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Takita, Yutaka, Miyabe, Masatake, Tomonaga, Hiroshi, Oguchi, Naoki.  2020.  Scalable Impact Range Detection against Newly Added Rules for Smart Network Verification. 2020 IEEE 44th Annual Computers, Software, and Applications Conference (COMPSAC). :1471–1476.
Technological progress in cloud networking, 5G networks, and the IoT (Internet of Things) are remarkable. In addition, demands for flexible construction of SoEs (Systems on Engagement) for various type of businesses are increasing. In such environments, dynamic changes of network rules, such as access control (AC) or packet forwarding, are required to ensure function and security in networks. On the other hand, it is becoming increasingly difficult to grasp the exact situation in such networks by utilizing current well-known network verification technologies since a huge number of network rules are complexly intertwined. To mitigate these issues, we have proposed a scalable network verification approach utilizing the concept of "Packet Equivalence Class (PEC)," which enable precise network function verification by strictly recognizing the impact range of each network rule. However, this approach is still not scalable for very large-scale networks which consist of tens of thousands of routers. In this paper, we enhanced our impact range detection algorithm for practical large-scale networks. Through evaluation in the network with more than 80,000 AC rules, we confirmed that our enhanced algorithm can achieve precise impact range detection in under 600 seconds.
Soliman, H. M..  2020.  An Optimization Approach to Graph Partitioning for Detecting Persistent Attacks in Enterprise Networks. 2020 International Symposium on Networks, Computers and Communications (ISNCC). :1—6.
Advanced Persistent Threats (APTs) refer to sophisticated, prolonged and multi-step attacks, planned and executed by skilled adversaries targeting government and enterprise networks. Attack graphs' topologies can be leveraged to detect, explain and visualize the progress of such attacks. However, due to the abundance of false-positives, such graphs are usually overwhelmingly large and difficult for an analyst to understand. Graph partitioning refers to the problem of reducing the graph of alerts to a set of smaller incidents that are easier for an analyst to process and better represent the actual attack plan. Existing approaches are oblivious to the security-context of the problem at hand and result in graphs which, while smaller, make little sense from a security perspective. In this paper, we propose an optimization approach allowing us to generate security-aware partitions, utilizing aspects such as the kill chain progression, number of assets involved, as well as the size of the graph. Using real-world datasets, the results show that our approach produces graphs that are better at capturing the underlying attack compared to state-of-the-art approaches and are easier for the analyst to understand.
Li, Y., Yang, X., Sun, P., Qi, H., Lyu, S..  2020.  Celeb-DF: A Large-Scale Challenging Dataset for DeepFake Forensics. 2020 IEEE/CVF Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR). :3204—3213.
AI-synthesized face-swapping videos, commonly known as DeepFakes, is an emerging problem threatening the trustworthiness of online information. The need to develop and evaluate DeepFake detection algorithms calls for datasets of DeepFake videos. However, current DeepFake datasets suffer from low visual quality and do not resemble DeepFake videos circulated on the Internet. We present a new large-scale challenging DeepFake video dataset, Celeb-DF, which contains 5,639 high-quality DeepFake videos of celebrities generated using improved synthesis process. We conduct a comprehensive evaluation of DeepFake detection methods and datasets to demonstrate the escalated level of challenges posed by Celeb-DF.
Fan, M., Luo, X., Liu, J., Wang, M., Nong, C., Zheng, Q., Liu, T..  2019.  Graph Embedding Based Familial Analysis of Android Malware using Unsupervised Learning. 2019 IEEE/ACM 41st International Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE). :771—782.

The rapid growth of Android malware has posed severe security threats to smartphone users. On the basis of the familial trait of Android malware observed by previous work, the familial analysis is a promising way to help analysts better focus on the commonalities of malware samples within the same families, thus reducing the analytical workload and accelerating malware analysis. The majority of existing approaches rely on supervised learning and face three main challenges, i.e., low accuracy, low efficiency, and the lack of labeled dataset. To address these challenges, we first construct a fine-grained behavior model by abstracting the program semantics into a set of subgraphs. Then, we propose SRA, a novel feature that depicts the similarity relationships between the Structural Roles of sensitive API call nodes in subgraphs. An SRA is obtained based on graph embedding techniques and represented as a vector, thus we can effectively reduce the high complexity of graph matching. After that, instead of training a classifier with labeled samples, we construct malware link network based on SRAs and apply community detection algorithms on it to group the unlabeled samples into groups. We implement these ideas in a system called GefDroid that performs Graph embedding based familial analysis of AnDroid malware using unsupervised learning. Moreover, we conduct extensive experiments to evaluate GefDroid on three datasets with ground truth. The results show that GefDroid can achieve high agreements (0.707-0.883 in term of NMI) between the clustering results and the ground truth. Furthermore, GefDroid requires only linear run-time overhead and takes around 8.6s to analyze a sample on average, which is considerably faster than the previous work.

