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2021-03-30
Foroughi, F., Hadipour, H., Shafiee, A. M..  2020.  High-Performance Monitoring Sensors for Home Computer Users Security Profiling. 2020 International Conference on Cyber Situational Awareness, Data Analytics and Assessment (CyberSA). :1—7.

Recognising user's risky behaviours in real-time is an important element of providing appropriate solutions and recommending suitable actions for responding to cybersecurity threats. Employing user modelling and machine learning can make this process automated by requires high-performance intelligent agent to create the user security profile. User profiling is the process of producing a profile of the user from historical information and past details. This research tries to identify the monitoring factors and suggests a novel observation solution to create high-performance sensors to generate the user security profile for a home user concerning the user's privacy. This observer agent helps to create a decision-making model that influences the user's decision following real-time threats or risky behaviours.

2021-03-29
Grundy, J..  2020.  Human-centric Software Engineering for Next Generation Cloud- and Edge-based Smart Living Applications. 2020 20th IEEE/ACM International Symposium on Cluster, Cloud and Internet Computing (CCGRID). :1—10.

Humans are a key part of software development, including customers, designers, coders, testers and end users. In this keynote talk I explain why incorporating human-centric issues into software engineering for next-generation applications is critical. I use several examples from our recent and current work on handling human-centric issues when engineering various `smart living' cloud- and edge-based software systems. This includes using human-centric, domain-specific visual models for non-technical experts to specify and generate data analysis applications; personality impact on aspects of software activities; incorporating end user emotions into software requirements engineering for smart homes; incorporating human usage patterns into emerging edge computing applications; visualising smart city-related data; reporting diverse software usability defects; and human-centric security and privacy requirements for smart living systems. I assess the usefulness of these approaches, highlight some outstanding research challenges, and briefly discuss our current work on new human-centric approaches to software engineering for smart living applications.

Distler, V., Lallemand, C., Koenig, V..  2020.  Making Encryption Feel Secure: Investigating how Descriptions of Encryption Impact Perceived Security. 2020 IEEE European Symposium on Security and Privacy Workshops (EuroS PW). :220—229.

When communication about security to end users is ineffective, people frequently misinterpret the protection offered by a system. The discrepancy between the security users perceive a system to have and the actual system state can lead to potentially risky behaviors. It is thus crucial to understand how security perceptions are shaped by interface elements such as text-based descriptions of encryption. This article addresses the question of how encryption should be described to non-experts in a way that enhances perceived security. We tested the following within-subject variables in an online experiment (N=309): a) how to best word encryption, b) whether encryption should be described with a focus on the process or outcome, or both c) whether the objective of encryption should be mentioned d) when mentioning the objective of encryption, how to best describe it e) whether a hash should be displayed to the user. We also investigated the role of context (between subjects). The verbs "encrypt" and "secure" performed comparatively well at enhancing perceived security. Overall, participants stated that they felt more secure not knowing about the objective of encryption. When it is necessary to state the objective, positive wording of the objective of encryption worked best. We discuss implications and why using these results to design for perceived lack of security might be of interest as well. This leads us to discuss ethical concerns, and we give guidelines for the design of user interfaces where encryption should be communicated to end users.

John, A., MC, A., Ajayan, A. S., Sanoop, S., Kumar, V. R..  2020.  Real-Time Facial Emotion Recognition System With Improved Preprocessing and Feature Extraction. 2020 Third International Conference on Smart Systems and Inventive Technology (ICSSIT). :1328—1333.

Human emotion recognition plays a vital role in interpersonal communication and human-machine interaction domain. Emotions are expressed through speech, hand gestures and by the movements of other body parts and through facial expression. Facial emotions are one of the most important factors in human communication that help us to understand, what the other person is trying to communicate. People understand only one-third of the message verbally, and two-third of it is through non-verbal means. There are many face emotion recognition (FER) systems present right now, but in real-life scenarios, they do not perform efficiently. Though there are many which claim to be a near-perfect system and to achieve the results in favourable and optimal conditions. The wide variety of expressions shown by people and the diversity in facial features of different people will not aid in the process of coming up with a system that is definite in nature. Hence developing a reliable system without any flaws showed by the existing systems is a challenging task. This paper aims to build an enhanced system that can analyse the exact facial expression of a user at that particular time and generate the corresponding emotion. Datasets like JAFFE and FER2013 were used for performance analysis. Pre-processing methods like facial landmark and HOG were incorporated into a convolutional neural network (CNN), and this has achieved good accuracy when compared with the already existing models.

