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2021-05-13
Sun, Zhichuang, Feng, Bo, Lu, Long, Jha, Somesh.  2020.  OAT: Attesting Operation Integrity of Embedded Devices. 2020 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy (SP). :1433—1449.

Due to the wide adoption of IoT/CPS systems, embedded devices (IoT frontends) become increasingly connected and mission-critical, which in turn has attracted advanced attacks (e.g., control-flow hijacks and data-only attacks). Unfortunately, IoT backends (e.g., remote controllers or in-cloud services) are unable to detect if such attacks have happened while receiving data, service requests, or operation status from IoT devices (remotely deployed embedded devices). As a result, currently, IoT backends are forced to blindly trust the IoT devices that they interact with.To fill this void, we first formulate a new security property for embedded devices, called "Operation Execution Integrity" or OEI. We then design and build a system, OAT, that enables remote OEI attestation for ARM-based bare-metal embedded devices. Our formulation of OEI captures the integrity of both control flow and critical data involved in an operation execution. Therefore, satisfying OEI entails that an operation execution is free of unexpected control and data manipulations, which existing attestation methods cannot check. Our design of OAT strikes a balance between prover's constraints (embedded devices' limited computing power and storage) and verifier's requirements (complete verifiability and forensic assistance). OAT uses a new control-flow measurement scheme, which enables lightweight and space-efficient collection of measurements (97% space reduction from the trace-based approach). OAT performs the remote control-flow verification through abstract execution, which is fast and deterministic. OAT also features lightweight integrity checking for critical data (74% less instrumentation needed than previous work). Our security analysis shows that OAT allows remote verifiers or IoT backends to detect both controlflow hijacks and data-only attacks that affect the execution of operations on IoT devices. In our evaluation using real embedded programs, OAT incurs a runtime overhead of 2.7%.

2021-04-27
Byabazaire, J., O'Hare, G., Delaney, D..  2020.  Data Quality and Trust : A Perception from Shared Data in IoT. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Communications Workshops (ICC Workshops). :1—6.

Internet of Things devices and data sources areseeing increased use in various application areas. The pro-liferation of cheaper sensor hardware has allowed for widerscale data collection deployments. With increased numbers ofdeployed sensors and the use of heterogeneous sensor typesthere is increased scope for collecting erroneous, inaccurate orinconsistent data. This in turn may lead to inaccurate modelsbuilt from this data. It is important to evaluate this data asit is collected to determine its validity. This paper presents ananalysis of data quality as it is represented in Internet of Things(IoT) systems and some of the limitations of this representation. The paper discusses the use of trust as a heuristic to drive dataquality measurements. Trust is a well-established metric that hasbeen used to determine the validity of a piece or source of datain crowd sourced or other unreliable data collection techniques. The analysis extends to detail an appropriate framework forrepresenting data quality effectively within the big data modeland why a trust backed framework is important especially inheterogeneously sourced IoT data streams.

