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Chaturvedi, Amit Kumar, Kumar, Punit, Sharma, Kalpana.  2020.  Proposing Innovative Intruder Detection System for Host Machines in Cloud Computing. 2020 9th International Conference System Modeling and Advancement in Research Trends (SMART). :292—296.
There is very significant role of Virtualization in cloud computing. The physical hardware in the cloud computing reside with the host machine and the virtualization software runs on it. The virtualization allows virtual machines to exist. The host machine shares its physical components such as memory, storage, and processor ultimately to handle the needs of the virtual machines. If an attacker effectively compromises one VM, it could outbreak others on the same host on the network over long periods of time. This is an gradually more popular method for cross-virtual-machine attacks, since traffic between VMs cannot be examined by standard IDS/IPS software programs. As we know that the cloud environment is distributed in nature and hence more susceptible to various types of intrusion attacks which include installing malicious software and generating backdoors. In a cloud environment, where organizations have hosted important and critical data, the security of underlying technologies becomes critical. To alleviate the hazard to cloud environments, Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) are a cover of defense. In this paper, we are proposing an innovative model for Intrusion Detection System for securing Host machines in cloud infrastructure. This proposed IDS has two important features: (1) signature based and (2) prompt alert system.
Diamanti, Alessio, Vilchez, José Manuel Sanchez, Secci, Stefano.  2020.  LSTM-based radiography for anomaly detection in softwarized infrastructures. 2020 32nd International Teletraffic Congress (ITC 32). :28–36.
Legacy and novel network services are expected to be migrated and designed to be deployed in fully virtualized environments. Starting with 5G, NFV becomes a formally required brick in the specifications, for services integrated within the infrastructure provider networks. This evolution leads to deployment of virtual resources Virtual-Machine (VM)-based, container-based and/or server-less platforms, all calling for a deep virtualization of infrastructure components. Such a network softwarization also unleashes further logical network virtualization, easing multi-layered, multi-actor and multi-access services, so as to be able to fulfill high availability, security, privacy and resilience requirements. However, the derived increased components heterogeneity makes the detection and the characterization of anomalies difficult, hence the relationship between anomaly detection and corresponding reconfiguration of the NFV stack to mitigate anomalies. In this article we propose an unsupervised machine-learning data-driven approach based on Long-Short- Term-Memory (LSTM) autoencoders to detect and characterize anomalies in virtualized networking services. With a radiography visualization, this approach can spot and describe deviations from nominal parameter values of any virtualized network service by means of a lightweight and iterative mean-squared reconstruction error analysis of LSTM-based autoencoders. We implement and validate the proposed methodology through experimental tests on a vIMS proof-of-concept deployed using Kubernetes.
Al-hamouri, Rahaf, Al-Jarrah, Heba, Al-Sharif, Ziad A., Jararweh, Yaser.  2020.  Measuring the Impacts of Virtualization on the Performance of Thread-Based Applications. 2020 Seventh International Conference on Software Defined Systems (SDS). :131–138.
The following topics are dealt with: cloud computing; software defined networking; cryptography; telecommunication traffic; Internet of Things; authorisation; software radio; cryptocurrencies; data privacy; learning (artificial intelligence).
Gonçalves, Charles F., Menasche, Daniel S., Avritzer, Alberto, Antunes, Nuno, Vieira, Marco.  2020.  A Model-Based Approach to Anomaly Detection Trading Detection Time and False Alarm Rate. 2020 Mediterranean Communication and Computer Networking Conference (MedComNet). :1—8.
The complexity and ubiquity of modern computing systems is a fertile ground for anomalies, including security and privacy breaches. In this paper, we propose a new methodology that addresses the practical challenges to implement anomaly detection approaches. Specifically, it is challenging to define normal behavior comprehensively and to acquire data on anomalies in diverse cloud environments. To tackle those challenges, we focus on anomaly detection approaches based on system performance signatures. In particular, performance signatures have the potential of detecting zero-day attacks, as those approaches are based on detecting performance deviations and do not require detailed knowledge of attack history. The proposed methodology leverages an analytical performance model and experimentation, and allows to control the rate of false positives in a principled manner. The methodology is evaluated using the TPCx-V workload, which was profiled during a set of executions using resource exhaustion anomalies that emulate the effects of anomalies affecting system performance. The proposed approach was able to successfully detect the anomalies, with a low number of false positives (precision 90%-98%).
Heydari, Vahid.  2020.  A New Security Framework for Remote Patient Monitoring Devices. 2020 International Symposium on Networks, Computers and Communications (ISNCC). :1—4.