Oğuz, K., Korkmaz, İ, Korkmaz, B., Akkaya, G., Alıcı, C., Kılıç, E..  2020.  Effect of Age and Gender on Facial Emotion Recognition. 2020 Innovations in Intelligent Systems and Applications Conference (ASYU). :1—6.

New research fields and applications on human computer interaction will emerge based on the recognition of emotions on faces. With such aim, our study evaluates the features extracted from faces to recognize emotions. To increase the success rate of these features, we have run several tests to demonstrate how age and gender affect the results. The artificial neural networks were trained by the apparent regions on the face such as eyes, eyebrows, nose, mouth, and jawline and then the networks are tested with different age and gender groups. According to the results, faces of older people have a lower performance rate of emotion recognition. Then, age and gender based groups are created manually, and we show that performance rates of facial emotion recognition have increased for the networks that are trained using these particular groups.

2021-03-18
Khan, A., Chefranov, A. G..  2020.  A Captcha-Based Graphical Password With Strong Password Space and Usability Study. 2020 International Conference on Electrical, Communication, and Computer Engineering (ICECCE). :1—6.

Security for authentication is required to give a superlative secure users' personal information. This paper presents a model of the Graphical password scheme under the impact of security and ease of use for user authentication. We integrate the concept of recognition with re-called and cued-recall based schemes to offer superior security compared to existing schemes. Click Symbols (CS) Alphabet combine into one entity: Alphanumeric (A) and Visual (V) symbols (CS-AV) is Captcha-based password scheme, we integrate it with recall-based n ×n grid points, where a user can draw the shape or pattern by the intersection of the grid points as a way to enter a graphical password. Next scheme, the combination of CS-AV with grid cells allows very large password space ( 2.4 ×104 bits of entropy) and provides reasonable usability results by determining an empirical study of memorable password space. Proposed schemes support most applicable platform for input devices and promising strong resistance to shoulder surfing attacks on a mobile device which can be occurred during unlocking (pattern) the smartphone.

Banday, M. T., Sheikh, S. A..  2020.  Improving Security Control of Text-Based CAPTCHA Challenges using Honeypot and Timestamping. 2020 Fourth International Conference on Computing Methodologies and Communication (ICCMC). :704—708.

The resistance to attacks aimed to break CAPTCHA challenges and the effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction of human users in solving them called usability are the two major concerns while designing CAPTCHA schemes. User-friendliness, universality, and accessibility are related dimensions of usability, which must also be addressed adequately. With recent advances in segmentation and optical character recognition techniques, complex distortions, degradations and transformations are added to text-based CAPTCHA challenges resulting in their reduced usability. The extent of these deformations can be decreased if some additional security mechanism is incorporated in such challenges. This paper proposes an additional security mechanism that can add an extra layer of protection to any text-based CAPTCHA challenge, making it more challenging for bots and scripts that might be used to attack websites and web applications. It proposes the use of hidden text-boxes for user entry of CAPTCHA string which serves as honeypots for bots and automated scripts. The honeypot technique is used to trick bots and automated scripts into filling up input fields which legitimate human users cannot fill in. The paper reports implementation of honeypot technique and results of tests carried out over three months during which form submissions were logged for analysis. The results demonstrated great effectiveness of honeypots technique to improve security control and usability of text-based CAPTCHA challenges.

2021-02-03
Razin, Y. S., Feigh, K. M..  2020.  Hitting the Road: Exploring Human-Robot Trust for Self-Driving Vehicles. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Human-Machine Systems (ICHMS). :1—6.

With self-driving cars making their way on to our roads, we ask not what it would take for them to gain acceptance among consumers, but what impact they may have on other drivers. How they will be perceived and whether they will be trusted will likely have a major effect on traffic flow and vehicular safety. This work first undertakes an exploratory factor analysis to validate a trust scale for human-robot interaction and shows how previously validated metrics and general trust theory support a more complete model of trust that has increased applicability in the driving domain. We experimentally test this expanded model in the context of human-automation interaction during simulated driving, revealing how using these dimensions uncovers significant biases within human-robot trust that may have particularly deleterious effects when it comes to sharing our future roads with automated vehicles.

Clark, D. J., Turnbull, B..  2020.  Experiment Design for Complex Immersive Visualisation. 2020 Military Communications and Information Systems Conference (MilCIS). :1—5.

