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Xu, P., Chen, L., Jiang, Y., Sun, Q., Chen, H..  2020.  Research on Sensitivity Audit Scheme of Encrypted Data in Power Business. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Energy Internet (ICEI). :6–10.

With the rapid progress of informatization construction in power business, data resource has become the basic strategic resource of the power industry and innovative element in power production. The security protection of data in power business is particularly important in the informatization construction of power business. In order to implement data security protection, transparent encryption is one of the fifteen key technical standards in the Construction Guideline of the Standard Network Data Security System. However, data storage in the encrypted state is bound to affect the security audit of data to a certain extent. Based on this problem, this paper proposes a scheme to audit the sensitivity of the power business data under the protection of encryption to achieve an efficient sensitivity audit of ciphertext data with the premise of not revealing the decryption key or data information. Through a security demonstration, this paper fully proves that this solution is secure under the known plaintext attacks.

ManJiang, D., Kai, C., ZengXi, W., LiPeng, Z..  2020.  Design of a Cloud Storage Security Encryption Algorithm for Power Bidding System. 2020 IEEE 4th Information Technology, Networking, Electronic and Automation Control Conference (ITNEC). 1:1875–1879.
To solve the problem of poor security and performance caused by traditional encryption algorithm in the cloud data storage of power bidding system, we proposes a hybrid encryption method based on symmetric encryption and asymmetric encryption. In this method, firstly, the plaintext upload file is divided into several blocks according to the proportion, then the large file block is encrypted by symmetrical encryption algorithm AES to ensure the encryption performance, and then the small file block and AES key are encrypted by asymmetric encryption algorithm ECC to ensure the file encryption strength and the security of key transmission. Finally, the ciphertext file is generated and stored in the cloud storage environment to prevent sensitive files Pieces from being stolen and destroyed. The experimental results show that the hybrid encryption method can improve the anti-attack ability of cloud storage files, ensure the security of file storage, and have high efficiency of file upload and download.
Zhang, Y., Deng, L., Chen, M., Wang, P..  2018.  Joint Bidding and Geographical Load Balancing for Datacenters: Is Uncertainty a Blessing or a Curse? IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking. 26:1049—1062.

We consider the scenario where a cloud service provider (CSP) operates multiple geo-distributed datacenters to provide Internet-scale service. Our objective is to minimize the total electricity and bandwidth cost by jointly optimizing electricity procurement from wholesale markets and geographical load balancing (GLB), i.e., dynamically routing workloads to locations with cheaper electricity. Under the ideal setting where exact values of market prices and workloads are given, this problem reduces to a simple linear programming and is easy to solve. However, under the realistic setting where only distributions of these variables are available, the problem unfolds into a non-convex infinite-dimensional one and is challenging to solve. One of our main contributions is to develop an algorithm that is proven to solve the challenging problem optimally, by exploring the full design space of strategic bidding. Trace-driven evaluations corroborate our theoretical results, demonstrate fast convergence of our algorithm, and show that it can reduce the cost for the CSP by up to 20% as compared with baseline alternatives. This paper highlights the intriguing role of uncertainty in workloads and market prices, measured by their variances. While uncertainty in workloads deteriorates the cost-saving performance of joint electricity procurement and GLB, counter-intuitively, uncertainty in market prices can be exploited to achieve a cost reduction even larger than the setting without price uncertainty.

Widergren, Steve, Melton, Ron, Khandekar, Aditya, Nordman, Bruce, Knight, Mark.  2019.  The Plug-and-Play Electricity Era: Interoperability to Integrate Anything, Anywhere, Anytime. IEEE Power and Energy Magazine. 17:47–58.
The inforrmation age continues to transform the mechanics of integrating electric power devices and systems, from coordinated operations based purely on the physics of electric power engineering to an increasing blend of power with information and communication technology. Integrating electric system components is not just about attaching wires. It requires the connection of computer-based automation systems to associated sensing and communication equipment. The architectural impacts are significant. Well-considered and commonly held concepts, principles, and organizational structures continue to emerge to address the complexity of the integrated operational challenges that drive our society to expect more flexibility in configuring the electric power system, while simultaneously achieving greater efficiency, reliability, and resilience. Architectural concepts, such as modularity and composability, contribute to the creation of structures that enable the connection of power system equipment characterized by clearly defined interfaces consisting of physical and cyberlinks. The result of successful electric power system component connection is interoperation: the discipline that drives integration to be simple and reliable.
Karpenko, V.I., Vasilev, S.P., Boltunov, A.P., Voloshin, E.A., Voloshin, A. A..  2019.  Intelligent Consumers Device and Cybersecurity of Load Management in Microgrids. 2019 2nd International Youth Scientific and Technical Conference on Relay Protection and Automation (RPA). :1–10.
The digitalization of the electric power industry and the development of territories isolated from the unified energy system are priorities in the development of the energy sector. Thanks to innovative solutions and digital technologies, it becomes possible to make more effective managing and monitoring. Such solution is IoT platform with intelligent control system implemented by software.
Teive, R. C. G., Neto, E. A. C. A., Mussoi, F. L. R., Rese, A. L. R., Coelho, J., Andrade, F. F., Cardoso, F. L., Nogueira, F., Parreira, J. P..  2017.  Intelligent System for Automatic Performance Evaluation of Distribution System Operators. 2017 19th International Conference on Intelligent System Application to Power Systems (ISAP). :1–6.
The performance evaluation of distribution network operators is essential for the electrical utilities to know how prepared the operators are to execute their operation standards and rules, searching for minimizing the time of power outage, after some contingency. The performance of operators can be evaluated by the impact of their actions on several technical and economic indicators of the distribution system. This issue is a complex problem, whose solution involves necessarily some expertise and a multi-criteria evaluation. This paper presents a Tutorial Expert System (TES) for performance evaluation of electrical distribution network operators after a given contingency in the electrical network. The proposed TES guides the evaluation process, taking into account technical, economic and personal criteria, aiding the quantification of these criteria. A case study based on real data demonstrates the applicability of the performance evaluation procedure of distribution network operators.
Jillepalli, A. A., Sheldon, F. T., Leon, D. C. de, Haney, M., Abercrombie, R. K..  2017.  Security management of cyber physical control systems using NIST SP 800-82r2. 2017 13th International Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing Conference (IWCMC). :1864–1870.