Digital connectivity is fundamental to the health care system to deliver safe and effective care. However, insecure connectivity could be a major threat to patient safety and privacy (e.g., in August 2017, FDA recalled 465,000 pacemakers because of discovering security flaws). Although connecting a patient's pacemaker to the Internet has many advantages for monitoring the patient, this connectivity opens a new door for cyber-attackers to steal the patient data or even control the pacemaker or damage it. Therefore, patients are forced to choose between connectivity and security. This paper presents a framework for secure and private communications between wearable medical devices and patient monitoring systems. The primary objective of this research is twofold, first to identify and analyze the communication vulnerabilities, second, to develop a framework for combating unauthorized access to data through the compromising of computer security. Specifically, hiding targets from cyber-attackers could prevent our system from future cyber-attacks. This is the most effective way to stop cyber-attacks in their first step.

Usman, S., Winarno, I., Sudarsono, A..  2020.  Implementation of SDN-based IDS to protect Virtualization Server against HTTP DoS attacks. 2020 International Electronics Symposium (IES). :195—198.
Virtualization and Software-defined Networking (SDN) are emerging technologies that play a major role in cloud computing. Cloud computing provides efficient utilization, high performance, and resource availability on demand. However, virtualization environments are vulnerable to various types of intrusion attacks that involve installing malicious software and denial of services (DoS) attacks. Utilizing SDN technology, makes the idea of SDN-based security applications attractive in the fight against DoS attacks. Network intrusion detection system (IDS) which is used to perform network traffic analysis as a detection system implemented on SDN networks to protect virtualization servers from HTTP DoS attacks. The experimental results show that SDN-based IDS is able to detect and mitigate HTTP DoS attacks effectively.
Shahriar, M. R., Sunny, S. M. N. A., Liu, X., Leu, M. C., Hu, L., Nguyen, N..  2018.  MTComm Based Virtualization and Integration of Physical Machine Operations with Digital-Twins in Cyber-Physical Manufacturing Cloud. 2018 5th IEEE International Conference on Cyber Security and Cloud Computing (CSCloud)/2018 4th IEEE International Conference on Edge Computing and Scalable Cloud (EdgeCom). :46—51.

Digital-Twins simulate physical world objects by creating 'as-is' virtual images in a cyberspace. In order to create a well synchronized digital-twin simulator in manufacturing, information and activities of a physical machine need to be virtualized. Many existing digital-twins stream read-only data of machine sensors and do not incorporate operations of manufacturing machines through Internet. In this paper, a new method of virtualization is proposed to integrate machining data and operations into the digital-twins using Internet scale machine tool communication method. A fully functional digital-twin is implemented in CPMC testbed using MTComm and several manufacturing application scenarios are developed to evaluate the proposed method and system. Performance analysis shows that it is capable of providing data-driven visual monitoring of a manufacturing process and performing manufacturing operations through digital twins over the Internet. Results of the experiments also shows that the MTComm based digital twins have an excellent efficiency.

Hilt, V., Sparks, K..  2019.  Future edge clouds. Bell Labs Technical Journal. 24:1–17.
Widespread deployment of centralized clouds has changed the way internet services are developed, deployed and operated. Centralized clouds have substantially extended the market opportunities for online services, enabled new entities to create and operate internet-scale services, and changed the way traditional companies run their operations. However, there are types of services that are unsuitable for today's centralized clouds such as highly interactive virtual and augmented reality (VR/AR) applications, high-resolution gaming, virtualized RAN, mass IoT data processing and industrial robot control. They can be broadly categorized as either latency-sensitive network functions, latency-sensitive applications, and/or high-bandwidth services. What these basic functions have in common is the need for a more distributed cloud infrastructure—an infrastructure we call edge clouds. In this paper, we examine the evolution of clouds, and edge clouds especially, and look at the developing market for edge clouds and what developments are required in networking, hardware and software to support them.
Aman, W., Khan, F..  2019.  Ontology-based Dynamic and Context-aware Security Assessment Automation for Critical Applications. 2019 IEEE 8th Global Conference on Consumer Electronics (GCCE). :644–647.