Experimentation focused on assessing the value of complex visualisation approaches when compared with alternative methods for data analysis is challenging. The interaction between participant prior knowledge and experience, a diverse range of experimental or real-world data sets and a dynamic interaction with the display system presents challenges when seeking timely, affordable and statistically relevant experimentation results. This paper outlines a hybrid approach proposed for experimentation with complex interactive data analysis tools, specifically for computer network traffic analysis. The approach involves a structured survey completed after free engagement with the software platform by expert participants. The survey captures objective and subjective data points relating to the experience with the goal of making an assessment of software performance which is supported by statistically significant experimental results. This work is particularly applicable to field of network analysis for cyber security and also military cyber operations and intelligence data analysis.

2021-02-01
Gupta, K., Hajika, R., Pai, Y. S., Duenser, A., Lochner, M., Billinghurst, M..  2020.  Measuring Human Trust in a Virtual Assistant using Physiological Sensing in Virtual Reality. 2020 IEEE Conference on Virtual Reality and 3D User Interfaces (VR). :756–765.
With the advancement of Artificial Intelligence technology to make smart devices, understanding how humans develop trust in virtual agents is emerging as a critical research field. Through our research, we report on a novel methodology to investigate user's trust in auditory assistance in a Virtual Reality (VR) based search task, under both high and low cognitive load and under varying levels of agent accuracy. We collected physiological sensor data such as electroencephalography (EEG), galvanic skin response (GSR), and heart-rate variability (HRV), subjective data through questionnaire such as System Trust Scale (STS), Subjective Mental Effort Questionnaire (SMEQ) and NASA-TLX. We also collected a behavioral measure of trust (congruency of users' head motion in response to valid/ invalid verbal advice from the agent). Our results indicate that our custom VR environment enables researchers to measure and understand human trust in virtual agents using the matrices, and both cognitive load and agent accuracy play an important role in trust formation. We discuss the implications of the research and directions for future work.
2021-01-15
Katarya, R., Lal, A..  2020.  A Study on Combating Emerging Threat of Deepfake Weaponization. 2020 Fourth International Conference on I-SMAC (IoT in Social, Mobile, Analytics and Cloud) (I-SMAC). :485—490.
A breakthrough in the emerging use of machine learning and deep learning is the concept of autoencoders and GAN (Generative Adversarial Networks), architectures that can generate believable synthetic content called deepfakes. The threat lies when these low-tech doctored images, videos, and audios blur the line between fake and genuine content and are used as weapons to cause damage to an unprecedented degree. This paper presents a survey of the underlying technology of deepfakes and methods proposed for their detection. Based on a detailed study of all the proposed models of detection, this paper presents SSTNet as the best model to date, that uses spatial, temporal, and steganalysis for detection. The threat posed by document and signature forgery, which is yet to be explored by researchers, has also been highlighted in this paper. This paper concludes with the discussion of research directions in this field and the development of more robust techniques to deal with the increasing threats surrounding deepfake technology.
2020-12-28
Ditton, S., Tekeoglu, A., Bekiroglu, K., Srinivasan, S..  2020.  A Proof of Concept Denial of Service Attack Against Bluetooth IoT Devices. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications Workshops (PerCom Workshops). :1—6.
Bluetooth technologies have widespread applications in personal area networks, device-to-device communications and forming ad hoc networks. Studying Bluetooth devices security is a challenging task as they lack support for monitor mode available with other wireless networks (e.g. 802.11 WiFi). In addition, the frequency-hoping spread spectrum technique used in its operation necessitates special hardware and software to study its operation. This investigation examines methods for analyzing Bluetooth devices' security and presents a proof-of-concept DoS attack on the Link Manager Protocol (LMP) layer using the InternalBlue framework. Through this study, we demonstrate a method to study Bluetooth device security using existing tools without requiring specialized hardware. Consequently, the methods proposed in the paper can be used to study Bluetooth security in many applications.