Kumar, Sushil, Mann, Kulwinder Singh.  2019.  Prevention of DoS Attacks by Detection of Multiple Malicious Nodes in VANETs. 2019 International Conference on Automation, Computational and Technology Management (ICACTM). :89—94.

Vehicular Adhoc Network (VANET), a specialized form of MANET in which safety is the major concern as critical information related to driver's safety and assistance need to be disseminated between the vehicle nodes. The security of the nodes can be increased, if the network availability is increased. The availability of the network is decreased, if there is Denial of Service Attacks (DoS) in the network. In this paper, a packet detection algorithm for the prevention of DoS attacks is proposed. This algorithm will be able to detect the multiple malicious nodes in the network which are sending irrelevant packets to jam the network and that will eventually stop the network to send the safety messages. The proposed algorithm was simulated in NS-2 and the quantitative values of packet delivery ratio, packet loss ratio, network throughput proves that the proposed algorithm enhance the security of the network by detecting the DoS attack well in time.

Wang, Tianhao, Kerschbaum, Florian.  2019.  Attacks on Digital Watermarks for Deep Neural Networks. ICASSP 2019 - 2019 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP). :2622—2626.
Training deep neural networks is a computationally expensive task. Furthermore, models are often derived from proprietary datasets that have been carefully prepared and labelled. Hence, creators of deep learning models want to protect their models against intellectual property theft. However, this is not always possible, since the model may, e.g., be embedded in a mobile app for fast response times. As a countermeasure watermarks for deep neural networks have been developed that embed secret information into the model. This information can later be retrieved by the creator to prove ownership. Uchida et al. proposed the first such watermarking method. The advantage of their scheme is that it does not compromise the accuracy of the model prediction. However, in this paper we show that their technique modifies the statistical distribution of the model. Using this modification we can not only detect the presence of a watermark, but even derive its embedding length and use this information to remove the watermark by overwriting it. We show analytically that our detection algorithm follows consequentially from their embedding algorithm and propose a possible countermeasure. Our findings shall help to refine the definition of undetectability of watermarks for deep neural networks.
Luo, Xueting, Lu, Yueming.  2019.  A Method of Conflict Detection for Security Policy Based on B+ Tree. 2019 IEEE Fourth International Conference on Data Science in Cyberspace (DSC). :466-472.

Security policy is widely used in network management systems to ensure network security. It is necessary to detect and resolve conflicts in security policies. This paper analyzes the shortcomings of existing security policy conflict detection methods and proposes a B+ tree-based security policy conflict detection method. First, the security policy is dimensioned to make each attribute corresponds to one dimension. Then, a layer of B+ tree index is constructed at each dimension level. Each rule will be uniquely mapped by multiple layers of nested indexes. This method can greatly improve the efficiency of conflict detection. The experimental results show that the method has very stable performance which can effectively prevent conflicts, the type of policy conflict can be detected quickly and accurately.

Zhang, Naiji, Jaafar, Fehmi, Malik, Yasir.  2019.  Low-Rate DoS Attack Detection Using PSD Based Entropy and Machine Learning. 2019 6th IEEE International Conference on Cyber Security and Cloud Computing (CSCloud)/ 2019 5th IEEE International Conference on Edge Computing and Scalable Cloud (EdgeCom). :59–62.
The Distributed Denial of Service attack is one of the most common attacks and it is hard to mitigate, however, it has become more difficult while dealing with the Low-rate DoS (LDoS) attacks. The LDoS exploits the vulnerability of TCP congestion-control mechanism by sending malicious traffic at the low constant rate and influence the victim machine. Recently, machine learning approaches are applied to detect the complex DDoS attacks and improve the efficiency and robustness of the intrusion detection system. In this research, the algorithm is designed to balance the detection rate and its efficiency. The detection algorithm combines the Power Spectral Density (PSD) entropy function and Support Vector Machine to detect LDoS traffic from normal traffic. In our solution, the detection rate and efficiency are adjustable based on the parameter in the decision algorithm. To have high efficiency, the detection method will always detect the attacks by calculating PSD-entropy first and compare it with the two adaptive thresholds. The thresholds can efficiently filter nearly 19% of the samples with a high detection rate. To minimize the computational cost and look only for the patterns that are most relevant for detection, Support Vector Machine based machine learning model is applied to learn the traffic pattern and select appropriate features for detection algorithm. The experimental results show that the proposed approach can detect 99.19% of the LDoS attacks and has an O (n log n) time complexity in the best case.
Sejaphala, Lanka, Velempini, Mthulisi, Dlamini, Sabelo Velemseni.  2018.  HCOBASAA: Countermeasure Against Sinkhole Attacks in Software-Defined Wireless Sensor Cognitive Radio Networks. 2018 International Conference on Advances in Big Data, Computing and Data Communication Systems (icABCD). :1-5.

