Visible to the public Biblio

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2021-04-09
Yamato, K., Kourai, K., Saadawi, T..  2020.  Transparent IDS Offloading for Split-Memory Virtual Machines. 2020 IEEE 44th Annual Computers, Software, and Applications Conference (COMPSAC). :833—838.
To enable virtual machines (VMs) with a large amount of memory to be flexibly migrated, split migration has been proposed. It divides a large-memory VM into small pieces and transfers them to multiple hosts. After the migration, the VM runs across those hosts and exchanges memory data between hosts using remote paging. For such a split-memory VM, however, it becomes difficult to securely run intrusion detection systems (IDS) outside the VM using a technique called IDS offloading. This paper proposes VMemTrans to support transparent IDS offloading for split-memory VMs. In VMemTrans, offloaded IDS can monitor a split-memory VM as if that memory were not distributed. To achieve this, VMemTrans enables IDS running in one host to transparently access VM's remote memory. To consider a trade-off, it provides two methods for obtaining memory data from remote hosts: self paging and proxy paging. We have implemented VMemTrans in KVM and compared the execution performance between the two methods.
Fadhilah, D., Marzuki, M. I..  2020.  Performance Analysis of IDS Snort and IDS Suricata with Many-Core Processor in Virtual Machines Against Dos/DDoS Attacks. 2020 2nd International Conference on Broadband Communications, Wireless Sensors and Powering (BCWSP). :157—162.
The rapid development of technology makes it possible for a physical machine to be converted into a virtual machine, which can operate multiple operating systems that are running simultaneously and connected to the internet. DoS/DDoS attacks are cyber-attacks that can threaten the telecommunications sector because these attacks cause services to be disrupted and be difficult to access. There are several software tools for monitoring abnormal activities on the network, such as IDS Snort and IDS Suricata. From previous studies, IDS Suricata is superior to IDS Snort version 2 because IDS Suricata already supports multi-threading, while IDS Snort version 2 still only supports single-threading. This paper aims to conduct tests on IDS Snort version 3.0 which already supports multi-threading and IDS Suricata. This research was carried out on a virtual machine with 1 core, 2 core, and 4 core processor settings for CPU, memory, and capture packet attacks on IDS Snort version 3.0 and IDS Suricata. The attack scenario is divided into 2 parts: DoS attack scenario using 1 physical computer, and DDoS attack scenario using 5 physical computers. Based on overall testing, the results are: In general, IDS Snort version 3.0 is better than IDS Suricata. This is based on the results when using a maximum of 4 core processor, in which IDS Snort version 3.0 CPU usage is stable at 55% - 58%, a maximum memory of 3,000 MB, can detect DoS attacks with 27,034,751 packets, and DDoS attacks with 36,919,395 packets. Meanwhile, different results were obtained by IDS Suricata, in which CPU usage is better compared to IDS Snort version 3.0 with only 10% - 40% usage, and a maximum memory of 1,800 MB. However, the capabilities of detecting DoS attacks are smaller with 3,671,305 packets, and DDoS attacks with a total of 7,619,317 packets on a TCP Flood attack test.
2021-02-10
Kishimoto, K., Taniguchi, Y., Iguchi, N..  2020.  A Practical Exercise System Using Virtual Machines for Learning Cross-Site Scripting Countermeasures. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics - Taiwan (ICCE-Taiwan). :1—2.

Cross-site scripting (XSS) is an often-occurring major attack that developers should consider when developing web applications. We develop a system that can provide practical exercises for learning how to create web applications that are secure against XSS. Our system utilizes free software and virtual machines, allowing low-cost, safe, and practical exercises. By using two virtual machines as the web server and the attacker host, the learner can conduct exercises demonstrating both XSS countermeasures and XSS attacks. In our system, learners use a web browser to learn and perform exercises related to XSS. Experimental evaluations confirm that the proposed system can support learning of XSS countermeasures.