2020-12-14
Willcox, G., Rosenberg, L., Domnauer, C..  2020.  Analysis of Human Behaviors in Real-Time Swarms. 2020 10th Annual Computing and Communication Workshop and Conference (CCWC). :0104–0109.
Many species reach group decisions by deliberating in real-time systems. This natural process, known as Swarm Intelligence (SI), has been studied extensively in a range of social organisms, from schools of fish to swarms of bees. A new technique called Artificial Swarm Intelligence (ASI) has enabled networked human groups to reach decisions in systems modeled after natural swarms. The present research seeks to understand the behavioral dynamics of such “human swarms.” Data was collected from ten human groups, each having between 21 and 25 members. The groups were tasked with answering a set of 25 ordered ranking questions on a 1-5 scale, first independently by survey and then collaboratively as a real-time swarm. We found that groups reached significantly different answers, on average, by swarm versus survey ( p=0.02). Initially, the distribution of individual responses in each swarm was little different than the distribution of survey responses, but through the process of real-time deliberation, the swarm's average answer changed significantly ( ). We discuss possible interpretations of this dynamic behavior. Importantly, the we find that swarm's answer is not simply the arithmetic mean of initial individual “votes” ( ) as in a survey, suggesting a more complex mechanism is at play-one that relies on the time-varying behaviors of the participants in swarms. Finally, we publish a set of data that enables other researchers to analyze human behaviors in real-time swarms.
2020-12-11
Correia, A., Fonseca, B., Paredes, H., Schneider, D., Jameel, S..  2019.  Development of a Crowd-Powered System Architecture for Knowledge Discovery in Scientific Domains. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics (SMC). :1372—1377.
A substantial amount of work is often overlooked due to the exponential rate of growth in global scientific output across all disciplines. Current approaches for addressing this issue are usually limited in scope and often restrict the possibility of obtaining multidisciplinary views in practice. To tackle this problem, researchers can now leverage an ecosystem of citizens, volunteers and crowd workers to perform complex tasks that are either difficult for humans and machines to solve alone. Motivated by the idea that human crowds and computer algorithms have complementary strengths, we present an approach where the machine will learn from crowd behavior in an iterative way. This approach is embodied in the architecture of SciCrowd, a crowd-powered human-machine hybrid system designed to improve the analysis and processing of large amounts of publication records. To validate the proposal's feasibility, a prototype was developed and an initial evaluation was conducted to measure its robustness and reliability. We conclude this paper with a set of implications for design.
2020-11-02
Fraile, Francisco, Flores, José Luis, Anaya, Victor, Saiz, Eduardo, Poler, Raúl.  2018.  A Scaffolding Design Framework for Developing Secure Interoperability Components in Digital Manufacturing Platforms. 2018 International Conference on Intelligent Systems (IS). :564—569.
This paper presents the Virtual Open Operating System (vf-OS) Input / Output (IO) Toolkit Generator, which is a design tool to develop vf-OS IO components that interact with all kinds of manufacturing assets, either physical devices like Program Logic Controllers (PLCs), software applications like Enterprise Resource Planning Systems (ERPs) or legacy file formats like STEP. The vf-OS IO Toolkit Generator is based on software scaffolding, a code generation technique that allows a developer to create a working component to interact with a manufacturing asset from the vf-OS Platform without writing a line of code. As described in this paper, software scaffolding not only simplifies the development of interoperability components, but it also fosters system security and platform integration automation. Another contribution of this paper is to propose possible integrations between the IO Toolkit Generator and the vf-OS Security Command Centre in charge of platform security. Additionally, this paper describes how the concept can be extended to address other digital manufacturing platforms like Fi-Ware.
2020-10-16
Shayganmehr, Masoud, Montazer, Gholam Ali.  2019.  Identifying Indexes Affecting the Quality of E-Government Websites. 2019 5th International Conference on Web Research (ICWR). :167—171.