Several assessment techniques and methodologies exist to analyze the security of an application dynamically. However, they either are focused on a particular product or are mainly concerned about the assessment process rather than the product's security confidence. Most crucially, they tend to assess the security of a target application as a standalone artifact without assessing its host infrastructure. Such attempts can undervalue the overall security posture since the infrastructure becomes crucial when it hosts a critical application. We present an ontology-based security model that aims to provide the necessary knowledge, including network settings, application configurations, testing techniques and tools, and security metrics to evaluate the security aptitude of a critical application in the context of its hosting infrastructure. The objective is to integrate the current good practices and standards in security testing and virtualization to furnish an on-demand and test-ready virtual target infrastructure to execute the critical application and to initiate a context-aware and quantifiable security assessment process in an automated manner. Furthermore, we present a security assessment architecture to reflect on how the ontology can be integrated into a standard process.

Wu, Yuming, Liu, Yutao, Liu, Ruifeng, Chen, Haibo, Zang, Binyu, Guan, Haibing.  2018.  Comprehensive VM Protection Against Untrusted Hypervisor Through Retrofitted AMD Memory Encryption. 2018 IEEE International Symposium on High Performance Computer Architecture (HPCA).

The confidentiality of tenant's data is confronted with high risk when facing hardware attacks and privileged malicious software. Hardware-based memory encryption is one of the promising means to provide strong guarantees of data security. Recently AMD has proposed its new memory encryption hardware called SME and SEV, which can selectively encrypt memory regions in a fine-grained manner, e.g., by setting the C-bits in the page table entries. More importantly, SEV further supports encrypted virtual machines. This, intuitively, has provided a new opportunity to protect data confidentiality in guest VMs against an untrusted hypervisor in the cloud environment. In this paper, we first provide a security analysis on the (in)security of SEV and uncover a set of security issues of using SEV as a means to defend against an untrusted hypervisor. Based on the study, we then propose a software-based extension to the SEV feature, namely Fidelius, to address those issues while retaining performance efficiency. Fidelius separates the management of critical resources from service provisioning and revokes the permissions of accessing specific resources from the un-trusted hypervisor. By adopting a sibling-based protection mechanism with non-bypassable memory isolation, Fidelius embraces both security and efficiency, as it introduces no new layer of abstraction. Meanwhile, Fidelius reuses the SEV API to provide a full VM life-cycle protection, including two sets of para-virtualized I/O interfaces to encode the I/O data, which is not considered in the SEV hardware design. A detailed and quantitative security analysis shows its effectiveness in protecting tenant's data from a variety of attack surfaces, and the performance evaluation confirms the performance efficiency of Fidelius.

Shen, Hanji, Long, Chun, Li, Jun, Wan, Wei, Song, Xiaofan.  2018.  A Method for Performance Optimization of Virtual Network I/O Based on DPDK-SRIOV*. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Information and Automation (ICIA). :1550—1554.
Network security testing devices play important roles in Cyber security. Most of the current network security testing devices are based on proprietary hardware, however, the virtual network security tester needs high network I/O throughput performance. Therefore, the solution of the problem, which provides high-performance network I/O in the virtual scene will be explained in this paper. The method we proposed for virtualized network I/O performance optimization on a general hardware platform is able to achieve the I/O throughput performance of the proprietary hardware. The Single Root I/O Virtualization (SRIOV) of the physical network card is divided into a plurality of virtual network function of VF, furthermore, it can be added to different VF and VM. Extensive experiment illustrated that the virtualization and the physical network card sharing based on hardware are realized, and they can be used by Data Plane Development Kit (DPDK) and SRIOV technology. Consequently, the test instrument applications in virtual machines achieves the rate of 10Gps and meet the I/O requirement.
Kahla, Mostafa, Azab, Mohamed, Mansour, Ahmed.  2018.  Secure, Resilient, and Self-Configuring Fog Architecture for Untrustworthy IoT Environments. 2018 17th IEEE International Conference On Trust, Security And Privacy In Computing And Communications/ 12th IEEE International Conference On Big Data Science And Engineering (TrustCom/BigDataSE). :49—54.