2020-12-11
Payne, J., Kundu, A..  2019.  Towards Deep Federated Defenses Against Malware in Cloud Ecosystems. 2019 First IEEE International Conference on Trust, Privacy and Security in Intelligent Systems and Applications (TPS-ISA). :92—100.

In cloud computing environments with many virtual machines, containers, and other systems, an epidemic of malware can be crippling and highly threatening to business processes. In this vision paper, we introduce a hierarchical approach to performing malware detection and analysis using several recent advances in machine learning on graphs, hypergraphs, and natural language. We analyze individual systems and their logs, inspecting and understanding their behavior with attentional sequence models. Given a feature representation of each system's logs using this procedure, we construct an attributed network of the cloud with systems and other components as vertices and propose an analysis of malware with inductive graph and hypergraph learning models. With this foundation, we consider the multicloud case, in which multiple clouds with differing privacy requirements cooperate against the spread of malware, proposing the use of federated learning to perform inference and training while preserving privacy. Finally, we discuss several open problems that remain in defending cloud computing environments against malware related to designing robust ecosystems, identifying cloud-specific optimization problems for response strategy, action spaces for malware containment and eradication, and developing priors and transfer learning tasks for machine learning models in this area.

2020-12-02
Niz, D. de, Andersson, B., Klein, M., Lehoczky, J., Vasudevan, A., Kim, H., Moreno, G..  2019.  Mixed-Trust Computing for Real-Time Systems. 2019 IEEE 25th International Conference on Embedded and Real-Time Computing Systems and Applications (RTCSA). :1—11.

Verifying complex Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) is increasingly important given the push to deploy safety-critical autonomous features. Unfortunately, traditional verification methods do not scale to the complexity of these systems and do not provide systematic methods to protect verified properties when not all the components can be verified. To address these challenges, this paper proposes a real-time mixed-trust computing framework that combines verification and protection. The framework introduces a new task model, where an application task can have both an untrusted and a trusted part. The untrusted part allows complex computations supported by a full OS with a realtime scheduler running in a VM hosted by a trusted hypervisor. The trusted part is executed by another scheduler within the hypervisor and is thus protected from the untrusted part. If the untrusted part fails to finish by a specific time, the trusted part is activated to preserve safety (e.g., prevent a crash) including its timing guarantees. This framework is the first allowing the use of untrusted components for CPS critical functions while preserving logical and timing guarantees, even in the presence of malicious attackers. We present the framework design and implementation along with the schedulability analysis and the coordination protocol between the trusted and untrusted parts. We also present our Raspberry Pi 3 implementation along with experiments showing the behavior of the system under failures of untrusted components, and a drone application to demonstrate its practicality.

Islam, S., Welzl, M., Gjessing, S..  2019.  How to Control a TCP: Minimally-Invasive Congestion Management for Datacenters. 2019 International Conference on Computing, Networking and Communications (ICNC). :121—125.

In multi-tenant datacenters, the hardware may be homogeneous but the traffic often is not. For instance, customers who pay an equal amount of money can get an unequal share of the bottleneck capacity when they do not open the same number of TCP connections. To address this problem, several recent proposals try to manipulate the traffic that TCP sends from the VMs. VCC and AC/DC are two new mechanisms that let the hypervisor control traffic by influencing the TCP receiver window (rwnd). This avoids changing the guest OS, but has limitations (it is not possible to make TCP increase its rate faster than it normally would). Seawall, on the other hand, completely rewrites TCP's congestion control, achieving fairness but requiring significant changes to both the hypervisor and the guest OS. There seems to be a need for a middle ground: a method to control TCP's sending rate without requiring a complete redesign of its congestion control. We introduce a minimally-invasive solution that is flexible enough to cater for needs ranging from weighted fairness in multi-tenant datacenters to potentially offering Internet-wide benefits from reduced interflow competition.