With the development of new technologies in the world, governments have tendency to make a communications with people and business with the help of such technologies. Electronic government (e-government) is defined as utilizing information technologies such as electronic networks, Internet and mobile phones by organizations and state institutions in order to making wide communication between citizens, business and different state institutions. Development of e-government starts with making website in order to share information with users and is considered as the main infrastructure for further development. Website assessment is considered as a way for improving service quality. Different international researches have introduced various indexes for website assessment, they only see some dimensions of website in their research. In this paper, the most important indexes for website quality assessment based on accurate review of previous studies are "Web design", "navigation", services", "maintenance and Support", "Citizens Participation", "Information Quality", "Privacy and Security", "Responsiveness", "Usability". Considering mentioned indexes in designing the website facilitates user interaction with the e-government websites.

2020-10-12
Sieu, Brandon, Gavrilova, Marina.  2019.  Person Identification from Visual Aesthetics Using Gene Expression Programming. 2019 International Conference on Cyberworlds (CW). :279–286.
The last decade has witnessed an increase in online human interactions, covering all aspects of personal and professional activities. Identification of people based on their behavior rather than physical traits is a growing industry, spanning diverse spheres such as online education, e-commerce and cyber security. One prominent behavior is the expression of opinions, commonly as a reaction to images posted online. Visual aesthetic is a soft, behavioral biometric that refers to a person's sense of fondness to a certain image. Identifying individuals using their visual aesthetics as discriminatory features is an emerging domain of research. This paper introduces a new method for aesthetic feature dimensionality reduction using gene expression programming. The advantage of this method is that the resulting system is capable of using a tree-based genetic approach for feature recombination. Reducing feature dimensionality improves classifier accuracy, reduces computation runtime, and minimizes required storage. The results obtained on a dataset of 200 Flickr users evaluating 40000 images demonstrates a 94% accuracy of identity recognition based solely on users' aesthetic preferences. This outperforms the best-known method by 13.5%.
Foroughi, Farhad, Luksch, Peter.  2018.  Observation Measures to Profile User Security Behaviour. 2018 International Conference on Cyber Security and Protection of Digital Services (Cyber Security). :1–6.
Recognising user behaviour in real time is an important element of providing appropriate information and help to take suitable action or decision regarding cybersecurity threats. A user's security behaviour profile is a set of structured data and information to describe a user in an interactive environment between the user and computer. The first step for behaviour profiling is user behaviour model development including data collection. The data collection should be transparent as much as possible with minimum user interaction. Monitoring individual actions to obtain labelled training data is less costly and more effective in creating a behaviour profile. The most challenging issue in computer user security can be identifying suitable data. This research aims to determine required observation measures to capture user-system interactions to understand user's behaviour and create a user profile for cybersecurity purposes.
Khosravi, Morteza, Fereidunian, Alireza.  2019.  Enhancing Smart Grid Cyber-Security Using A Fuzzy Adaptive Autonomy Expert System. 2019 Smart Grid Conference (SGC). :1–6.

Smart Grid cyber-security sounds to be a critical issue, because of widespread development of information technology. To achieve secure and reliable operation, the complexity of human automation interaction (HAI) necessitates more sophisticated and intelligent methodologies. In this paper, an adaptive autonomy fuzzy expert system is developed using gradient descent algorithm to determine the Level of Automation (LOA), based on the changing of Performance Shaping Factors (PSF). These PSFs indicate the effects of environmental conditions on the performance of HAI. The major advantage of this method is that the fuzzy rule or membership function can be learnt without changing the form of the fuzzy rule in conventional fuzzy control. Because of data shortage, Leave-One-Out Cross-Validation (LOOCV) technique is applied for assessing how the results of proposed system generalizes to the new contingency situations. The expert system database is extracted from superior experts' judgments. In order to regard the importance of each PSF, weighted rules are also considered. In addition, some new environmental conditions are introduced that has not been seen before. Nine scenarios are discussed to reveal the performance of the proposed system. Results confirm that the presented fuzzy expert system can effectively calculates the proper LOA even in the new contingency situations.

2020-10-05
Kang, Anqi.  2018.  Collaborative Filtering Algorithm Based on Trust and Information Entropy. 2018 International Conference on Intelligent Informatics and Biomedical Sciences (ICIIBMS). 3:262—266.

In order to improve the accuracy of similarity, an improved collaborative filtering algorithm based on trust and information entropy is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the direct trust between the users is determined by the user's rating to explore the potential trust relationship of the users. The time decay function is introduced to realize the dynamic portrayal of the user's interest decays over time. Secondly, the direct trust and the indirect trust are combined to obtain the overall trust which is weighted with the Pearson similarity to obtain the trust similarity. Then, the information entropy theory is introduced to calculate the similarity based on weighted information entropy. At last, the trust similarity and the similarity based on weighted information entropy are weighted to obtain the similarity combing trust and information entropy which is used to predicted the rating of the target user and create the recommendation. The simulation shows that the improved algorithm has a higher accuracy of recommendation and can provide more accurate and reliable recommendation service.

