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2021-04-08
Yang, Z., Sun, Q., Zhang, Y., Zhu, L., Ji, W..  2020.  Inference of Suspicious Co-Visitation and Co-Rating Behaviors and Abnormality Forensics for Recommender Systems. IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security. 15:2766—2781.
The pervasiveness of personalized collaborative recommender systems has shown the powerful capability in a wide range of E-commerce services such as Amazon, TripAdvisor, Yelp, etc. However, fundamental vulnerabilities of collaborative recommender systems leave space for malicious users to affect the recommendation results as the attackers desire. A vast majority of existing detection methods assume certain properties of malicious attacks are given in advance. In reality, improving the detection performance is usually constrained due to the challenging issues: (a) various types of malicious attacks coexist, (b) limited representations of malicious attack behaviors, and (c) practical evidences for exploring and spotting anomalies on real-world data are scarce. In this paper, we investigate a unified detection framework in an eye for an eye manner without being bothered by the details of the attacks. Firstly, co-visitation and co-rating graphs are constructed using association rules. Then, attribute representations of nodes are empirically developed from the perspectives of linkage pattern, structure-based property and inherent association of nodes. Finally, both attribute information and connective coherence of graph are combined in order to infer suspicious nodes. Extensive experiments on both synthetic and real-world data demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed detection approach compared with competing benchmarks. Additionally, abnormality forensics metrics including distribution of rating intention, time aggregation of suspicious ratings, degree distributions before as well as after removing suspicious nodes and time series analysis of historical ratings, are provided so as to discover interesting findings such as suspicious nodes (items or ratings) on real-world data.
2021-03-29
Zhou, J., Zhang, X., Liu, Y., Lan, X..  2020.  Facial Expression Recognition Using Spatial-Temporal Semantic Graph Network. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP). :1961—1965.

Motions of facial components convey significant information of facial expressions. Although remarkable advancement has been made, the dynamic of facial topology has not been fully exploited. In this paper, a novel facial expression recognition (FER) algorithm called Spatial Temporal Semantic Graph Network (STSGN) is proposed to automatically learn spatial and temporal patterns through end-to-end feature learning from facial topology structure. The proposed algorithm not only has greater discriminative power to capture the dynamic patterns of facial expression and stronger generalization capability to handle different variations but also higher interpretability. Experimental evaluation on two popular datasets, CK+ and Oulu-CASIA, shows that our algorithm achieves more competitive results than other state-of-the-art methods.

Xu, X., Ruan, Z., Yang, L..  2020.  Facial Expression Recognition Based on Graph Neural Network. 2020 IEEE 5th International Conference on Image, Vision and Computing (ICIVC). :211—214.

Facial expressions are one of the most powerful, natural and immediate means for human being to present their emotions and intensions. In this paper, we present a novel method for fully automatic facial expression recognition. The facial landmarks are detected for characterizing facial expressions. A graph convolutional neural network is proposed for feature extraction and facial expression recognition classification. The experiments were performed on the three facial expression databases. The result shows that the proposed FER method can achieve good recognition accuracy up to 95.85% using the proposed method.

2021-03-17
Soliman, H. M..  2020.  An Optimization Approach to Graph Partitioning for Detecting Persistent Attacks in Enterprise Networks. 2020 International Symposium on Networks, Computers and Communications (ISNCC). :1—6.
Advanced Persistent Threats (APTs) refer to sophisticated, prolonged and multi-step attacks, planned and executed by skilled adversaries targeting government and enterprise networks. Attack graphs' topologies can be leveraged to detect, explain and visualize the progress of such attacks. However, due to the abundance of false-positives, such graphs are usually overwhelmingly large and difficult for an analyst to understand. Graph partitioning refers to the problem of reducing the graph of alerts to a set of smaller incidents that are easier for an analyst to process and better represent the actual attack plan. Existing approaches are oblivious to the security-context of the problem at hand and result in graphs which, while smaller, make little sense from a security perspective. In this paper, we propose an optimization approach allowing us to generate security-aware partitions, utilizing aspects such as the kill chain progression, number of assets involved, as well as the size of the graph. Using real-world datasets, the results show that our approach produces graphs that are better at capturing the underlying attack compared to state-of-the-art approaches and are easier for the analyst to understand.