2020-11-17
Singh, M., Butakov, S., Jaafar, F..  2018.  Analyzing Overhead from Security and Administrative Functions in Virtual Environment. 2018 International Conference on Platform Technology and Service (PlatCon). :1—6.
The paper provides an analysis of the performance of an administrative component that helps the hypervisor to manage the resources of guest operating systems under fluctuation workload. The additional administrative component provides an extra layer of security to the guest operating systems and system as a whole. In this study, an administrative component was implemented by using Xen-hypervisor based para-virtualization technique and assigned some additional roles and responsibilities that reduce hypervisor workload. The study measured the resource utilizations of an administrative component when excessive input/output load passes passing through the system. Performance was measured in terms of bandwidth and CPU utilisation Based on the analysis of administrative component performance recommendations have been provided with the goal to improve system availability. Recommendations included detection of the performance saturation point that indicates the necessity to start load balancing procedures for the administrative component in the virtualized environment.
2020-11-02
Shen, Hanji, Long, Chun, Li, Jun, Wan, Wei, Song, Xiaofan.  2018.  A Method for Performance Optimization of Virtual Network I/O Based on DPDK-SRIOV*. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Information and Automation (ICIA). :1550—1554.
Network security testing devices play important roles in Cyber security. Most of the current network security testing devices are based on proprietary hardware, however, the virtual network security tester needs high network I/O throughput performance. Therefore, the solution of the problem, which provides high-performance network I/O in the virtual scene will be explained in this paper. The method we proposed for virtualized network I/O performance optimization on a general hardware platform is able to achieve the I/O throughput performance of the proprietary hardware. The Single Root I/O Virtualization (SRIOV) of the physical network card is divided into a plurality of virtual network function of VF, furthermore, it can be added to different VF and VM. Extensive experiment illustrated that the virtualization and the physical network card sharing based on hardware are realized, and they can be used by Data Plane Development Kit (DPDK) and SRIOV technology. Consequently, the test instrument applications in virtual machines achieves the rate of 10Gps and meet the I/O requirement.
2020-10-26
Li, Huhua, Zhan, Dongyang, Liu, Tianrui, Ye, Lin.  2019.  Using Deep-Learning-Based Memory Analysis for Malware Detection in Cloud. 2019 IEEE 16th International Conference on Mobile Ad Hoc and Sensor Systems Workshops (MASSW). :1–6.
Malware is one of the biggest threats in cloud computing. Malware running inside virtual machines or containers could steal critical information or continue to attack other cloud nodes. To detect malware in cloud, especially zero-day malware, signature-and machine-learning-based approaches are proposed to analyze the execution binary. However, malicious binary files may not permanently be stored in the file system of virtual machine or container, periodically scanner may not find the target files. Dynamic analysis approach usually introduce run-time overhead to virtual machines, which is not widely used in cloud. To solve these problems, we propose a memory analysis approach to detect malware, employing the deep learning technology. The system analyzes the memory image periodically during malware execution, which will not introduce run-time overhead. We first extract the memory snapshot from running virtual machines or containers. Then, the snapshot is converted to a grayscale image. Finally, we employ CNN to detect malware. In the learning phase, malicious and benign software are trained. In the testing phase, we test our system with real-world malwares.
Chen, Cheng-Yu, Hsiao, Shun-Wen.  2019.  IoT Malware Dynamic Analysis Profiling System and Family Behavior Analysis. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Big Data (Big Data). :6013–6015.