Software-defined wireless sensor cognitive radio network is one of the emerging technologies which is simple, agile, and flexible. The sensor network comprises of a sink node with high processing power. The sensed data is transferred to the sink node in a hop-by-hop basis by sensor nodes. The network is programmable, automated, agile, and flexible. The sensor nodes are equipped with cognitive radios, which sense available spectrum bands and transmit sensed data on available bands, which improves spectrum utilization. Unfortunately, the Software-defined wireless sensor cognitive radio network is prone to security issues. The sinkhole attack is the most common attack which can also be used to launch other attacks. We propose and evaluate the performance of Hop Count-Based Sinkhole Attack detection Algorithm (HCOBASAA) using probability of detection, probability of false negative, and probability of false positive as the performance metrics. On average HCOBASAA managed to yield 100%, 75%, and 70% probability of detection.

Sun, Y., Zhang, L., Zhao, C..  2018.  A Study of Network Covert Channel Detection Based on Deep Learning. 2018 2nd IEEE Advanced Information Management,Communicates,Electronic and Automation Control Conference (IMCEC). :637-641.

Information security has become a growing concern. Computer covert channel which is regarded as an important area of information security research gets more attention. In order to detect these covert channels, a variety of detection algorithms are proposed in the course of the research. The algorithms of machine learning type show better results in these detection algorithms. However, the common machine learning algorithms have many problems in the testing process and have great limitations. Based on the deep learning algorithm, this paper proposes a new idea of network covert channel detection and forms a new detection model. On the one hand, this algorithmic model can detect more complex covert channels and, on the other hand, greatly improve the accuracy of detection due to the use of a new deep learning model. By optimizing this test model, we can get better results on the evaluation index.

Kim, H. M., Song, H. M., Seo, J. W., Kim, H. K..  2018.  Andro-Simnet: Android Malware Family Classification Using Social Network Analysis. 2018 16th Annual Conference on Privacy, Security and Trust (PST). :1-8.

While the rapid adaptation of mobile devices changes our daily life more conveniently, the threat derived from malware is also increased. There are lots of research to detect malware to protect mobile devices, but most of them adopt only signature-based malware detection method that can be easily bypassed by polymorphic and metamorphic malware. To detect malware and its variants, it is essential to adopt behavior-based detection for efficient malware classification. This paper presents a system that classifies malware by using common behavioral characteristics along with malware families. We measure the similarity between malware families with carefully chosen features commonly appeared in the same family. With the proposed similarity measure, we can classify malware by malware's attack behavior pattern and tactical characteristics. Also, we apply community detection algorithm to increase the modularity within each malware family network aggregation. To maintain high classification accuracy, we propose a process to derive the optimal weights of the selected features in the proposed similarity measure. During this process, we find out which features are significant for representing the similarity between malware samples. Finally, we provide an intuitive graph visualization of malware samples which is helpful to understand the distribution and likeness of the malware networks. In the experiment, the proposed system achieved 97% accuracy for malware classification and 95% accuracy for prediction by K-fold cross-validation using the real malware dataset.

Li, P., Liu, Q., Zhao, W., Wang, D., Wang, S..  2018.  Chronic Poisoning against Machine Learning Based IDSs Using Edge Pattern Detection. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC). :1-7.