The extensive increase in the number of IoT devices and the massive data generated and sent to the cloud hinder the cloud abilities to handle it. Further, some IoT devices are latency-sensitive. Such sensitivity makes it harder for far clouds to handle the IoT needs in a timely manner. A new technology named "Fog computing" has emerged as a solution to such problems. Fog computing relies on close by computational devices to handle the conventional cloud load. However, Fog computing introduced additional problems related to the trustworthiness and safety of such devices. Unfortunately, the suggested architectures did not consider such problem. In this paper we present a novel self-configuring fog architecture to support IoT networks with security and trust in mind. We realize the concept of Moving-target defense by mobilizing the applications inside the fog using live migrations. Performance evaluations using a benchmark for mobilized applications showed that the added overhead of live migrations is very small making it deployable in real scenarios. Finally, we presented a mathematical model to estimate the survival probabilities of both static and mobile applications within the fog. Moreover, this work can be extended to other systems such as mobile ad-hoc networks (MANETS) or in vehicular cloud computing (VCC).

Mavridis, Ilias, Karatza, Helen.  2019.  Lightweight Virtualization Approaches for Software-Defined Systems and Cloud Computing: An Evaluation of Unikernels and Containers. 2019 Sixth International Conference on Software Defined Systems (SDS). :171–178.
Software defined systems use virtualization technologies to provide an abstraction of the hardware infrastructure at different layers. Ultimately, the adoption of software defined systems in all cloud infrastructure components will lead to Software Defined Cloud Computing. Nevertheless, virtualization has already been used for years and is a key element of cloud computing. Traditionally, virtual machines are deployed in cloud infrastructure and used to execute applications on common operating systems. New lightweight virtualization technologies, such as containers and unikernels, appeared later to improve resource efficiency and facilitate the decomposition of big monolithic applications into multiple, smaller services. In this work, we present and empirically evaluate four popular unikernel technologies, Docker containers and Docker LinuxKit. We deployed containers both on bare metal and on virtual machines. To fairly evaluate their performance, we created similar applications for unikernels and containers. Additionally, we deployed full-fledged database applications ported on both virtualization technologies. Although in bibliography there are a few studies which compare unikernels and containers, in our study for the first time, we provide a comprehensive performance evaluation of clean-slate and legacy unikernels, Docker containers and Docker LinuxKit.
Xu, Shuiling, Ji, Xinsheng, Liu, Wenyan.  2019.  Enhancing the Reliability of NFV with Heterogeneous Backup. 2019 IEEE 3rd Information Technology, Networking, Electronic and Automation Control Conference (ITNEC). :923–927.
Virtual network function provides tenant with flexible and scalable end-to-end service chaining in the cloud computing and data center environments. However, comparing with traditional hardware network devices, the uncertainty caused by software and virtualization of Network Function Virtualization expands the attack surface, making the network node vulnerable to a certain types of attacks. The existing approaches for solving the problem of reliability are able to reduce the impact of failure of physical devices, but pay little attention to the attack scenario, which could be persistent and covert. In this paper, a heterogeneous backup strategy is brought up, enhancing the intrusion tolerance of NFV SFC by dynamically switching the VNF executor. The validity of the method is verified by simulation and game theory analysis.
Guelton, Serge, Guinet, Adrien, Brunet, Pierrick, Martinez, Juan Manuel, Dagnat, Fabien, Szlifierski, Nicolas.  2018.  [Research Paper] Combining Obfuscation and Optimizations in the Real World. 2018 IEEE 18th International Working Conference on Source Code Analysis and Manipulation (SCAM). :24–33.
Code obfuscation is the de facto standard to protect intellectual property when delivering code in an unmanaged environment. It relies on additive layers of code tangling techniques, white-box encryption calls and platform-specific or tool-specific countermeasures to make it harder for a reverse engineer to access critical pieces of data or to understand core algorithms. The literature provides plenty of different obfuscation techniques that can be used at compile time to transform data or control flow in order to provide some kind of protection against different reverse engineering scenarii. Scheduling code transformations to optimize a given metric is known as the pass scheduling problem, a problem known to be NP-hard, but solved in a practical way using hard-coded sequences that are generally satisfactory. Adding code obfuscation to the problem introduces two new dimensions. First, as a code obfuscator needs to find a balance between obfuscation and performance, pass scheduling becomes a multi-criteria optimization problem. Second, obfuscation passes transform their inputs in unconventional ways, which means some pass combinations may not be desirable or even valid. This paper highlights several issues met when blindly chaining different kind of obfuscation and optimization passes, emphasizing the need of a formal model to combine them. It proposes a non-intrusive formalism to leverage on sequential pass management techniques. The model is validated on real-world scenarii gathered during the development of an industrial-strength obfuscator on top of the LLVM compiler infrastructure.
Zhang, Shisheng, Wang, Chencheng, Wang, Qishu.  2019.  Research on Time Concealed Channel Technology of Cloud Computing Platform Based on Shared Memory. 2019 IEEE 4th Advanced Information Technology, Electronic and Automation Control Conference (IAEAC). 1:904—909.