Lekshmi, M. M., Subramanian, N..  2020.  Data Auditing in Cloud Storage using Smart Contract. 2020 Third International Conference on Smart Systems and Inventive Technology (ICSSIT). :999–1002.
In general, Cloud storage is considered as a distributed model. Here, the data is usually stored on remote servers to properly maintain, back up and make it accessible to clients over a network, whenever required. Cloud storage providers keep the data and processes to oversee it on capacity servers based on secure virtualization methods. A security framework is proposed for auditing the cloud data, which makes use of the proposed blockchain technology. This ensures to efficiently maintain the data integrity. The blockchain structure inspects the mutation of operational information and thereby ensures the data security. Usually, the data auditing scheme is widely used in a Third Party Auditor (TPA), which is a centralized entity that the client is forced to trust, even if the credibility is not guaranteed. To avoid the participation of TPA, a decentralised scheme is suggested, where it uses a smart contract for auditing the cloud data. The working of smart contracts is based on blockchain. Ethereum is used to deploy a smart contract thereby eliminating the need of a foreign source in the data auditing process.
Niu, S., Chen, L., Liu, W..  2020.  Attribute-Based Keyword Search Encryption Scheme with Verifiable Ciphertext via Blockchains. 2020 IEEE 9th Joint International Information Technology and Artificial Intelligence Conference (ITAIC). 9:849–853.
In order to realize the sharing of data by multiple users on the blockchain, this paper proposes an attribute-based searchable encryption with verifiable ciphertext scheme via blockchain. The scheme uses the public key algorithm to encrypt the keyword, the attribute-based encryption algorithm to encrypt the symmetric key, and the symmetric key to encrypt the file. The keyword index is stored on the blockchain, and the ciphertext of the symmetric key and file are stored on the cloud server. The scheme uses searchable encryption technology to achieve secure search on the blockchain, uses the immutability of the blockchain to ensure the security of the keyword ciphertext, uses verify algorithm guarantees the integrity of the data on the cloud. When the user's attributes need to be changed or the ciphertext access structure is changed, the scheme uses proxy re-encryption technology to implement the user's attribute revocation, and the authority center is responsible for the whole attribute revocation process. The security proof shows that the scheme can achieve ciphertext security, keyword security and anti-collusion. In addition, the numerical results show that the proposed scheme is effective.
2021-04-09
Ravikumar, G., Singh, A., Babu, J. R., A, A. Moataz, Govindarasu, M..  2020.  D-IDS for Cyber-Physical DER Modbus System - Architecture, Modeling, Testbed-based Evaluation. 2020 Resilience Week (RWS). :153—159.
Increasing penetration of distributed energy resources (DERs) in distribution networks expands the cyberattack surface. Moreover, the widely used standard protocols for communicating DER inverters such as Modbus is more vulnerable to data-integrity attacks and denial of service (DoS) attacks because of its native clear-text packet format. This paper proposes a distributed intrusion detection system (D-IDS) architecture and algorithms for detecting anomalies on the DER Modbus communication. We devised a model-based approach to define physics-based threshold bands for analog data points and transaction-based threshold bands for both the analog and discrete data points. The proposed IDS algorithm uses the model- based approach to develop Modbus-specific IDS rule sets, which can enhance the detection accuracy of the anomalies either by data-integrity attacks or maloperation on cyber-physical DER Modbus devices. Further, the IDS algorithm autogenerates the Modbus-specific IDS rulesets in compliance with various open- source IDS rule syntax formats, such as Snort and Suricata, for seamless integration and mitigation of semantic/syntax errors in the development and production environment. We considered the IEEE 13-bus distribution grid, including DERs, as a case study. We conducted various DoS type attacks and data-integrity attacks on the hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) CPS DER testbed at ISU to evaluate the proposed D-IDS. Consequently, we computed the performance metrics such as IDS detection accuracy, IDS detection rate, and end-to-end latency. The results demonstrated that 100% detection accuracy, 100% detection rate for 60k DoS packets, 99.96% detection rate for 80k DoS packets, and 0.25 ms end-to-end latency between DERs to Control Center.
2021-03-29
Khan, S., Jadhav, A., Bharadwaj, I., Rooj, M., Shiravale, S..  2020.  Blockchain and the Identity based Encryption Scheme for High Data Security. 2020 Fourth International Conference on Computing Methodologies and Communication (ICCMC). :1005—1008.

Using the blockchain technology to store the privatedocuments of individuals will help make data more reliable and secure, preventing the loss of data and unauthorized access. The Consensus algorithm along with the hash algorithms maintains the integrity of data simultaneously providing authentication and authorization. The paper incorporates the block chain and the Identity Based Encryption management concept. The Identity based Management system allows the encryption of the user's data as well as their identity and thus preventing them from Identity theft and fraud. These two technologies combined will result in a more secure way of storing the data and protecting the privacy of the user.

Bogdan-Iulian, C., Vasilică-Gabriel, S., Alexandru, M. D., Nicolae, G., Andrei, V..  2020.  Improved Secure Internet of Things System using Web Services and Low Power Single-board Computers. 2020 International Conference on e-Health and Bioengineering (EHB). :1—5.