Not only the number of deployed IoT devices increases but also that of IoT malware increases. We eager to understand the threat made by IoT malware but we lack tools to observe, analyze and detect them. We design and implement an automatic, virtual machine-based profiling system to collect valuable IoT malware behavior, such as API call invocation, system call execution, etc. In addition to conventional profiling methods (e.g., strace and packet capture), the proposed profiling system adapts virtual machine introspection based API hooking technique to intercept API call invocation by malware, so that our introspection would not be detected by IoT malware. We then propose a method to convert the multiple sequential data (API calls) to a family behavior graph for further analysis.
2020-09-08
Mavridis, Ilias, Karatza, Helen.  2019.  Lightweight Virtualization Approaches for Software-Defined Systems and Cloud Computing: An Evaluation of Unikernels and Containers. 2019 Sixth International Conference on Software Defined Systems (SDS). :171–178.
Software defined systems use virtualization technologies to provide an abstraction of the hardware infrastructure at different layers. Ultimately, the adoption of software defined systems in all cloud infrastructure components will lead to Software Defined Cloud Computing. Nevertheless, virtualization has already been used for years and is a key element of cloud computing. Traditionally, virtual machines are deployed in cloud infrastructure and used to execute applications on common operating systems. New lightweight virtualization technologies, such as containers and unikernels, appeared later to improve resource efficiency and facilitate the decomposition of big monolithic applications into multiple, smaller services. In this work, we present and empirically evaluate four popular unikernel technologies, Docker containers and Docker LinuxKit. We deployed containers both on bare metal and on virtual machines. To fairly evaluate their performance, we created similar applications for unikernels and containers. Additionally, we deployed full-fledged database applications ported on both virtualization technologies. Although in bibliography there are a few studies which compare unikernels and containers, in our study for the first time, we provide a comprehensive performance evaluation of clean-slate and legacy unikernels, Docker containers and Docker LinuxKit.
2020-09-04
Zhang, Xiao, Wang, Yanqiu, Wang, Qing, Zhao, Xiaonan.  2019.  A New Approach to Double I/O Performance for Ceph Distributed File System in Cloud Computing. 2019 2nd International Conference on Data Intelligence and Security (ICDIS). :68—75.
Block storage resources are essential in an Infrastructure-as-a-Service(IaaS) cloud computing system. It is used for storing virtual machines' images. It offers persistent storage service even the virtual machine is off. Distribute storage systems are used to provide block storage services in IaaS, such as Amazon EBS, Cinder, Ceph, Sheepdog. Ceph is widely used as the backend block storage service of OpenStack platform. It converts block devices into objects with the same size and saves them on the local file system. The performance of block devices provided by Ceph is only 30% of hard disks in many cases. One of the key issues that affect the performance of Ceph is the three replicas for fault tolerance. But our research finds that replicas are not the real reason slow down the performance. In this paper, we present a new approach to accelerate the IO operations. The experiment results show that by using our storage engine, Ceph can offer faster IO performance than the hard disk in most cases. Our new storage engine provides more than three times up than the original one.
2020-08-28
Duncan, Adrian, Creese, Sadie, Goldsmith, Michael.  2019.  A Combined Attack-Tree and Kill-Chain Approach to Designing Attack-Detection Strategies for Malicious Insiders in Cloud Computing. 2019 International Conference on Cyber Security and Protection of Digital Services (Cyber Security). :1—9.