Security issues severely restrict the development and popularization of cloud computing. As a way of data leakage, covert channel greatly threatens the security of cloud platform. This paper introduces the types and research status of covert channels, and discusses the classical detection and interference methods of time-covert channels on cloud platforms for shared memory time covert channels.

Tian, Donghai, Ma, Rui, Jia, Xiaoqi, Hu, Changzhen.  2019.  A Kernel Rootkit Detection Approach Based on Virtualization and Machine Learning. IEEE Access. 7:91657—91666.

OS kernel is the core part of the operating system, and it plays an important role for OS resource management. A popular way to compromise OS kernel is through a kernel rootkit (i.e., malicious kernel module). Once a rootkit is loaded into the kernel space, it can carry out arbitrary malicious operations with high privilege. To defeat kernel rootkits, many approaches have been proposed in the past few years. However, existing methods suffer from some limitations: 1) most methods focus on user-mode rootkit detection; 2) some methods are limited to detect obfuscated kernel modules; and 3) some methods introduce significant performance overhead. To address these problems, we propose VKRD, a kernel rootkit detection system based on the hardware assisted virtualization technology. Compared with previous methods, VKRD can provide a transparent and an efficient execution environment for the target kernel module to reveal its run-time behavior. To select the important run-time features for training our detection models, we utilize the TF-IDF method. By combining the hardware assisted virtualization and machine learning techniques, our kernel rootkit detection solution could be potentially applied in the cloud environment. The experiments show that our system can detect windows kernel rootkits with high accuracy and moderate performance cost.

Jmila, Houda, Blanc, Gregory.  2019.  Designing Security-Aware Service Requests for NFV-Enabled Networks. 2019 28th International Conference on Computer Communication and Networks (ICCCN). :1—9.

Network Function Virtualization (NFV) is a recent concept where virtualization enables the shift from network functions (e.g., routers, switches, load-balancers, proxies) on specialized hardware appliances to software images running on all-purpose, high-volume servers. The resource allocation problem in the NFV environment has received considerable attention in the past years. However, little attention was paid to the security aspects of the problem in spite of the increasing number of vulnerabilities faced by cloud-based applications. Securing the services is an urgent need to completely benefit from the advantages offered by NFV. In this paper, we show how a network service request, composed of a set of service function chains (SFC) should be modified and enriched to take into consideration the security requirements of the supported service. We examine the well-known security best practices and propose a two-step algorithm that extends the initial SFC requests to a more complex chaining model that includes the security requirements of the service.