Internet of Things (IoT) systems are becoming widely used, which makes them to be a high-value target for both hackers and crackers. From gaining access to sensitive information to using them as bots for complex attacks, the variety of advantages after exploiting different security vulnerabilities makes the security of IoT devices to be one of the most challenging desideratum for cyber security experts. In this paper, we will propose a new IoT system, designed to ensure five data principles: confidentiality, integrity, availability, authentication and authorization. The innovative aspects are both the usage of a web-based communication and a custom dynamic data request structure.

2021-03-22
Fan, X., Zhang, F., Turamat, E., Tong, C., Wu, J. H., Wang, K..  2020.  Provenance-based Classification Policy based on Encrypted Search. 2020 2nd International Conference on Industrial Artificial Intelligence (IAI). :1–6.
As an important type of cloud data, digital provenance is arousing increasing attention on improving system performance. Currently, provenance has been employed to provide cues regarding access control and to estimate data quality. However, provenance itself might also be sensitive information. Therefore, provenance might be encrypted and stored in the Cloud. In this paper, we provide a mechanism to classify cloud documents by searching specific keywords from their encrypted provenance, and we prove our scheme achieves semantic security. In term of application of the proposed techniques, considering that files are classified to store separately in the cloud, in order to facilitate the regulation and security protection for the files, the classification policies can use provenance as conditions to determine the category of a document. Such as the easiest sample policy goes like: the documents have been reviewed twice can be classified as “public accessible”, which can be accessed by the public.
shree, S. R., Chelvan, A. Chilambu, Rajesh, M..  2020.  Optimization of Secret Key using cuckoo Search Algorithm for ensuring data integrity in TPA. 2020 International Conference on Computer Communication and Informatics (ICCCI). :1–5.
Optimization plays an important role in many problems that expect the accurate output. Security of the data stored in remote servers purely based on secret key which is used for encryption and decryption purpose. Many secret key generation algorithms such as RSA, AES are available to generate the key. The key generated by such algorithms are need to be optimized to provide more security to your data from unauthorized users as well as from the third party auditors(TPA) who is going to verify our data for integrity purpose. In this paper a method to optimize the secret key by using cuckoo search algorithm (CSA) is proposed.
Yogita, Gupta, N. Kumar.  2020.  Integrity Auditing with Attribute based ECMRSA Algorithm for Cloud Data Outsourcing. 2020 3rd International Conference on Intelligent Sustainable Systems (ICISS). :1284–1289.
Cloud computing is a vast area within which large amounts of data are exchanged through cloud services and has fully grown with its on-demand technology. Due to these versatile cloud services, sensitive data will be stored on cloud storage servers and it is also used to dynamically control a number of problems: security, privacy, data privacy, data sharing, and integrity across cloud servers. Moreover, the legitimacy and control of data access should be maintained in this extended environment. So, one of the most important concepts of cryptographic techniques in cloud computing environment is Attribute Based Encryption (ABE). In this research work, data auditing or integrity checking is considered as an area of concern for securing th cloud storage. In data auditing approach, an auditor inspects and verifies the data file integrity without having any knowledge about the content of file and sends the verification report to the data owner. In this research, Elliptical Curve Modified RSA (ECMRSA) is proposed along with Modified MD5 algorithm which is used for attribute-based cloud data integrity verification, in which data user or owner uploads their encrypted data files at cloud data server and send the auditing request to the Third-Party Auditor (TPA) for verification of their data files. The Third-Party Auditor (TPA) challenges the data server for ensuring the integrity of data files on behalf of the data owners. After verification of integrity of data file auditor sends the audit report to the owner. The proposed algorithm integrates the auditing scheme with public key encryption with homomorphic algorithm which generates digital signature or hash values of data files on encrypted files. The result analysis is performed on time complexity by evaluating encryption time, GenProof time and VerifyProof Time and achieved improvement in resolving time complexity as compared to existing techiques.