Attacks on cloud-computing services are becoming more prevalent with recent victims including Tesla, Aviva Insurance and SIM-card manufacturer Gemalto[1]. The risk posed to organisations from malicious insiders is becoming more widely known about and consequently many are now investing in hardware, software and new processes to try to detect these attacks. As for all types of attack vector, there will always be those which are not known about and those which are known about but remain exceptionally difficult to detect - particularly in a timely manner. We believe that insider attacks are of particular concern in a cloud-computing environment, and that cloud-service providers should enhance their ability to detect them by means of indirect detection. We propose a combined attack-tree and kill-chain based method for identifying multiple indirect detection measures. Specifically, the use of attack trees enables us to encapsulate all detection opportunities for insider attacks in cloud-service environments. Overlaying the attack tree on top of a kill chain in turn facilitates indirect detection opportunities higher-up the tree as well as allowing the provider to determine how far an attack has progressed once suspicious activity is detected. We demonstrate the method through consideration of a specific type of insider attack - that of attempting to capture virtual machines in transit within a cloud cluster via use of a network tap, however, the process discussed here applies equally to all cloud paradigms.

2020-06-08
Homsi, Soamar, Quan, Gang, Wen, Wujie, Chapparo-Baquero, Gustavo A., Njilla, Laurent.  2019.  Game Theoretic-Based Approaches for Cybersecurity-Aware Virtual Machine Placement in Public Cloud Clusters. 2019 19th IEEE/ACM International Symposium on Cluster, Cloud and Grid Computing (CCGRID). :272–281.
Allocating several Virtual Machines (VMs) onto a single server helps to increase cloud computing resource utilization and to reduce its operating expense. However, multiplexing VMs with different security levels on a single server gives rise to major VM-to-VM cybersecurity interdependency risks. In this paper, we address the problem of the static VM allocation with cybersecurity loss awareness by modeling it as a two-player zero-sum game between an attacker and a provider. We first obtain optimal solutions by employing the mathematical programming approach. We then seek to find the optimal solutions by quickly identifying the equilibrium allocation strategies in our formulated zero-sum game. We mean by "equilibrium" that none of the provider nor the attacker has any incentive to deviate from one's chosen strategy. Specifically, we study the characteristics of the game model, based on which, to develop effective and efficient allocation algorithms. Simulation results show that our proposed cybersecurity-aware consolidation algorithms can significantly outperform the commonly used multi-dimensional bin packing approaches for large-scale cloud data centers.
2020-04-17
Tian, Donghai, Ma, Rui, Jia, Xiaoqi, Hu, Changzhen.  2019.  A Kernel Rootkit Detection Approach Based on Virtualization and Machine Learning. IEEE Access. 7:91657—91666.

OS kernel is the core part of the operating system, and it plays an important role for OS resource management. A popular way to compromise OS kernel is through a kernel rootkit (i.e., malicious kernel module). Once a rootkit is loaded into the kernel space, it can carry out arbitrary malicious operations with high privilege. To defeat kernel rootkits, many approaches have been proposed in the past few years. However, existing methods suffer from some limitations: 1) most methods focus on user-mode rootkit detection; 2) some methods are limited to detect obfuscated kernel modules; and 3) some methods introduce significant performance overhead. To address these problems, we propose VKRD, a kernel rootkit detection system based on the hardware assisted virtualization technology. Compared with previous methods, VKRD can provide a transparent and an efficient execution environment for the target kernel module to reveal its run-time behavior. To select the important run-time features for training our detection models, we utilize the TF-IDF method. By combining the hardware assisted virtualization and machine learning techniques, our kernel rootkit detection solution could be potentially applied in the cloud environment. The experiments show that our system can detect windows kernel rootkits with high accuracy and moderate performance cost.

Chen, Guangxuan, Wu, Di, Chen, Guangxiao, Qin, Panke, Zhang, Lei, Liu, Qiang.  2019.  Research on Digital Forensics Framework for Malicious Behavior in Cloud. 2019 IEEE 4th Advanced Information Technology, Electronic and Automation Control Conference (IAEAC). 1:1375—1379.

The difficult of detecting, response, tracing the malicious behavior in cloud has brought great challenges to the law enforcement in combating cybercrimes. This paper presents a malicious behavior oriented framework of detection, emergency response, traceability, and digital forensics in cloud environment. A cloud-based malicious behavior detection mechanism based on SDN is constructed, which implements full-traffic flow detection technology and malicious virtual machine detection based on memory analysis. The emergency response and traceability module can clarify the types of the malicious behavior and the impacts of the events, and locate the source of the event. The key nodes and paths of the infection topology or propagation path of the malicious behavior will be located security measure will be dispatched timely. The proposed IaaS service based forensics module realized the virtualization facility memory evidence extraction and analysis techniques, which can solve volatile data loss problems that often happened in traditional forensic methods.