2021-03-15
Akter, S., Rahman, M. S., Mansoor, N..  2020.  An Efficient Routing Protocol for Secured Communication in Cognitive Radio Sensor Networks. 2020 IEEE Region 10 Symposium (TENSYMP). :1713–1716.
This paper introduces an efficient reactive routing protocol considering the mobility and the reliability of a node in Cognitive Radio Sensor Networks (CRSNs). The proposed protocol accommodates the dynamic behavior of the spectrum availability and selects a stable transmission path from a source node to the destination. Outlined as a weighted graph problem, the proposed protocol measures the weight for an edge the measuring the mobility patterns of the nodes and channel availability. Furthermore, the mobility pattern of a node is defined in the proposed routing protocol from the viewpoint of distance, speed, direction, and node's reliability. Besides, the spectrum awareness in the proposed protocol is measured over the number of shared common channels and the channel quality. It is anticipated that the proposed protocol shows efficient routing performance by selecting stable and secured paths from source to destination. Simulation is carried out to assess the performance of the protocol where it is witnessed that the proposed routing protocol outperforms existing ones.
2021-02-23
Millar, K., Cheng, A., Chew, H. G., Lim, C..  2020.  Characterising Network-Connected Devices Using Affiliation Graphs. NOMS 2020 - 2020 IEEE/IFIP Network Operations and Management Symposium. :1—6.

Device management in large networks is of growing importance to network administrators and security analysts alike. The composition of devices on a network can help forecast future traffic demand as well as identify devices that may pose a security risk. However, the sheer number and diversity of devices that comprise most modern networks have vastly increased the management complexity. Motivated by a need for an encryption-invariant device management strategy, we use affiliation graphs to develop a methodology that reveals key insights into the devices acting on a network using only the source and destination IP addresses. Through an empirical analysis of the devices on a university campus network, we provide an example methodology to infer a device's characteristics (e.g., operating system) through the services it communicates with via the Internet.

2021-02-22
Chen, T., Lin, T., Hong, Y.- P..  2020.  Gait Phase Segmentation Using Weighted Dynamic Time Warping and K-Nearest Neighbors Graph Embedding. ICASSP 2020 - 2020 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP). :1180–1184.
Gait phase segmentation is the process of identifying the start and end of different phases within a gait cycle. It is essential to many medical applications, such as disease diagnosis or rehabilitation. This work utilizes inertial measurement units (IMUs) mounted on the individual's foot to gather gait information and develops a gait phase segmentation method based on the collected signals. The proposed method utilizes a weighted dynamic time warping (DTW) algorithm to measure the distance between two different gait signals, and a k-nearest neighbors (kNN) algorithm to obtain the gait phase estimates. To reduce the complexity of the DTW-based kNN search, we propose a neural network-based graph embedding scheme that is able to map the IMU signals associated with each gait cycle into a distance-preserving low-dimensional representation while also producing a prediction on the k nearest neighbors of the test signal. Experiments are conducted on self-collected IMU gait signals to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.
Bashyam, K. G. Renga, Vadhiyar, S..  2020.  Fast Scalable Approximate Nearest Neighbor Search for High-dimensional Data. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Cluster Computing (CLUSTER). :294–302.
