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2021-05-13
Bansal, Naman, Agarwal, Chirag, Nguyen, Anh.  2020.  SAM: The Sensitivity of Attribution Methods to Hyperparameters. 2020 IEEE/CVF Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition Workshops (CVPRW). :11–21.
Attribution methods can provide powerful insights into the reasons for a classifier's decision. We argue that a key desideratum of an explanation method is its robustness to input hyperparameters which are often randomly set or empirically tuned. High sensitivity to arbitrary hyperparameter choices does not only impede reproducibility but also questions the correctness of an explanation and impairs the trust of end-users. In this paper, we provide a thorough empirical study on the sensitivity of existing attribution methods. We found an alarming trend that many methods are highly sensitive to changes in their common hyperparameters e.g. even changing a random seed can yield a different explanation! Interestingly, such sensitivity is not reflected in the average explanation accuracy scores over the dataset as commonly reported in the literature. In addition, explanations generated for robust classifiers (i.e. which are trained to be invariant to pixel-wise perturbations) are surprisingly more robust than those generated for regular classifiers.
2020-07-27
McBride, Marci, Mitchell, Robert.  2018.  Enhanced dynamic cyber zone defense. 2018 IEEE 8th Annual Computing and Communication Workshop and Conference (CCWC). :66–71.
Information security is a top priority in government and industry because high consequence cyber incidents continue with regularity. The blue teamers that protect cyber systems cannot stop or even know about all these incidents, so they must take measures to tolerate these incursions in addition to preventing and detecting them. We propose dynamically compartmentalizing subject networks into collaboration zones and limiting the communication between these zones. In this article, we demonstrate this technique's effect on the attacker and the defender for various parameter settings using discrete-time simulation. Based on our results, we conclude that dynamic cyber zone defense is a viable intrusion tolerance technique and should be considered for technology transfer.
2018-04-04
Liang, J., Sankar, L., Kosut, O..  2017.  Vulnerability analysis and consequences of false data injection attack on power system state estimation. 2017 IEEE Power Energy Society General Meeting. :1–1.
An unobservable false data injection (FDI) attack on AC state estimation (SE) is introduced and its consequences on the physical system are studied. With a focus on understanding the physical consequences of FDI attacks, a bi-level optimization problem is introduced whose objective is to maximize the physical line flows subsequent to an FDI attack on DC SE. The maximization is subject to constraints on both attacker resources (size of attack) and attack detection (limiting load shifts) as well as those required by DC optimal power flow (OPF) following SE. The resulting attacks are tested on a more realistic non-linear system model using AC state estimation and ACOPF, and it is shown that, with an appropriately chosen sub-network, the attacker can overload transmission lines with moderate shifts of load.
2018-01-16
Zeitz, K., Cantrell, M., Marchany, R., Tront, J..  2017.  Designing a Micro-moving Target IPv6 Defense for the Internet of Things. 2017 IEEE/ACM Second International Conference on Internet-of-Things Design and Implementation (IoTDI). :179–184.

As the use of low-power and low resource embedded devices continues to increase dramatically with the introduction of new Internet of Things (IoT) devices, security techniques are necessary which are compatible with these devices. This research advances the knowledge in the area of cyber security for the IoT through the exploration of a moving target defense to apply for limiting the time attackers may conduct reconnaissance on embedded systems while considering the challenges presented from IoT devices such as resource and performance constraints. We introduce the design and optimizations for a Micro-Moving Target IPv6 Defense including a description of the modes of operation, needed protocols, and use of lightweight hash algorithms. We also detail the testing and validation possibilities including a Cooja simulation configuration, and describe the direction to further enhance and validate the security technique through large scale simulations and hardware testing followed by providing information on other future considerations.

Kamaldeep, Malik, M., Dutta, M..  2017.  Contiki-based mitigation of UDP flooding attacks in the Internet of things. 2017 International Conference on Computing, Communication and Automation (ICCCA). :1296–1300.

As Internet of things (IoT) continue to ensconce into our homes, offices, hospitals, electricity grids and other walks of life, the stakes are too high to leave security to chance. IoT devices are resource constrained devices and hence it is very easy to exhaust them of their resources or deny availability. One of the most prominent attacks on the availability is the Distributed Denial of service (DDoS) attack. Although, DDoS is not a new Internet attack but a large number of new, constrained and globally accessible IoT devices have escalated the attack surface beyond imagination. This paper provides a broad anatomy of IoT protocols and their inherent weaknesses that can enable attackers to launch successful DDoS attacks. One of the major contributions of this paper is the implementation and demonstration of UDP (User Datagram Protocol) flood attack in the Contiki operating system, an open-source operating system for the IoT. This attack has been implemented and demonstrated in Cooja simulator, an inherent feature of the Contiki operating system. Furthermore, in this paper, a rate limiting mechanism is proposed that must be incorporated in the Contiki OS to mitigate UDP flood attacks. This proposed scheme reduces CPU power consumption of the victim by 9% and saves the total transmission power of the victim by 55%.

2018-01-10
Higuchi, K., Yoshida, M., Tsuji, T., Miyamoto, N..  2017.  Correctness of the routing algorithm for distributed key-value store based on order preserving linear hashing and skip graph. 2017 18th IEEE/ACIS International Conference on Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence, Networking and Parallel/Distributed Computing (SNPD). :459–464.

In this paper, the correctness of the routing algorithm for the distributed key-value store based on order preserving linear hashing and Skip Graph is proved. In this system, data are divided by linear hashing and Skip Graph is used for overlay network. The routing table of this system is very uniform. Then, short detours can exist in the route of forwarding. By using these detours, the number of hops for the query forwarding is reduced.