Yang, Zihan, Mi, Zeyu, Xia, Yubin.  2019.  Undertow: An Intra-Kernel Isolation Mechanism for Hardware-Assisted Virtual Machines. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Service-Oriented System Engineering (SOSE). :257—2575.
The prevalence of Cloud Computing has appealed many users to put their business into low-cost and flexible cloud servers instead of bare-metal machines. Most virtual machines in the cloud run commodity operating system(e.g., linux), and the complexity of such operating systems makes them more bug-prone and easier to be compromised. To mitigate the security threats, previous works attempt to mediate and filter system calls, transform all unpopular paths into popular paths, or implement a nested kernel along with the untrusted outter kernel to enforce certain security policies. However, such solutions only enforce read-only protection or assume that popular paths in the kernel to contain almost no bug, which is not always the case in the real world. To overcome their shortcomings and combine their advantages as much as possible, we propose a hardware-assisted isolation mechanism that isolates untrusted part of the kernel. To achieve isolation, we prepare multiple restricted Extended Page Table (EPT) during boot time, each of which has certain critical data unmapped from it so that the code executing in the isolated environment could not access sensitive data. We leverage the VMFUNC instruction already available in recent Intel processors to directly switch to another pre-defined EPT inside guest virtual machine without trapping into the underlying hypervisor, which is faster than the traditional trap-and-emulate procedure. The semantic gap is minimized and real-time check is achieved by allowing EPT violations to be converted to Virtualization Exception (VE), which could be handled inside guest kernel in non-root mode. Our preliminary evaluation shows that with hardware virtualization feature, we are able to run the untrusted code in an isolated environment with negligible overhead.
Liu, Sihang, Wei, Yizhou, Chi, Jianfeng, Shezan, Faysal Hossain, Tian, Yuan.  2019.  Side Channel Attacks in Computation Offloading Systems with GPU Virtualization. 2019 IEEE Security and Privacy Workshops (SPW). :156—161.

The Internet of Things (IoT) and mobile systems nowadays are required to perform more intensive computation, such as facial detection, image recognition and even remote gaming, etc. Due to the limited computation performance and power budget, it is sometimes impossible to perform these workloads locally. As high-performance GPUs become more common in the cloud, offloading the computation to the cloud becomes a possible choice. However, due to the fact that offloaded workloads from different devices (belonging to different users) are being computed in the same cloud, security concerns arise. Side channel attacks on GPU systems have been widely studied, where the threat model is the attacker and the victim are running on the same operating system. Recently, major GPU vendors have provided hardware and library support to virtualize GPUs for better isolation among users. This work studies the side channel attacks from one virtual machine to another where both share the same physical GPU. We show that it is possible to infer other user's activities in this setup and can further steal others deep learning model.

2020-03-27
Liu, Wenqing, Zhang, Kun, Tu, Bibo, Lin, Kunli.  2019.  HyperPS: A Hypervisor Monitoring Approach Based on Privilege Separation. 2019 IEEE 21st International Conference on High Performance Computing and Communications; IEEE 17th International Conference on Smart City; IEEE 5th International Conference on Data Science and Systems (HPCC/SmartCity/DSS). :981–988.

In monolithic operating system (OS), any error of system software can be exploit to destroy the whole system. The situation becomes much more severe in cloud environment, when the kernel and the hypervisor share the same address space. The security of guest Virtual Machines (VMs), both sensitive data and vital code, can no longer be guaranteed, once the hypervisor is compromised. Therefore, it is essential to deploy some security approaches to secure VMs, regardless of the hypervisor is safe or not. Some approaches propose microhypervisor reducing attack surface, or a new software requiring a higher privilege level than hypervisor. In this paper, we propose a novel approach, named HyperPS, which separates the fundamental and crucial privilege into a new trusted environment in order to monitor hypervisor. A pivotal condition for HyperPS is that hypervisor must not be allowed to manipulate any security-sensitive system resources, such as page tables, system control registers, interaction between VM and hypervisor as well as VM memory mapping. Besides, HyperPS proposes a trusted environment which does not rely on any higher privilege than the hypervisor. We have implemented a prototype for KVM hypervisor on x86 platform with multiple VMs running Linux. KVM with HyperPS can be applied to current commercial cloud computing industry with portability. The security analysis shows that this approach can provide effective monitoring against attacks, and the performance evaluation confirms the efficiency of HyperPS.