K-Nearest Neighbor (k-NN) search is one of the most commonly used approaches for similarity search. It finds extensive applications in machine learning and data mining. This era of big data warrants efficiently scaling k-NN search algorithms for billion-scale datasets with high dimensionality. In this paper, we propose a solution towards this end where we use vantage point trees for partitioning the dataset across multiple processes and exploit an existing graph-based sequential approximate k-NN search algorithm called HNSW (Hierarchical Navigable Small World) for searching locally within a process. Our hybrid MPI-OpenMP solution employs techniques including exploiting MPI one-sided communication for reducing communication times and partition replication for better load balancing across processes. We demonstrate computation of k-NN for 10,000 queries in the order of seconds using our approach on 8000 cores on a dataset with billion points in an 128-dimensional space. We also show 10X speedup over a completely k-d tree-based solution for the same dataset, thus demonstrating better suitability of our solution for high dimensional datasets. Our solution shows almost linear strong scaling.
Haile, J., Havens, S..  2020.  Identifying Ubiquitious Third-Party Libraries in Compiled Executables Using Annotated and Translated Disassembled Code with Supervised Machine Learning. 2020 IEEE Security and Privacy Workshops (SPW). :157–162.
The size and complexity of the software ecosystem is a major challenge for vendors, asset owners and cybersecurity professionals who need to understand the security posture of these systems. Annotated and Translated Disassembled Code is a graph based datastore designed to organize firmware and software analysis data across builds, packages and systems, providing a highly scalable platform enabling automated binary software analysis tasks including corpora construction and storage for machine learning. This paper describes an approach for the identification of ubiquitous third-party libraries in firmware and software using Annotated and Translated Disassembled Code and supervised machine learning. Annotated and Translated Disassembled Code provide matched libraries, function names and addresses of previously unidentified code in software as it is being automatically analyzed. This data can be ingested by other software analysis tools to improve accuracy and save time. Defenders can add the identified libraries to their vulnerability searches and add effective detection and mitigation into their operating environment.
2021-02-16
Poudel, S., Sun, H., Nikovski, D., Zhang, J..  2020.  Distributed Average Consensus Algorithm for Damage Assessment of Power Distribution System. 2020 IEEE Power Energy Society Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Conference (ISGT). :1—5.
In this paper, we propose a novel method to obtain the damage model (connectivity) of a power distribution system (PDS) based on distributed consensus algorithm. The measurement and sensing units in the distribution network are modeled as an agent with limited communication capability that exchanges the information (switch status) to reach an agreement in a consensus algorithm. Besides, a communication graph is designed for agents to run the consensus algorithm which is efficient and robust during the disaster event. Agents can dynamically communicate with the other agent based on available links that are established and solve the distributed consensus algorithm quickly to come up with the correct topology of PDS. Numerical simulations are performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach with the help of an IEEE 123-node test case with 3 different sub-graphs.
Liu, F., Eugenio, E., Jin, I. H., Bowen, C..  2020.  Differentially Private Generation of Social Networks via Exponential Random Graph Models. 2020 IEEE 44th Annual Computers, Software, and Applications Conference (COMPSAC). :1695—1700.
Many social networks contain sensitive relational information. One approach to protect the sensitive relational information while offering flexibility for social network research and analysis is to release synthetic social networks at a pre-specified privacy risk level, given the original observed network. We propose the DP-ERGM procedure that synthesizes networks that satisfy the differential privacy (DP) via the exponential random graph model (EGRM). We apply DP-ERGM to a college student friendship network and compare its original network information preservation in the generated private networks with two other approaches: differentially private DyadWise Randomized Response (DWRR) and Sanitization of the Conditional probability of Edge given Attribute classes (SCEA). The results suggest that DP-EGRM preserves the original information significantly better than DWRR and SCEA in both network statistics and inferences from ERGMs and latent space models. In addition, DP-ERGM satisfies the node DP, a stronger notion of privacy than the edge DP that DWRR and SCEA satisfy.
2021-02-15
Drakopoulos, G., Giotopoulos, K., Giannoukou, I., Sioutas, S..  2020.  Unsupervised Discovery Of Semantically Aware Communities With Tensor Kruskal Decomposition: A Case Study In Twitter. 2020 15th International Workshop on Semantic and Social Media Adaptation and Personalization (SMA. :1–8.