You, Ruibang, Yuan, Zimu, Tu, Bibo, Cheng, Jie.  2019.  HP-SDDAN: High-Performance Software-Defined Data Access Network. 2019 IEEE 21st International Conference on High Performance Computing and Communications; IEEE 17th International Conference on Smart City; IEEE 5th International Conference on Data Science and Systems (HPCC/SmartCity/DSS). :849—856.

Recently, data protection has become increasingly important in cloud environments. The cloud platform has global user information, rich storage resource allocation information, and a fuller understanding of data attributes. At the same time, there is an urgent need for data access control to provide data security, and software-defined network, as a ready-made facility, has a global network view, global network management capabilities, and programable network rules. In this paper, we present an approach, named High-Performance Software-Defined Data Access Network (HP-SDDAN), providing software-defined data access network architecture, global data attribute management and attribute-based data access network. HP-SDDAN combines the excellent features of cloud platform and software-defined network, and fully considers the performance to implement software-defined data access network. In evaluation, we verify the effectiveness and efficiency of HP-SDDAN implementation, with only 1.46% overhead to achieve attribute-based data access control of attribute-based differential privacy.

Yang, Zihan, Mi, Zeyu, Xia, Yubin.  2019.  Undertow: An Intra-Kernel Isolation Mechanism for Hardware-Assisted Virtual Machines. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Service-Oriented System Engineering (SOSE). :257—2575.
The prevalence of Cloud Computing has appealed many users to put their business into low-cost and flexible cloud servers instead of bare-metal machines. Most virtual machines in the cloud run commodity operating system(e.g., linux), and the complexity of such operating systems makes them more bug-prone and easier to be compromised. To mitigate the security threats, previous works attempt to mediate and filter system calls, transform all unpopular paths into popular paths, or implement a nested kernel along with the untrusted outter kernel to enforce certain security policies. However, such solutions only enforce read-only protection or assume that popular paths in the kernel to contain almost no bug, which is not always the case in the real world. To overcome their shortcomings and combine their advantages as much as possible, we propose a hardware-assisted isolation mechanism that isolates untrusted part of the kernel. To achieve isolation, we prepare multiple restricted Extended Page Table (EPT) during boot time, each of which has certain critical data unmapped from it so that the code executing in the isolated environment could not access sensitive data. We leverage the VMFUNC instruction already available in recent Intel processors to directly switch to another pre-defined EPT inside guest virtual machine without trapping into the underlying hypervisor, which is faster than the traditional trap-and-emulate procedure. The semantic gap is minimized and real-time check is achieved by allowing EPT violations to be converted to Virtualization Exception (VE), which could be handled inside guest kernel in non-root mode. Our preliminary evaluation shows that with hardware virtualization feature, we are able to run the untrusted code in an isolated environment with negligible overhead.
Liu, Sihang, Wei, Yizhou, Chi, Jianfeng, Shezan, Faysal Hossain, Tian, Yuan.  2019.  Side Channel Attacks in Computation Offloading Systems with GPU Virtualization. 2019 IEEE Security and Privacy Workshops (SPW). :156—161.

The Internet of Things (IoT) and mobile systems nowadays are required to perform more intensive computation, such as facial detection, image recognition and even remote gaming, etc. Due to the limited computation performance and power budget, it is sometimes impossible to perform these workloads locally. As high-performance GPUs become more common in the cloud, offloading the computation to the cloud becomes a possible choice. However, due to the fact that offloaded workloads from different devices (belonging to different users) are being computed in the same cloud, security concerns arise. Side channel attacks on GPU systems have been widely studied, where the threat model is the attacker and the victim are running on the same operating system. Recently, major GPU vendors have provided hardware and library support to virtualize GPUs for better isolation among users. This work studies the side channel attacks from one virtual machine to another where both share the same physical GPU. We show that it is possible to infer other user's activities in this setup and can further steal others deep learning model.