In big data era, machine learning is one of fundamental techniques in intrusion detection systems (IDSs). Poisoning attack, which is one of the most recognized security threats towards machine learning- based IDSs, injects some adversarial samples into the training phase, inducing data drifting of training data and a significant performance decrease of target IDSs over testing data. In this paper, we adopt the Edge Pattern Detection (EPD) algorithm to design a novel poisoning method that attack against several machine learning algorithms used in IDSs. Specifically, we propose a boundary pattern detection algorithm to efficiently generate the points that are near to abnormal data but considered to be normal ones by current classifiers. Then, we introduce a Batch-EPD Boundary Pattern (BEBP) detection algorithm to overcome the limitation of the number of edge pattern points generated by EPD and to obtain more useful adversarial samples. Based on BEBP, we further present a moderate but effective poisoning method called chronic poisoning attack. Extensive experiments on synthetic and three real network data sets demonstrate the performance of the proposed poisoning method against several well-known machine learning algorithms and a practical intrusion detection method named FMIFS-LSSVM-IDS.

Zhang, X., Xie, H., Lui, J. C. S..  2018.  Sybil Detection in Social-Activity Networks: Modeling, Algorithms and Evaluations. 2018 IEEE 26th International Conference on Network Protocols (ICNP). :44–54.

Detecting fake accounts (sybils) in online social networks (OSNs) is vital to protect OSN operators and their users from various malicious activities. Typical graph-based sybil detection (a mainstream methodology) assumes that sybils can make friends with only a limited (or small) number of honest users. However, recent evidences showed that this assumption does not hold in real-world OSNs, leading to low detection accuracy. To address this challenge, we explore users' activities to assist sybil detection. The intuition is that honest users are much more selective in choosing who to interact with than to befriend with. We first develop the social and activity network (SAN), a two-layer hyper-graph that unifies users' friendships and their activities, to fully utilize users' activities. We also propose a more practical sybil attack model, where sybils can launch both friendship attacks and activity attacks. We then design Sybil SAN to detect sybils via coupling three random walk-based algorithms on the SAN, and prove the convergence of Sybil SAN. We develop an efficient iterative algorithm to compute the detection metric for Sybil SAN, and derive the number of rounds needed to guarantee the convergence. We use "matrix perturbation theory" to bound the detection error when sybils launch many friendship attacks and activity attacks. Extensive experiments on both synthetic and real-world datasets show that Sybil SAN is highly robust against sybil attacks, and can detect sybils accurately under practical scenarios, where current state-of-art sybil defenses have low accuracy.

Joshi, H. P., Bennison, M., Dutta, R..  2017.  Collaborative botnet detection with partial communication graph information. 2017 IEEE 38th Sarnoff Symposium. :1–6.

Botnets have long been used for malicious purposes with huge economic costs to the society. With the proliferation of cheap but non-secure Internet-of-Things (IoT) devices generating large amounts of data, the potential for damage from botnets has increased manifold. There are several approaches to detect bots or botnets, though many traditional techniques are becoming less effective as botnets with centralized command & control structure are being replaced by peer-to-peer (P2P) botnets which are harder to detect. Several algorithms have been proposed in literature that use graph analysis or machine learning techniques to detect the overlay structure of P2P networks in communication graphs. Many of these algorithms however, depend on the availability of a universal communication graph or a communication graph aggregated from several ISPs, which is not likely to be available in reality. In real world deployments, significant gaps in communication graphs are expected and any solution proposed should be able to work with partial information. In this paper, we analyze the effectiveness of some community detection algorithms in detecting P2P botnets, especially with partial information. We show that the approach can work with only about half of the nodes reporting their communication graphs, with only small increase in detection errors.

Bruillard, P., Nowak, K., Purvine, E..  2016.  Anomaly Detection Using Persistent Homology. 2016 Cybersecurity Symposium (CYBERSEC). :7–12.

Many aspects of our daily lives now rely on computers, including communications, transportation, government, finance, medicine, and education. However, with increased dependence comes increased vulnerability. Therefore recognizing attacks quickly is critical. In this paper, we introduce a new anomaly detection algorithm based on persistent homology, a tool which computes summary statistics of a manifold. The idea is to represent a cyber network with a dynamic point cloud and compare the statistics over time. The robustness of persistent homology makes for a very strong comparison invariant.

Na, L., Yunwei, D., Tianwei, C., Chao, W., Yang, G..  2015.  The Legitimacy Detection for Multilevel Hybrid Cloud Algorithm Based Data Access. Reliability and Security - Companion 2015 IEEE International Conference on Software Quality. :169–172.