Substantial empirical evidence, including the success of synthetic graph generation models as well as of analytical methodologies, suggests that large, real graphs have a recursive community structure. The latter results, in part at least, in other important properties of these graphs such as low diameter, high clustering coefficient values, heavy degree distribution tail, and clustered graph spectrum. Notice that this structure need not be official or moderated like Facebook groups, but it can also take an ad hoc and unofficial form depending on the functionality of the social network under study as for instance the follow relationship on Twitter or the connections between news aggregators on Reddit. Community discovery is paramount in numerous applications such as political campaigns, digital marketing, crowdfunding, and fact checking. Here a tensor representation for Twitter subgraphs is proposed which takes into consideration both the followfollower relationships but also the coherency in hashtags. Community structure discovery then reduces to the computation of Tucker tensor decomposition, a higher order counterpart of the well-known unsupervised learning method of singular value decomposition (SVD). Tucker decomposition clearly outperforms the SVD in terms of finding a more compact community size distribution in experiments done in Julia on a Twitter subgraph. This can be attributed to the facts that the proposed methodology combines both structural and functional Twitter elements and that hashtags carry an increased semantic weight in comparison to ordinary tweets.
2021-02-08
Moormann, L., Mortel-Fronczak, J. M. van de, Fokkink, W. J., Rooda, J. E..  2020.  Exploiting Symmetry in Dependency Graphs for Model Reduction in Supervisor Synthesis. 2020 IEEE 16th International Conference on Automation Science and Engineering (CASE). :659–666.
Supervisor synthesis enables the design of supervisory controllers for large cyber-physical systems, with high guarantees for functionality and safety. The complexity of the synthesis problem, however, increases exponentially with the number of system components in the cyber-physical system and the number of models of this system, often resulting in lengthy or even unsolvable synthesis procedures. In this paper, a new method is proposed for reducing the model of the system before synthesis to decrease the required computational time and effort. The method consists of three steps for model reduction, that are mainly based on symmetry in dependency graphs of the system. Dependency graphs visualize the components in the system and the relations between these components. The proposed method is applied in a case study on the design of a supervisory controller for a road tunnel. In this case study, the model reduction steps are described, and results are shown on the effectiveness of model reduction in terms of model size and synthesis time.
Pelissero, N., Laso, P. M., Puentes, J..  2020.  Naval cyber-physical anomaly propagation analysis based on a quality assessed graph. 2020 International Conference on Cyber Situational Awareness, Data Analytics and Assessment (CyberSA). :1–8.
As any other infrastructure relying on cyber-physical systems (CPS), naval CPS are highly interconnected and collect considerable data streams, on which depend multiple command and navigation decisions. Being a data-driven decision system requiring optimized supervisory control on a permanent basis, it is critical to examine the CPS vulnerability to anomalies and their propagation. This paper presents an approach to detect CPS anomalies and estimate their propagation applying a quality assessed graph, which represents the CPS physical and digital subsystems, combined with system variables dependencies and a set of data and information quality measures vectors. Following the identification of variables dependencies and high-risk nodes in the CPS, data and information quality measures reveal how system variables are modified when an anomaly is detected, also indicating its propagation path. Taking as reference the normal state of a naval propulsion management system, four anomalies in the form of cyber-attacks - port scan, programmable logical controller stop, and man in the middle to change the motor speed and operation of a tank valve - were produced. Three anomalies were properly detected and their propagation path identified. These results suggest the feasibility of anomaly detection and estimation of propagation estimation in CPS, applying data and information quality analysis to a system graph.
2021-01-28
Collins, B. C., Brown, P. N..  2020.  Exploiting an Adversary’s Intentions in Graphical Coordination Games. 2020 American Control Conference (ACC). :4638—4643.