OGISO, S., Mohri, M., Shiraishi, Y..  2020.  Transparent Provable Data Possession Scheme for Cloud Storage. 2020 International Symposium on Networks, Computers and Communications (ISNCC). :1–5.
Provable Data Possession (PDP) is one of the data security techniques to make sure that the data stored in the cloud storage exists. In PDP, the integrity of the data stored in the cloud storage is probabilistically verified by the user or a third-party auditor. In the conventional PDP, the user creates the metadata used for audition. From the viewpoint of user convenience, it is desirable to be able to audit without operations other than uploading. In other words, the challenge is to provide a transparent PDP that verifies the integrity of files according to the general cloud storage system model so as not to add operations to users. We propose a scheme in which the cloud generates the metadata used during verification, and the user only uploads files. It is shown that the proposed scheme is resistant to the forgery of cloud proof and the acquisition of data by a third-party auditor.
Singh, P., Saroj, S. K..  2020.  A Secure Data Dynamics and Public Auditing Scheme for Cloud Storage. 2020 6th International Conference on Advanced Computing and Communication Systems (ICACCS). :695–700.
Cloud computing is an evolving technology that provides data storage and highly fast computing services at a very low cost. All data stored in the cloud is handled by their cloud service providers or the caretaker of the cloud. The data owner is concerned about the authenticity and reliability of the data stored in the cloud as the data owners. Data can be misappropriated or altered by any unauthorized user or person. This paper desire to suggest a secure public auditing scheme applying third party auditors to authenticate the privacy, reliability, and integrity of data stored in the cloud. This proposed auditing scheme composes the use of the AES-256 algorithm for encryption, SHA-512 for integrity check and RSA-15360 for public-key encryption. And perform data dynamics operation which deals with mostly insertion, deletion, and, modification.
Kumar, A..  2020.  A Novel Privacy Preserving HMAC Algorithm Based on Homomorphic Encryption and Auditing for Cloud. 2020 Fourth International Conference on I-SMAC (IoT in Social, Mobile, Analytics and Cloud) (I-SMAC). :198–202.
Cloud is the perfect way to hold our data every day. Yet the confidentiality of our data is a big concern in the handling of cloud data. Data integrity, authentication and confidentiality are basic security threats in the cloud. Cryptography techniques and Third Party Auditor (TPA) are very useful to impose the integrity and confidentiality of data. In this paper, a system is proposed Enhancing data protection that is housed in cloud computing. The suggested solution uses the RSA algorithm and the AES algorithm to encrypt user data. The hybridization of these two algorithms allows better data protection before it is stored in the cloud. Secure hash algorithm 512 is used to compute the Hash Message Authentication Code (HMAC). A stable audit program is also introduced for Third Party Auditor (TPA) use. The suggested algorithm is applied in python programming and tested in a simple sample format. It is checked that the proposed algorithm functions well to guarantee greater data protection.
2021-03-09
Sibahee, M. A. A., Lu, S., Abduljabbar, Z. A., Liu, E. X., Ran, Y., Al-ashoor, A. A. J., Hussain, M. A., Hussien, Z. A..  2020.  Promising Bio-Authentication Scheme to Protect Documents for E2E S2S in IoT-Cloud. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Signal Processing, Communications and Computing (ICSPCC). :1—6.