2020-09-28
Dong, Guishan, Chen, Yuxiang, Fan, Jia, Liu, Dijun, Hao, Yao, Wang, Zhen.  2018.  A Privacy-User-Friendly Scheme for Wearable Smart Sensing Devices Based on Blockchain. 2018 IEEE 15th International Conference on Mobile Ad Hoc and Sensor Systems (MASS). :481–486.
Wearable smart sensing devices presently become more and more popular in people's daily life, which also brings serious problems related to personal data privacy. In order to provide users better experiences, wearable smart sensing devices are collecting users' personal data all the time and uploading the data to service provider to get computing services, which objectively let service provider master each user's condition and cause a lot of problems such as spam, harassing call, etc. This paper designs a blockchain based scheme to solve such problems by cutting off the association between user identifier and its sensing data from perspective of shielding service providers and adversaries. Firstly, privacy requirements and situations in smart sensing area are reviewed. Then, three key technologies are introduced in the scheme including its theories, purposes and usage. Next, the designed protocol is shown and analyzed in detail. Finally, security analysis and engineering feasibility of the scheme are given. This scheme will give user better experience from privacy protection perspective in smart sensing area.
2020-09-21
Razin, Yosef, Feigh, Karen.  2019.  Toward Interactional Trust for Humans and Automation: Extending Interdependence. 2019 IEEE SmartWorld, Ubiquitous Intelligence Computing, Advanced Trusted Computing, Scalable Computing Communications, Cloud Big Data Computing, Internet of People and Smart City Innovation (SmartWorld/SCALCOM/UIC/ATC/CBDCom/IOP/SCI). :1348–1355.
Trust in human-automation interaction is increasingly imperative as AI and robots become ubiquitous at home, school, and work. Interdependence theory allows for the identification of one-on-one interactions that require trust by analyzing the structure of the potential outcomes. This paper synthesizes multiple, formerly disparate research approaches by extending Interdependence theory to create a unified framework for outcome-based trust in human-automation interaction. This framework quantitatively contextualizes validated empirical results from social psychology on relationship formation, stability, and betrayal. It also contributes insights into trust-related concepts, such as power and commitment, which help further our understanding of trustworthy system design. This new integrated interactional approach reveals how trust and trustworthiness machines from merely reliable tools to trusted teammates working hand-in-actuator toward an automated future.
2020-09-18
Hao, Jie, Shum, Kenneth W., Xia, Shu-Tao, Yang, Yi-Xian.  2019.  Classification of Optimal Ternary (r, δ)-Locally Repairable Codes Attaining the Singleton-like Bound. 2019 IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory (ISIT). :2828—2832.
In a linear code, a code symbol with (r, δ)-locality can be repaired by accessing at most r other code symbols in case of at most δ - 1 erasures. A q-ary (n, k, r, δ) locally repairable codes (LRC) in which every code symbol has (r, δ)-locality is said to be optimal if it achieves the Singleton-like bound derived by Prakash et al.. In this paper, we study the classification of optimal ternary (n, k, r, δ)-LRCs (δ \textbackslashtextgreater 2). Firstly, we propose an upper bound on the minimum distance of optimal q-ary LRCs in terms of the field size. Then, we completely determine all the 6 classes of possible parameters with which optimal ternary (n, k, r, δ)-LRCs exist. Moreover, explicit constructions of all these 6 classes of optimal ternary LRCs are proposed in the paper.
2020-09-11
Ababtain, Eman, Engels, Daniel.  2019.  Gestures Based CAPTCHAs the Use of Sensor Readings to Solve CAPTCHA Challenge on Smartphones. 2019 International Conference on Computational Science and Computational Intelligence (CSCI). :113—119.
We present novel CAPTCHA challenges based on user gestures designed for mobile. A gesture CAPTCHA challenge is a security mechanism to prevent malware from gaining access to network resources from mobile. Mobile devices contain a number of sensors that record the physical movement of the device. We utilized the accelerometer and gyroscope data as inputs to our novel CAPTCHAs to capture the physical manipulation of the device. We conducted an experimental study on a group of people. We discovered that younger people are able to solve this type of CAPTCHA challenges successfully in a short amount of time. We found that using accelerometer readings produces issues for some older people.
Shu, Yujin, Xu, Yongjin.  2019.  End-to-End Captcha Recognition Using Deep CNN-RNN Network. 2019 IEEE 3rd Advanced Information Management, Communicates, Electronic and Automation Control Conference (IMCEC). :54—58.
With the development of the Internet, the captcha technology has also been widely used. Captcha technology is used to distinguish between humans and machines, namely Completely Automated Public Turing test to tell Computers and Humans Apart. In this paper, an end-to-end deep CNN-RNN network model is constructed by studying the captcha recognition technology, which realizes the recognition of 4-character text captcha. The CNN-RNN model first constructs a deep residual convolutional neural network based on the residual network structure to accurately extract the input captcha picture features. Then, through the constructed variant RNN network, that is, the two-layer GRU network, the deep internal features of the captcha are extracted, and finally, the output sequence is the 4-character captcha. The experiments results show that the end-to-end deep CNN-RNN network model has a good performance on different captcha datasets, achieving 99% accuracy. And experiment on the few samples dataset which only has 4000 training samples also shows an accuracy of 72.9 % and a certain generalization ability.