How does information regarding an adversary's intentions affect optimal system design? This paper addresses this question in the context of graphical coordination games where an adversary can indirectly influence the behavior of agents by modifying their payoffs. We study a situation in which a system operator must select a graph topology in anticipation of the action of an unknown adversary. The designer can limit her worst-case losses by playing a security strategy, effectively planning for an adversary which intends maximum harm. However, fine-grained information regarding the adversary's intention may help the system operator to fine-tune the defenses and obtain better system performance. In a simple model of adversarial behavior, this paper asks how much a system operator can gain by fine-tuning a defense for known adversarial intent. We find that if the adversary is weak, a security strategy is approximately optimal for any adversary type; however, for moderately-strong adversaries, security strategies are far from optimal.

2021-01-25
Malzahn, D., Birnbaum, Z., Wright-Hamor, C..  2020.  Automated Vulnerability Testing via Executable Attack Graphs. 2020 International Conference on Cyber Security and Protection of Digital Services (Cyber Security). :1–10.
Cyber risk assessments are an essential process for analyzing and prioritizing security issues. Unfortunately, many risk assessment methodologies are marred by human subjectivity, resulting in non-repeatable, inconsistent findings. The absence of repeatable and consistent results can lead to suboptimal decision making with respect to cyber risk reduction. There is a pressing need to reduce cyber risk assessment uncertainty by using tools that use well defined inputs, producing well defined results. This paper presents Automated Vulnerability and Risk Analysis (AVRA), an end-to-end process and tool for identifying and exploiting vulnerabilities, designed for use in cyber risk assessments. The approach presented is more comprehensive than traditional vulnerability scans due to its analysis of an entire network, integrating both host and network information. AVRA automatically generates a detailed model of the network and its individual components, which is used to create an attack graph. Then, AVRA follows individual attack paths, automatically launching exploits to reach a particular objective. AVRA was successfully tested within a virtual environment to demonstrate practicality and usability. The presented approach and resulting system enhances the cyber risk assessment process through rigor, repeatability, and objectivity.
Arthy, R., Daniel, E., Maran, T. G., Praveen, M..  2020.  A Hybrid Secure Keyword Search Scheme in Encrypted Graph for Social Media Database. 2020 Fourth International Conference on Computing Methodologies and Communication (ICCMC). :1000–1004.

Privacy preservation is a challenging task with the huge amount of data that are available in social media. The data those are stored in the distributed environment or in cloud environment need to ensure confidentiality to data. In addition, representing the voluminous data is graph will be convenient to perform keyword search. The proposed work initially reads the data corresponding to social media and converts that into a graph. In order to prevent the data from the active attacks Advanced Encryption Standard algorithm is used to perform graph encryption. Later, search operation is done using two algorithms: kNK keyword search algorithm and top k nearest keyword search algorithm. The first scheme is used to fetch all the data corresponding to the keyword. The second scheme is used to fetch the nearest neighbor. This scheme increases the efficiency of the search process. Here shortest path algorithm is used to find the minimum distance. Now, based on the minimum value the results are produced. The proposed algorithm shows high performance for graph generation and searching and moderate performance for graph encryption.

Zhang, T.-Y., Ye, D..  2020.  Distributed Secure Control Against Denial-of-Service Attacks in Cyber-Physical Systems Based on K-Connected Communication Topology. IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics. 50:3094–3103.
In this article, the security problem in cyber-physical systems (CPSs) against denial-of-service (DoS) attacks is studied from the perspectives of the designs of communication topology and distributed controller. To resist the DoS attacks, a new construction algorithm of the k-connected communication topology is developed based on the proposed necessary and sufficient criteria of the k-connected graph. Furthermore, combined with the k-connected topology, a distributed event-triggered controller is designed to guarantee the consensus of CPSs under mode-switching DoS (MSDoS) attacks. Different from the existing distributed control schemes, a new technology, that is, the extended Laplacian matrix method, is combined to design the distributed controller independent on the knowledge and the dwell time of DoS attack modes. Finally, the simulation example illustrates the superiority and effectiveness of the proposed construction algorithm and a distributed control scheme.