2020-03-09
Khan, Iqra, Durad, Hanif, Alam, Masoom.  2019.  Data Analytics Layer For high-interaction Honeypots. 2019 16th International Bhurban Conference on Applied Sciences and Technology (IBCAST). :681–686.

Security of VMs is now becoming a hot topic due to their outsourcing in cloud computing paradigm. All VMs present on the network are connected to each other, making exploited VMs danger to other VMs. and threats to organization. Rejuvenation of virtualization brought the emergence of hyper-visor based security services like VMI (Virtual machine introspection). As there is a greater chance for any intrusion detection system running on the same system, of being dis-abled by the malware or attacker. Monitoring of VMs using VMI, is one of the most researched and accepted technique, that is used to ensure computer systems security mostly in the paradigm of cloud computing. This thesis presents a work that is to integrate LibVMI with Volatility on a KVM, a Linux based hypervisor, to introspect memory of VMs. Both of these tools are used to monitor the state of live VMs. VMI capability of monitoring VMs is combined with the malware analysis and virtual honeypots to achieve the objective of this project. A testing environment is deployed, where a network of VMs is used to be introspected using Volatility plug-ins. Time execution of each plug-in executed on live VMs is calculated to observe the performance of Volatility plug-ins. All these VMs are deployed as Virtual Honeypots having honey-pots configured on them, which is used as a detection mechanism to trigger alerts when some malware attack the VMs. Using STIX (Structure Threat Information Expression), extracted IOCs are converted into the understandable, flexible, structured and shareable format.

El Balmany, Chawki, Asimi, Ahmed, Tbatou, Zakariae, Asimi, Younes, Guezzaz, Azidine.  2019.  Openstack: Launch a Secure User Virtual Machine Image into a Trust Public Cloud IaaS Environment. 2019 4th World Conference on Complex Systems (WCCS). :1–6.

Cloud Management Platforms (CMP) have been developed in recent years to set up cloud computing architecture. Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) is a cloud-delivered model designed by the provider to gather a set of IT resources which are furnished as services for user Virtual Machine Image (VMI) provisioning and management. Openstack is one of the most useful CMP which has been developed for industry and academic researches to simulate IaaS classical processes such as launch and store user VMI instance. In this paper, the main purpose is to adopt a security policy for a secure launch user VMI across a trust cloud environment founded on a combination of enhanced TPM remote attestation and cryptographic techniques to ensure confidentiality and integrity of user VMI requirements.

Wang, Xin, Wang, Liming, Miao, Fabiao, Yang, Jing.  2019.  SVMDF: A Secure Virtual Machine Deployment Framework to Mitigate Co-Resident Threat in Cloud. 2019 IEEE Symposium on Computers and Communications (ISCC). :1–7.

Recent studies have shown that co-resident attacks have aroused great security threat in cloud. Since hardware is shared among different tenants, malicious tenants can launch various co-resident attacks, such as side channel attacks, covert channel attacks and resource interference attacks. Existing countermeasures have their limitations and can not provide comprehensive defense against co-resident attacks. This paper combines the advantages of various countermeasures and proposes a complete co-resident threat defense solution which consists of co-resident-resistant VM allocation (CRRVA), analytic hierarchy process-based threat score mechanism (AHPTSM) and attack-aware VM reallocation (AAVR). CRRVA securely allocates VMs and also takes load balance and power consumption into consideration to make the allocation policy more practical. According to the intrinsic characteristics of co-resident attacks, AHPTSM evaluates VM's threat score which denotes the probability that a VM is suffering or conducting co-resident attacks based on analytic hierarchy process. And AAVR further migrates VMs with extremely high threat scores and separates VM pairs which are likely to be malicious to each other. Extensive experiments in CloudSim have shown that CRRVA can greatly reduce the allocation co-resident threat as well as balancing the load for both CSPs and tenants with little impact on power consumption. In addition, guided by threat score distribution, AAVR can effectively guarantee runtime co-resident security by migrating high threat score VMs with less migration cost.