In this paper a joint algorithm was designed to detect a variety of unauthorized access risks in multilevel hybrid cloud. First of all, the access history is recorded among different virtual machines in multilevel hybrid cloud using the global flow diagram. Then, the global flow graph is taken as auxiliary decision-making basis to design legitimacy detection algorithm based data access and is represented by formal representation, Finally the implement process was specified, and the algorithm can effectively detect operating against regulations such as simple unauthorized level across, beyond indirect unauthorized and other irregularities.

Zonouz, S.A., Khurana, H., Sanders, W.H., Yardley, T.M..  2014.  RRE: A Game-Theoretic Intrusion Response and Recovery Engine. Parallel and Distributed Systems, IEEE Transactions on. 25:395-406.

Preserving the availability and integrity of networked computing systems in the face of fast-spreading intrusions requires advances not only in detection algorithms, but also in automated response techniques. In this paper, we propose a new approach to automated response called the response and recovery engine (RRE). Our engine employs a game-theoretic response strategy against adversaries modeled as opponents in a two-player Stackelberg stochastic game. The RRE applies attack-response trees (ART) to analyze undesired system-level security events within host computers and their countermeasures using Boolean logic to combine lower level attack consequences. In addition, the RRE accounts for uncertainties in intrusion detection alert notifications. The RRE then chooses optimal response actions by solving a partially observable competitive Markov decision process that is automatically derived from attack-response trees. To support network-level multiobjective response selection and consider possibly conflicting network security properties, we employ fuzzy logic theory to calculate the network-level security metric values, i.e., security levels of the system's current and potentially future states in each stage of the game. In particular, inputs to the network-level game-theoretic response selection engine, are first fed into the fuzzy system that is in charge of a nonlinear inference and quantitative ranking of the possible actions using its previously defined fuzzy rule set. Consequently, the optimal network-level response actions are chosen through a game-theoretic optimization process. Experimental results show that the RRE, using Snort's alerts, can protect large networks for which attack-response trees have more than 500 nodes.

Ma Juan, Hu Rongchun, Li Jian.  2014.  A fast human detection algorithm of video surveillance in emergencies. Control and Decision Conference (2014 CCDC), The 26th Chinese. :1500-1504.

This paper propose a fast human detection algorithm of video surveillance in emergencies. Firstly through the background subtraction based on the single Guassian model and frame subtraction, we get the target mask which is optimized by Gaussian filter and dilation. Then the interest points of head is obtained from figures with target mask and edge detection. Finally according to detecting these pionts we can track the head and count the number of people with the frequence of moving target at the same place. Simulation results show that the algorithm can detect the moving object quickly and accurately.

Kun Wen, Jiahai Yang, Fengjuan Cheng, Chenxi Li, Ziyu Wang, Hui Yin.  2014.  Two-stage detection algorithm for RoQ attack based on localized periodicity analysis of traffic anomaly. Computer Communication and Networks (ICCCN), 2014 23rd International Conference on. :1-6.

Reduction of Quality (RoQ) attack is a stealthy denial of service attack. It can decrease or inhibit normal TCP flows in network. Victims are hard to perceive it as the final network throughput is decreasing instead of increasing during the attack. Therefore, the attack is strongly hidden and it is difficult to be detected by existing detection systems. Based on the principle of Time-Frequency analysis, we propose a two-stage detection algorithm which combines anomaly detection with misuse detection. In the first stage, we try to detect the potential anomaly by analyzing network traffic through Wavelet multiresolution analysis method. According to different time-domain characteristics, we locate the abrupt change points. In the second stage, we further analyze the local traffic around the abrupt change point. We extract the potential attack characteristics by autocorrelation analysis. By the two-stage detection, we can ultimately confirm whether the network is affected by the attack. Results of simulations and real network experiments demonstrate that our algorithm can detect RoQ attacks, with high accuracy and high efficiency.

Salman, A., Elhajj, I.H., Chehab, A., Kayssi, A..  2014.  DAIDS: An Architecture for Modular Mobile IDS. Advanced Information Networking and Applications Workshops (WAINA), 2014 28th International Conference on. :328-333.

The popularity of mobile devices and the enormous number of third party mobile applications in the market have naturally lead to several vulnerabilities being identified and abused. This is coupled with the immaturity of intrusion detection system (IDS) technology targeting mobile devices. In this paper we propose a modular host-based IDS framework for mobile devices that uses behavior analysis to profile applications on the Android platform. Anomaly detection can then be used to categorize malicious behavior and alert users. The proposed system accommodates different detection algorithms, and is being tested at a major telecom operator in North America. This paper highlights the architecture, findings, and lessons learned.