Cyber-attacks and intrusions in cyber-physical control systems are, currently, difficult to reliably prevent. Knowing a system's vulnerabilities and implementing static mitigations is not enough, since threats are advancing faster than the pace at which static cyber solutions can counteract. Accordingly, the practice of cybersecurity needs to ensure that intrusion and compromise do not result in system or environment damage or loss. In a previous paper [2], we described the Cyberspace Security Econometrics System (CSES), which is a stakeholder-aware and economics-based risk assessment method for cybersecurity. CSES allows an analyst to assess a system in terms of estimated loss resulting from security breakdowns. In this paper, we describe two new related contributions: 1) We map the Cyberspace Security Econometrics System (CSES) method to the evaluation and mitigation steps described by the NIST Guide to Industrial Control Systems (ICS) Security, Special Publication 800-82r2. Hence, presenting an economics-based and stakeholder-aware risk evaluation method for the implementation of the NIST-SP-800-82 guide; and 2) We describe the application of this tailored method through the use of a fictitious example of a critical infrastructure system of an electric and gas utility.

Tajer, A..  2017.  Data Injection Attacks in Electricity Markets: Stochastic Robustness. 2017 IEEE Global Conference on Signal and Information Processing (GlobalSIP). :1095–1099.

Deregulated electricity markets rely on a two-settlement system consisting of day-ahead and real-time markets, across which electricity price is volatile. In such markets, locational marginal pricing is widely adopted to set electricity prices and manage transmission congestion. Locational marginal prices are vulnerable to measurement errors. Existing studies show that if the adversaries are omniscient, they can design profitable attack strategies without being detected by the residue-based bad data detectors. This paper focuses on a more realistic setting, in which the attackers have only partial and imperfect information due to their limited resources and restricted physical access to the grid. Specifically, the attackers are assumed to have uncertainties about the state of the grid, and the uncertainties are modeled stochastically. Based on this model, this paper offers a framework for characterizing the optimal stochastic guarantees for the effectiveness of the attacks and the associated pricing impacts.

Vimalkumar, K., Radhika, N..  2017.  A Big Data Framework for Intrusion Detection in Smart Grids Using Apache Spark. 2017 International Conference on Advances in Computing, Communications and Informatics (ICACCI). :198–204.

Technological advancement enables the need of internet everywhere. The power industry is not an exception in the technological advancement which makes everything smarter. Smart grid is the advanced version of the traditional grid, which makes the system more efficient and self-healing. Synchrophasor is a device used in smart grids to measure the values of electric waves, voltages and current. The phasor measurement unit produces immense volume of current and voltage data that is used to monitor and control the performance of the grid. These data are huge in size and vulnerable to attacks. Intrusion Detection is a common technique for finding the intrusions in the system. In this paper, a big data framework is designed using various machine learning techniques, and intrusions are detected based on the classifications applied on the synchrophasor dataset. In this approach various machine learning techniques like deep neural networks, support vector machines, random forest, decision trees and naive bayes classifications are done for the synchrophasor dataset and the results are compared using metrics of accuracy, recall, false rate, specificity, and prediction time. Feature selection and dimensionality reduction algorithms are used to reduce the prediction time taken by the proposed approach. This paper uses apache spark as a platform which is suitable for the implementation of Intrusion Detection system in smart grids using big data analytics.

Sridhar, S., Govindarasu, M..  2014.  Model-Based Attack Detection and Mitigation for Automatic Generation Control. Smart Grid, IEEE Transactions on. 5:580-591.

Cyber systems play a critical role in improving the efficiency and reliability of power system operation and ensuring the system remains within safe operating margins. An adversary can inflict severe damage to the underlying physical system by compromising the control and monitoring applications facilitated by the cyber layer. Protection of critical assets from electronic threats has traditionally been done through conventional cyber security measures that involve host-based and network-based security technologies. However, it has been recognized that highly skilled attacks can bypass these security mechanisms to disrupt the smooth operation of control systems. There is a growing need for cyber-attack-resilient control techniques that look beyond traditional cyber defense mechanisms to detect highly skilled attacks. In this paper, we make the following contributions. We first demonstrate the impact of data integrity attacks on Automatic Generation Control (AGC) on power system frequency and electricity market operation. We propose a general framework to the application of attack resilient control to power systems as a composition of smart attack detection and mitigation. Finally, we develop a model-based anomaly detection and attack mitigation algorithm for AGC. We evaluate the detection capability of the proposed anomaly detection algorithm through simulation studies. Our results show that the algorithm is capable of detecting scaling and ramp attacks with low false positive and negative rates. The proposed model-based mitigation algorithm is also efficient in maintaining system frequency within acceptable limits during the attack period.