Kourai, Kenichi, Shiota, Yuji.  2019.  Consistent Offline Update of Suspended Virtual Machines in Clouds. 2019 IEEE Intl Conf on Dependable, Autonomic and Secure Computing, Intl Conf on Pervasive Intelligence and Computing, Intl Conf on Cloud and Big Data Computing, Intl Conf on Cyber Science and Technology Congress (DASC/PiCom/CBDCom/CyberSciTech). :58–65.

In Infrastructure-as-a-Service clouds, there exist many virtual machines (VMs) that are not used for a long time. For such VMs, many vulnerabilities are often found in installed software while VMs are suspended. If security updates are applied to such VMs after the VMs are resumed, the VMs easily suffer from attacks via the Internet. To solve this problem, offline update of VMs has been proposed, but some approaches have to permit cloud administrators to resume users' VMs. The others are applicable only to completely stopped VMs and often corrupt virtual disks if they are applied to suspended VMs. In addition, it is sometimes difficult to accurately emulate security updates offline. In this paper, we propose OUassister, which enables consistent offline update of suspended VMs. OUassister emulates security updates of VMs offline in a non-intrusive manner and applies the emulation results to the VMs online. This separation prevents virtual disks of even suspended VMs from being corrupted. For more accurate emulation of security updates, OUassister provides an emulation environment using a technique called VM introspection. Using this environment, it automatically extracts updated files and executed scripts. We have implemented OUassister in Xen and confirmed that the time for critical online update was largely reduced.

Kandoussi, El Mehdi, El Mir, Iman, Hanini, Mohamed, Haqiq, Abdelkrim.  2019.  Modeling Virtual Machine Migration as a Security Mechanism by using Continuous-Time Markov Chain Model. 2019 4th World Conference on Complex Systems (WCCS). :1–6.

In Cloud Computing Environment, using only static security measures didn't mitigate the attack considerably. Hence, deployment of sophisticated methods by the attackers to understand the network topology of complex network makes the task easier. For this reason, the use of dynamic security measure as virtual machine (VM) migration increases uncertainty to locate a virtual machine in a dynamic attack surface. Although this, not all VM's migration enhances security. Indeed, the destination server to host the VM should be selected precisely in order to avoid externality and attack at the same time. In this paper, we model migration in cloud environment by using continuous Markov Chain. Then, we analyze the probability of a VM to be compromised based on the destination server parameters. Finally, we provide some numerical results to show the effectiveness of our approach in term of avoiding intrusion.

Alnaim, Abdulrahman K., Alwakeel, Ahmed M., Fernandez, Eduardo B..  2019.  Threats Against the Virtual Machine Environment of NFV. 2019 2nd International Conference on Computer Applications Information Security (ICCAIS). :1–5.

Network Function Virtualization (NFV) is an implementation of cloud computing that leverages virtualization technology to provide on-demand network functions such as firewalls, domain name servers, etc., as software services. One of the methods that help us understand the design and implementation process of such a new system in an abstract way is architectural modeling. Architectural modeling can be presented through UML diagrams to show the interaction between different components and its stakeholders. Also, it can be used to analyze the security threats and the possible countermeasures to mitigate the threats. In this paper, we show some of the possible threats that may jeopardize the security of NFV. We use misuse patterns to analyze misuses based on privilege escalation and VM escape threats. The misuse patterns are part of an ongoing catalog, which is the first step toward building a security reference architecture for NFV.