Document integrity and origin for E2E S2S in IoTcloud have recently received considerable attention because of their importance in the real-world fields. Maintaining integrity could protect decisions made based on these message/image documents. Authentication and integrity solutions have been conducted to recognise or protect any modification in the exchange of documents between E2E S2S (smart-to-smart). However, none of the proposed schemes appear to be sufficiently designed as a secure scheme to prevent known attacks or applicable to smart devices. We propose a robust scheme that aims to protect the integrity of documents for each users session by integrating HMAC-SHA-256, handwritten feature extraction using a local binary pattern, one-time random pixel sequence based on RC4 to randomly hide authentication codes using LSB. The proposed scheme can provide users with one-time bio-key, robust message anonymity and a disappearing authentication code that does not draw the attention of eavesdroppers. Thus, the scheme improves the data integrity for a users messages/image documents, phase key agreement, bio-key management and a one-time message/image document code for each users session. The concept of stego-anonymity is also introduced to provide additional security to cover a hashed value. Finally, security analysis and experimental results demonstrate and prove the invulnerability and efficiency of the proposed scheme.

2021-03-04
Mehraj, S., Banday, M. T..  2020.  Establishing a Zero Trust Strategy in Cloud Computing Environment. 2020 International Conference on Computer Communication and Informatics (ICCCI). :1—6.
The increased use of cloud services and its various security and privacy challenges such as identity theft, data breach, data integrity and data confidentiality has made trust management, which is one of the most multifaceted aspect in cloud computing, inevitable. The growing reputation of cloud computing technology makes it immensely important to be acquainted with the meaning of trust in the cloud, as well as identify how the customer and the cloud service providers establish that trust. The traditional trust management mechanisms represent a static trust relationship which falls deficit while meeting up the dynamic requirement of cloud services. In this paper, a conceptual zero trust strategy for the cloud environment has been proposed. The model offers a conceptual typology of perceptions and philosophies for establishing trust in cloud services. Further, importance of trust establishment and challenges of trust in cloud computing have also been explored and discussed.
2021-02-23
Patil, A., Jha, A., Mulla, M. M., Narayan, D. G., Kengond, S..  2020.  Data Provenance Assurance for Cloud Storage Using Blockchain. 2020 International Conference on Advances in Computing, Communication Materials (ICACCM). :443—448.

Cloud forensics investigates the crime committed over cloud infrastructures like SLA-violations and storage privacy. Cloud storage forensics is the process of recording the history of the creation and operations performed on a cloud data object and investing it. Secure data provenance in the Cloud is crucial for data accountability, forensics, and privacy. Towards this, we present a Cloud-based data provenance framework using Blockchain, which traces data record operations and generates provenance data. Initially, we design a dropbox like application using AWS S3 storage. The application creates a cloud storage application for the students and faculty of the university, thereby making the storage and sharing of work and resources efficient. Later, we design a data provenance mechanism for confidential files of users using Ethereum blockchain. We also evaluate the proposed system using performance parameters like query and transaction latency by varying the load and number of nodes of the blockchain network.