Ghazo, A. T. Al, Ibrahim, M., Ren, H., Kumar, R..  2020.  A2G2V: Automatic Attack Graph Generation and Visualization and Its Applications to Computer and SCADA Networks. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics: Systems. 50:3488–3498.
Securing cyber-physical systems (CPS) and Internet of Things (IoT) systems requires the identification of how interdependence among existing atomic vulnerabilities may be exploited by an adversary to stitch together an attack that can compromise the system. Therefore, accurate attack graphs play a significant role in systems security. A manual construction of the attack graphs is tedious and error-prone, this paper proposes a model-checking-based automated attack graph generator and visualizer (A2G2V). The proposed A2G2V algorithm uses existing model-checking tools, an architecture description tool, and our own code to generate an attack graph that enumerates the set of all possible sequences in which atomic-level vulnerabilities can be exploited to compromise system security. The architecture description tool captures a formal representation of the networked system, its atomic vulnerabilities, their pre-and post-conditions, and security property of interest. A model-checker is employed to automatically identify an attack sequence in the form of a counterexample. Our own code integrated with the model-checker parses the counterexamples, encodes those for specification relaxation, and iterates until all attack sequences are revealed. Finally, a visualization tool has also been incorporated with A2G2V to generate a graphical representation of the generated attack graph. The results are illustrated through application to computer as well as control (SCADA) networks.
Hu, W., Zhang, L., Liu, X., Huang, Y., Zhang, M., Xing, L..  2020.  Research on Automatic Generation and Analysis Technology of Network Attack Graph. 2020 IEEE 6th Intl Conference on Big Data Security on Cloud (BigDataSecurity), IEEE Intl Conference on High Performance and Smart Computing, (HPSC) and IEEE Intl Conference on Intelligent Data and Security (IDS). :133–139.
In view of the problem that the overall security of the network is difficult to evaluate quantitatively, we propose the edge authority attack graph model, which aims to make up for the traditional dependence attack graph to describe the relationship between vulnerability behaviors. This paper proposed a network security metrics based on probability, and proposes a network vulnerability algorithm based on vulnerability exploit probability and attack target asset value. Finally, a network security reinforcement algorithm with network vulnerability index as the optimization target is proposed based on this metric algorithm.
Feng, Y., Sun, G., Liu, Z., Wu, C., Zhu, X., Wang, Z., Wang, B..  2020.  Attack Graph Generation and Visualization for Industrial Control Network. 2020 39th Chinese Control Conference (CCC). :7655–7660.
Attack graph is an effective way to analyze the vulnerabilities for industrial control networks. We develop a vulnerability correlation method and a practical visualization technology for industrial control network. First of all, we give a complete attack graph analysis for industrial control network, which focuses on network model and vulnerability context. Particularly, a practical attack graph algorithm is proposed, including preparing environments and vulnerability classification and correlation. Finally, we implement a three-dimensional interactive attack graph visualization tool. The experimental results show validation and verification of the proposed method.
Yoon, S., Cho, J.-H., Kim, D. S., Moore, T. J., Free-Nelson, F., Lim, H..  2020.  Attack Graph-Based Moving Target Defense in Software-Defined Networks. IEEE Transactions on Network and Service Management. 17:1653–1668.
