless sources (DMS) and can exchange information over a public channel with no rate constraint that the eavesdropper has access to. Based on the considered model, key capacity region is fully characterized and a source coding scheme that can achieve the capacity region is provided. Furthermore, expression for key leakage rate is obtained to analyze the security performance of the two generated keys.

Kibloff, David, Perlaza, Samir M., Wang, Ligong.  2019.  Embedding Covert Information on a Given Broadcast Code. 2019 IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory (ISIT). :2169—2173.

Given a code used to send a message to two receivers through a degraded discrete memoryless broadcast channel (DM-BC), the sender wishes to alter the codewords to achieve the following goals: (i) the original broadcast communication continues to take place, possibly at the expense of a tolerable increase of the decoding error probability; and (ii) an additional covert message can be transmitted to the stronger receiver such that the weaker receiver cannot detect the existence of this message. The main results are: (a) feasibility of covert communications is proven by using a random coding argument for general DM-BCs; and (b) necessary conditions for establishing covert communications are described and an impossibility (converse) result is presented for a particular class of DM-BCs. Together, these results characterize the asymptotic fundamental limits of covert communications for this particular class of DM-BCs within an arbitrarily small gap.

2019-12-05
Guang, Xuan, Yeung, Raymond w..  2019.  Local-Encoding-Preserving Secure Network Coding for Fixed Dimension. 2019 IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory (ISIT). :201-205.

In the paradigm of network coding, information-theoretic security is considered in the presence of wiretappers, who can access one arbitrary edge subset up to a certain size, referred to as the security level. Secure network coding is applied to prevent the leakage of the source information to the wiretappers. In this paper, we consider the problem of secure network coding for flexible pairs of information rate and security level with any fixed dimension (equal to the sum of rate and security level). We present a novel approach for designing a secure linear network code (SLNC) such that the same SLNC can be applied for all the rate and security-level pairs with the fixed dimension. We further develop a polynomial-time algorithm for efficient implementation and prove that there is no penalty on the required field size for the existence of SLNCs in terms of the best known lower bound by Guang and Yeung. Finally, by applying our approach as a crucial building block, we can construct a family of SLNCs that not only can be applied to all possible pairs of rate and security level but also share a common local encoding kernel at each intermediate node in the network.

2019-03-25
Sharifian, Setareh, Safavi-Naini, Reihaneh, Lin, Fuchun.  2018.  Post-quantum Security Using Channel Noise. Proceedings of the 2018 ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security. :2288–2290.

Post-quantum secure communication has attracted much interest in recent years. Known computationally secure post-quantum key agreement protocols are resource intensive for small devices. These devices may need to securely send frequent short messages, for example to report the measurement of a sensor. Secure communication using physical assumptions provides information-theoretic security (and so quantum-safe) with small computational over-head. Security and efficiency analysis of these systems however is asymptotic. In this poster we consider two secure message communication systems, and derive and compare their security and efficiency for finite length messages. Our results show that these systems indeed provide an attractive alternative for post-quantum security.

2018-03-05
Baldi, M., Chiaraluce, F., Senigagliesi, L., Spalazzi, L., Spegni, F..  2017.  Security in Heterogeneous Distributed Storage Systems: A Practically Achievable Information-Theoretic Approach. 2017 IEEE Symposium on Computers and Communications (ISCC). :1021–1028.

Distributed storage systems and caching systems are becoming widespread, and this motivates the increasing interest on assessing their achievable performance in terms of reliability for legitimate users and security against malicious users. While the assessment of reliability takes benefit of the availability of well established metrics and tools, assessing security is more challenging. The classical cryptographic approach aims at estimating the computational effort for an attacker to break the system, and ensuring that it is far above any feasible amount. This has the limitation of depending on attack algorithms and advances in computing power. The information-theoretic approach instead exploits capacity measures to achieve unconditional security against attackers, but often does not provide practical recipes to reach such a condition. We propose a mixed cryptographic/information-theoretic approach with a twofold goal: estimating the levels of information-theoretic security and defining a practical scheme able to achieve them. In order to find optimal choices of the parameters of the proposed scheme, we exploit an effective probabilistic model checker, which allows us to overcome several limitations of more conventional methods.

2018-02-02
Huang, W., Bruck, J..  2016.  Secure RAID schemes for distributed storage. 2016 IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory (ISIT). :1401–1405.

We propose secure RAID, i.e., low-complexity schemes to store information in a distributed manner that is resilient to node failures and resistant to node eavesdropping. We generalize the concept of systematic encoding to secure RAID and show that systematic schemes have significant advantages in the efficiencies of encoding, decoding and random access. For the practical high rate regime, we construct three XOR-based systematic secure RAID schemes with optimal encoding and decoding complexities, from the EVENODD codes and B codes, which are array codes widely used in the RAID architecture. These schemes optimally tolerate two node failures and two eavesdropping nodes. For more general parameters, we construct efficient systematic secure RAID schemes from Reed-Solomon codes. Our results suggest that building “keyless”, information-theoretic security into the RAID architecture is practical.

2018-01-10
Hamasaki, J., Iwamura, K..  2017.  Geometric group key-sharing scheme using euclidean distance. 2017 14th IEEE Annual Consumer Communications Networking Conference (CCNC). :1004–1005.

A wireless sensor network (WSN) is composed of sensor nodes and a base station. In WSNs, constructing an efficient key-sharing scheme to ensure a secure communication is important. In this paper, we propose a new key-sharing scheme for groups, which shares a group key in a single broadcast without being dependent on the number of nodes. This scheme is based on geometric characteristics and has information-theoretic security in the analysis of transmitted data. We compared our scheme with conventional schemes in terms of communication traffic, computational complexity, flexibility, and security, and the results showed that our scheme is suitable for an Internet-of-Things (IoT) network.

Stoughton, A., Varia, M..  2017.  Mechanizing the Proof of Adaptive, Information-Theoretic Security of Cryptographic Protocols in the Random Oracle Model. 2017 IEEE 30th Computer Security Foundations Symposium (CSF). :83–99.

We report on our research on proving the security of multi-party cryptographic protocols using the EASYCRYPT proof assistant. We work in the computational model using the sequence of games approach, and define honest-butcurious (semi-honest) security using a variation of the real/ideal paradigm in which, for each protocol party, an adversary chooses protocol inputs in an attempt to distinguish the party's real and ideal games. Our proofs are information-theoretic, instead of being based on complexity theory and computational assumptions. We employ oracles (e.g., random oracles for hashing) whose encapsulated states depend on dynamically-made, nonprogrammable random choices. By limiting an adversary's oracle use, one may obtain concrete upper bounds on the distances between a party's real and ideal games that are expressed in terms of game parameters. Furthermore, our proofs work for adaptive adversaries, ones that, when choosing the value of a protocol input, may condition this choice on their current protocol view and oracle knowledge. We provide an analysis in EASYCRYPT of a three party private count retrieval protocol. We emphasize the lessons learned from completing this proof.