2021-02-01
Sendhil, R., Amuthan, A..  2020.  Privacy Preserving Data Aggregation in Fog Computing using Homomorphic Encryption: An Analysis. 2020 International Conference on Computer Communication and Informatics (ICCCI). :1–5.
In recent days the attention of the researchers has been grabbed by the advent of fog computing which is found to be a conservatory of cloud computing. The fog computing is found to be more advantageous and it solves mighty issues of the cloud namely higher delay and also no proper mobility awareness and location related awareness are found in the cloud environment. The IoT devices are connected to the fog nodes which support the cloud services to accumulate and process a component of data. The presence of Fog nodes not only reduces the demands of processing data, but it had improved the quality of service in real time scenarios. Nevertheless the fog node endures from challenges of false data injection, privacy violation in IoT devices and violating integrity of data. This paper is going to address the key issues related to homomorphic encryption algorithms which is used by various researchers for providing data integrity and authenticity of the devices with their merits and demerits.
Sendhil, R., Amuthan, A..  2020.  A Descriptive Study on Homomorphic Encryption Schemes for Enhancing Security in Fog Computing. 2020 International Conference on Smart Electronics and Communication (ICOSEC). :738–743.
Nowadays, Fog Computing gets more attention due to its characteristics. Fog computing provides more advantages in related to apply with the latest technology. On the other hand, there is an issue about the data security over processing of data. Fog Computing encounters many security challenges like false data injection, violating privacy in edge devices and integrity of data, etc. An encryption scheme called Homomorphic Encryption (HME) technique is used to protect the data from the various security threats. This homomorphic encryption scheme allows doing manipulation over the encrypted data without decrypting it. This scheme can be implemented in many systems with various crypto-algorithms. This homomorphic encryption technique is mainly used to retain the privacy and to process the stored encrypted data on a remote server. This paper addresses the terminologies of Fog Computing, work flow and properties of the homomorphic encryption algorithm, followed by exploring the application of homomorphic encryption in various public key cryptosystems such as RSA and Pailier. It focuses on various homomorphic encryption schemes implemented by various researchers such as Brakerski-Gentry-Vaikuntanathan model, Improved Homomorphic Cryptosystem, Upgraded ElGamal based Algebric homomorphic encryption scheme, In-Direct rapid homomorphic encryption scheme which provides integrity of data.
2021-01-25
Thinn, A. A., Thwin, M. M. S..  2020.  A Hybrid Solution for Confidential Data Transfer Using PKI, Modified AES Algorithm and Image as a Secret Key. 2020 IEEE Conference on Computer Applications(ICCA). :1–4.
Nowadays the provision of online services by government or business organizations has become a standard and necessary operation. Transferring data including the confidential or sensitive information via Internet or insecure network and exchange of them is also increased day by day. As a result, confidential information leakage and cyber threats are also heightened. Confidential information trading became one of the most profitable businesses. Encrypting the data is a solution to secure the data from being exposed. In this paper, we would like to propose a solution for the secure transfer of data using symmetric encryption, asymmetric encryption technologies and Key Generation Server as a mixed hybrid solution. A Symmetric encryption, modified AES algorithm, is used to encrypt data. Digital certificate is used both for data encryption and digital signing to assure data integrity. Key generation server is used to generate the second secret key from the publicly recognized information of a person and this key is used as a second secret key in the modified AES. The proposed hybrid solution can be utilized in any applications that require high confidentiality, integrity of data and non-repudiation.
2020-12-21
Figueiredo, N. M., Rodríguez, M. C..  2020.  Trustworthiness in Sensor Networks A Reputation-Based Method for Weather Stations. 2020 International Conference on Omni-layer Intelligent Systems (COINS). :1–6.
Trustworthiness is a soft-security feature that evaluates the correct behavior of nodes in a network. More specifically, this feature tries to answer the following question: how much should we trust in a certain node? To determine the trustworthiness of a node, our approach focuses on two reputation indicators: the self-data trust, which evaluates the data generated by the node itself taking into account its historical data; and the peer-data trust, which utilizes the nearest nodes' data. In this paper, we show how these two indicators can be calculated using the Gaussian Overlap and Pearson correlation. This paper includes a validation of our trustworthiness approach using real data from unofficial and official weather stations in Portugal. This is a representative scenario of the current situation in many other areas, with different entities providing different kinds of data using autonomous sensors in a continuous way over the networks.
2020-12-17
Promyslov, V., Semenkov, K..  2020.  Security Threats for Autonomous and Remotely Controlled Vehicles in Smart City. 2020 International Conference on Industrial Engineering, Applications and Manufacturing (ICIEAM). :1—5.

The paper presents a comprehensive model of cybersecurity threats for a system of autonomous and remotely controlled vehicles (AV) in the environment of a smart city. The main focus in the security context is given to the “integrity” property. That property is of higher importance for industrial control systems in comparison with other security properties (availability and confidentiality). The security graph, which is part of the model, is dynamic, and, in real cases, its analysis may require significant computing resources for AV systems with a large number of assets and connections. The simplified example of the security graph for the AV system is presented.