Moving target defense (MTD) has emerged as a proactive defense mechanism aiming to thwart a potential attacker. The key underlying idea of MTD is to increase uncertainty and confusion for attackers by changing the attack surface (i.e., system or network configurations) that can invalidate the intelligence collected by the attackers and interrupt attack execution; ultimately leading to attack failure. Recently, the significant advance of software-defined networking (SDN) technology has enabled several complex system operations to be highly flexible and robust; particularly in terms of programmability and controllability with the help of SDN controllers. Accordingly, many security operations have utilized this capability to be optimally deployed in a complex network using the SDN functionalities. In this paper, by leveraging the advanced SDN technology, we developed an attack graph-based MTD technique that shuffles a host's network configurations (e.g., MAC/IP/port addresses) based on its criticality, which is highly exploitable by attackers when the host is on the attack path(s). To this end, we developed a hierarchical attack graph model that provides a network's vulnerability and network topology, which can be utilized for the MTD shuffling decisions in selecting highly exploitable hosts in a given network, and determining the frequency of shuffling the hosts' network configurations. The MTD shuffling with a high priority on more exploitable, critical hosts contributes to providing adaptive, proactive, and affordable defense services aiming to minimize attack success probability with minimum MTD cost. We validated the out performance of the proposed MTD in attack success probability and MTD cost via both simulation and real SDN testbed experiments.
Chen, J., Lin, X., Shi, Z., Liu, Y..  2020.  Link Prediction Adversarial Attack Via Iterative Gradient Attack. IEEE Transactions on Computational Social Systems. 7:1081–1094.
Increasing deep neural networks are applied in solving graph evolved tasks, such as node classification and link prediction. However, the vulnerability of deep models can be revealed using carefully crafted adversarial examples generated by various adversarial attack methods. To explore this security problem, we define the link prediction adversarial attack problem and put forward a novel iterative gradient attack (IGA) strategy using the gradient information in the trained graph autoencoder (GAE) model. Not surprisingly, GAE can be fooled by an adversarial graph with a few links perturbed on the clean one. The results on comprehensive experiments of different real-world graphs indicate that most deep models and even the state-of-the-art link prediction algorithms cannot escape the adversarial attack, such as GAE. We can benefit the attack as an efficient privacy protection tool from the link prediction of unknown violations. On the other hand, the adversarial attack is a robust evaluation metric for current link prediction algorithms of their defensibility.
Mao, J., Li, X., Lin, Q., Guan, Z..  2020.  Deeply understanding graph-based Sybil detection techniques via empirical analysis on graph processing. China Communications. 17:82–96.
Sybil attacks are one of the most prominent security problems of trust mechanisms in a distributed network with a large number of highly dynamic and heterogeneous devices, which expose serious threat to edge computing based distributed systems. Graphbased Sybil detection approaches extract social structures from target distributed systems, refine the graph via preprocessing methods and capture Sybil nodes based on the specific properties of the refined graph structure. Graph preprocessing is a critical component in such Sybil detection methods, and intuitively, the processing methods will affect the detection performance. Thoroughly understanding the dependency on the graph-processing methods is very important to develop and deploy Sybil detection approaches. In this paper, we design experiments and conduct systematic analysis on graph-based Sybil detection with respect to different graph preprocessing methods on selected network environments. The experiment results disclose the sensitivity caused by different graph transformations on accuracy and robustness of Sybil detection methods.
2021-01-22
Ayoade, G., Akbar, K. A., Sahoo, P., Gao, Y., Agarwal, A., Jee, K., Khan, L., Singhal, A..  2020.  Evolving Advanced Persistent Threat Detection using Provenance Graph and Metric Learning. 2020 IEEE Conference on Communications and Network Security (CNS). :1—9.

Advanced persistent threats (APT) have increased in recent times as a result of the rise in interest by nation-states and sophisticated corporations to obtain high profile information. Typically, APT attacks are more challenging to detect since they leverage zero-day attacks and common benign tools. Furthermore, these attack campaigns are often prolonged to evade detection. We leverage an approach that uses a provenance graph to obtain execution traces of host nodes in order to detect anomalous behavior. By using the provenance graph, we extract features that are then used to train an online adaptive metric learning. Online metric learning is a deep learning method that learns a function to minimize the separation between similar classes and maximizes the separation between dis-similar instances. We compare our approach with baseline models and we show our method outperforms the baseline models by increasing detection accuracy on average by 11.3 % and increases True positive rate (TPR) on average by 18.3 %.