Brito, Andrey, Brasileiro, Francisco, Blanquer, Ignacio, Silva, Altigran, Carvalho, André.  2019.  ATMOSPHERE: Adaptive, Trustworthy, Manageable, Orchestrated, Secure, Privacy-Assuring, Hybrid Ecosystem for Resilient Cloud Computing. 2019 9th Latin-American Symposium on Dependable Computing (LADC). :1–4.
This paper describes the goals of the ATMOSPHERE project, which is a multi-institutional research and development (R&D) effort aiming at designing and implementing a framework and platform to develop, build, deploy, measure and evolve trustworthy, cloud-enabled applications. The proposed system addresses the federation of geographically distributed cloud computing providers that rely on lightweight virtualization, and provide access to heterogeneous sets of resources. In addition, the system also considers both classic trustworthiness properties from the systems community, such as dependability and security, and from the machine learning community, such as fairness and transparency. We present the architecture that has been proposed to address these challenges and discuss some preliminary results.
Watanabe, Hidenobu, Kondo, Tohru, Ohigashi, Toshihiro.  2019.  Implementation of Platform Controller and Process Modules of the Edge Computing for IoT Platform. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications Workshops (PerCom Workshops). :407—410.
Edge computing requires a flexible choice of data-processing and rapidly computation performed at the edge of networks. We proposed an edge computing platform with container-based virtualization technology. In the platform, data-processing instances are modularized and deployed to edge nodes suitable for user requirements with keeping the data-processing flows within wide area network. This paper reports the platform controller and the process modules implemented to realize the secure and flexible edge computing platform.
Repetto, M., Carrega, A., Lamanna, G..  2019.  An architecture to manage security services for cloud applications. 2019 4th International Conference on Computing, Communications and Security (ICCCS). :1—8.
The uptake of virtualization and cloud technologies has pushed novel development and operation models for the software, bringing more agility and automation. Unfortunately, cyber-security paradigms have not evolved at the same pace and are not yet able to effectively tackle the progressive disappearing of a sharp security perimeter. In this paper, we describe a novel cyber-security architecture for cloud-based distributed applications and network services. We propose a security orchestrator that controls pervasive, lightweight, and programmable security hooks embedded in the virtual functions that compose the cloud application, pursuing better visibility and more automation in this domain. Our approach improves existing management practice for service orchestration, by decoupling the management of the business logic from that of security. We also describe the current implementation stage for a programmable monitoring, inspection, and enforcement framework, which represents the ground technology for the realization of the whole architecture.
Liu, Wenqing, Zhang, Kun, Tu, Bibo, Lin, Kunli.  2019.  HyperPS: A Hypervisor Monitoring Approach Based on Privilege Separation. 2019 IEEE 21st International Conference on High Performance Computing and Communications; IEEE 17th International Conference on Smart City; IEEE 5th International Conference on Data Science and Systems (HPCC/SmartCity/DSS). :981–988.

In monolithic operating system (OS), any error of system software can be exploit to destroy the whole system. The situation becomes much more severe in cloud environment, when the kernel and the hypervisor share the same address space. The security of guest Virtual Machines (VMs), both sensitive data and vital code, can no longer be guaranteed, once the hypervisor is compromised. Therefore, it is essential to deploy some security approaches to secure VMs, regardless of the hypervisor is safe or not. Some approaches propose microhypervisor reducing attack surface, or a new software requiring a higher privilege level than hypervisor. In this paper, we propose a novel approach, named HyperPS, which separates the fundamental and crucial privilege into a new trusted environment in order to monitor hypervisor. A pivotal condition for HyperPS is that hypervisor must not be allowed to manipulate any security-sensitive system resources, such as page tables, system control registers, interaction between VM and hypervisor as well as VM memory mapping. Besides, HyperPS proposes a trusted environment which does not rely on any higher privilege than the hypervisor. We have implemented a prototype for KVM hypervisor on x86 platform with multiple VMs running Linux. KVM with HyperPS can be applied to current commercial cloud computing industry with portability. The security analysis shows that this approach can provide effective monitoring against attacks, and the performance evaluation confirms the efficiency of HyperPS.