2020-12-14
Quevedo, C. H. O. O., Quevedo, A. M. B. C., Campos, G. A., Gomes, R. L., Celestino, J., Serhrouchni, A..  2020.  An Intelligent Mechanism for Sybil Attacks Detection in VANETs. ICC 2020 - 2020 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC). :1–6.
Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs) have a strategic goal to achieve service delivery in roads and smart cities, considering the integration and communication between vehicles, sensors and fixed road-side components (routers, gateways and services). VANETs have singular characteristics such as fast mobile nodes, self-organization, distributed network and frequently changing topology. Despite the recent evolution of VANETs, security, data integrity and users privacy information are major concerns, since attacks prevention is still open issue. One of the most dangerous attacks in VANETs is the Sybil, which forges false identities in the network to disrupt compromise the communication between the network nodes. Sybil attacks affect the service delivery related to road safety, traffic congestion, multimedia entertainment and others. Thus, VANETs claim for security mechanism to prevent Sybil attacks. Within this context, this paper proposes a mechanism, called SyDVELM, to detect Sybil attacks in VANETs based on artificial intelligence techniques. The SyDVELM mechanism uses Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) with occasional features of vehicular nodes, minimizing the identification time, maximizing the detection accuracy and improving the scalability. The results suggest that the suitability of SyDVELM mechanism to mitigate Sybil attacks and to maintain the service delivery in VANETs.
2020-12-11
Xie, J., Zhang, M., Ma, Y..  2019.  Using Format Migration and Preservation Metadata to Support Digital Preservation of Scientific Data. 2019 IEEE 10th International Conference on Software Engineering and Service Science (ICSESS). :1—6.

With the development of e-Science and data intensive scientific discovery, it needs to ensure scientific data available for the long-term, with the goal that the valuable scientific data should be discovered and re-used for downstream investigations, either alone, or in combination with newly generated data. As such, the preservation of scientific data enables that not only might experiment be reproducible and verifiable, but also new questions can be raised by other scientists to promote research and innovation. In this paper, we focus on the two main problems of digital preservation that are format migration and preservation metadata. Format migration includes both format verification and object transformation. The system architecture of format migration and preservation metadata is presented, mapping rules of object transformation are analyzed, data fixity and integrity and authenticity, digital signature and so on are discussed and an example is shown in detail.

2020-11-17
Qian, K., Parizi, R. M., Lo, D..  2018.  OWASP Risk Analysis Driven Security Requirements Specification for Secure Android Mobile Software Development. 2018 IEEE Conference on Dependable and Secure Computing (DSC). :1—2.
The security threats to mobile applications are growing explosively. Mobile apps flaws and security defects open doors for hackers to break in and access sensitive information. Defensive requirements analysis should be an integral part of secure mobile SDLC. Developers need to consider the information confidentiality and data integrity, to verify the security early in the development lifecycle rather than fixing the security holes after attacking and data leaks take place. Early eliminating known security vulnerabilities will help developers increase the security of apps and reduce the likelihood of exploitation. However, many software developers lack the necessary security knowledge and skills at the development stage, and that's why Secure Mobile Software Development education is very necessary for mobile software engineers. In this paper, we propose a guided security requirement analysis based on OWASP Mobile Top ten security risk recommendations for Android mobile software development and its traceability of the developmental controls in SDLC. Building secure apps immune to the OWASP Mobile Top ten risks would be an effective approach to provide very useful mobile security guidelines.
2020-11-16
Zhang, C., Xu, C., Xu, J., Tang, Y., Choi, B..  2019.  GEMˆ2-Tree: A Gas-Efficient Structure for Authenticated Range Queries in Blockchain. 2019 IEEE 35th International Conference on Data Engineering (ICDE). :842–853.
Blockchain technology has attracted much attention due to the great success of the cryptocurrencies. Owing to its immutability property and consensus protocol, blockchain offers a new solution for trusted storage and computation services. To scale up the services, prior research has suggested a hybrid storage architecture, where only small meta-data are stored onchain and the raw data are outsourced to off-chain storage. To protect data integrity, a cryptographic proof can be constructed online for queries over the data stored in the system. However, the previous schemes only support simple key-value queries. In this paper, we take the first step toward studying authenticated range queries in the hybrid-storage blockchain. The key challenge lies in how to design an authenticated data structure (ADS) that can be efficiently maintained by the blockchain, in which a unique gas cost model is employed. By analyzing the performance of the existing techniques, we propose a novel ADS, called GEM2-tree, which is not only gas-efficient but also effective in supporting authenticated queries. To further reduce the ADS maintenance cost without sacrificing much the query performance, we also propose an optimized structure, GEM2*-tree, by designing a two-level index structure. Theoretical analysis and empirical evaluation validate the performance of the proposed ADSs.