Visible to the public Biblio

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2020-05-26
Ostrovskaya, Svetlana, Surnin, Oleg, Hussain, Rasheed, Bouk, Safdar Hussain, Lee, JooYoung, Mehran, Narges, Ahmed, Syed Hassan, Benslimane, Abderrahim.  2018.  Towards Multi-metric Cache Replacement Policies in Vehicular Named Data Networks. 2018 IEEE 29th Annual International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC). :1–7.
Vehicular Named Data Network (VNDN) uses NDN as an underlying communication paradigm to realize intelligent transportation system applications. Content communication is the essence of NDN, which is primarily carried out through content naming, forwarding, intrinsic content security, and most importantly the in-network caching. In vehicular networks, vehicles on the road communicate with other vehicles and/or infrastructure network elements to provide passengers a reliable, efficient, and infotainment-rich commute experience. Recently, different aspects of NDN have been investigated in vehicular networks and in vehicular social networks (VSN); however, in this paper, we investigate the in-network caching, realized in NDN through the content store (CS) data structure. As the stale contents in CS do not just occupy cache space, but also decrease the overall performance of NDN-driven VANET and VSN applications, therefore the size of CS and the content lifetime in CS are primary issues in VNDN communications. To solve these issues, we propose a simple yet efficient multi-metric CS management mechanism through cache replacement (M2CRP). We consider the content popularity, relevance, freshness, and distance of a node to devise a set of algorithms for selection of the content to be replaced in CS in the case of replacement requirement. Simulation results show that our multi-metric strategy outperforms the existing cache replacement mechanisms in terms of Hit Ratio.
2020-05-22
Geetha, R, Rekha, Pasupuleti, Karthika, S.  2018.  Twitter Opinion Mining and Boosting Using Sentiment Analysis. 2018 International Conference on Computer, Communication, and Signal Processing (ICCCSP). :1—4.
Social media has been one of the most efficacious and precise by speakers of public opinion. A strategy which sanctions the utilization and illustration of twitter data to conclude public conviction is discussed in this paper. Sentiments on exclusive entities with diverse strengths and intenseness are stated by public, where these sentiments are strenuously cognate to their personal mood and emotions. To examine the sentiments from natural language texts, addressing various opinions, a lot of methods and lexical resources have been propounded. A path for boosting twitter sentiment classification using various sentiment proportions as meta-level features has been proposed by this article. Analysis of tweets was done on the product iPhone 6.
Devarakonda, Ranjeet, Giansiracusa, Michael, Kumar, Jitendra.  2018.  Machine Learning and Social Media to Mine and Disseminate Big Scientific Data. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Big Data (Big Data). :5312—5315.
One of the challenges in supplying the communities with wider access to scientific databases is the need for knowledge of database languages like Structured Query Language (SQL). Although the SQL language has been published in many forms, not everybody is able to write SQL queries. Another challenge is that it might not be practical to make the public aware of the structure of databases. There is a need for novice users to query relational databases using their natural language. To solve this problem, many natural language interfaces to structured databases have been developed. The goal is to provide a more intuitive method for generating database queries and delivering responses. Through social media, which makes it possible to interact with a wide section of the population, and with the help of natural language processing, researchers at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data Center at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have developed a concept to enable easy search and retrieval of data from several environmental data centers for the scientific community through social media.Using a machine learning framework that maps natural language text to thousands of datasets, instruments, variables, and data streams, the prototype system would allow users to request data through Twitter and receive a link (via tweet) to applicable data results on the project's search catalog tailored to their key words. This automated identification of relevant data from various petascale archives at ORNL could increase convenience, access, and use of the project's data by the broader community. In this paper we discuss how some data-intensive projects at ORNL are using innovative ways to help in data discovery.
Li, Xiaodong.  2019.  DURS: A Distributed Method for k-Nearest Neighbor Search on Uncertain Graphs. 2019 20th IEEE International Conference on Mobile Data Management (MDM). :377—378.
Large graphs are increasingly prevalent in mobile networks, social networks, traffic networks and biological networks. These graphs are often uncertain, where edges are augmented with probabilities that indicates the chance to exist. Recently k-nearest neighbor search has been studied within the field of uncertain graphs, but the scalability and efficiency issues are not well solved. Moreover, solutions are implemented on a single machine and thus cannot fit large uncertain graphs. In this paper, we develop a framework, called DURS, to distribute k-nearest neighbor search into several machines and re-partition the uncertain graphs to balance the work loads and reduce the communication costs. Evaluation results show that DURS is essential to make the system scalable when answering k-nearest neighbor queries on uncertain graphs.
2020-05-18
Panahandeh, Mahnaz, Ghanbari, Shirin.  2019.  Correction of Spaces in Persian Sentences for Tokenization. 2019 5th Conference on Knowledge Based Engineering and Innovation (KBEI). :670–674.
The exponential growth of the Internet and its users and the emergence of Web 2.0 have caused a large volume of textual data to be created. Automatic analysis of such data can be used in making decisions. As online text is created by different producers with different styles of writing, pre-processing is a necessity prior to any processes related to natural language tasks. An essential part of textual preprocessing prior to the recognition of the word vocabulary is normalization, which includes the correction of spaces that particularly in the Persian language this includes both full-spaces between words and half-spaces. Through the review of user comments within social media services, it can be seen that in many cases users do not adhere to grammatical rules of inserting both forms of spaces, which increases the complexity of the identification of words and henceforth, reducing the accuracy of further processing on the text. In this study, current issues in the normalization and tokenization of preprocessing tools within the Persian language and essentially identifying and correcting the separation of words are and the correction of spaces are proposed. The results obtained and compared to leading preprocessing tools highlight the significance of the proposed methodology.
2020-05-15
Jeyasudha, J., Usha, G..  2018.  Detection of Spammers in the Reconnaissance Phase by machine learning techniques. 2018 3rd International Conference on Inventive Computation Technologies (ICICT). :216—220.

Reconnaissance phase is where attackers identify their targets and how to collect information from professional social networks which can be used to select and exploit targeted employees to penetrate in an organization. Here, a framework is proposed for the early detection of attackers in the reconnaissance phase, highlighting the common characteristic behavior among attackers in professional social networks. And to create artificial honeypot profiles within the organizational social network which can be used to detect a potential incoming threat. By analyzing the dataset of social Network profiles in combination of machine learning techniques, A DspamRPfast model is proposed for the creation of a classifier system to predict the probabilities of the profiles being fake or malicious and to filter them out using XGBoost and for the faster classification and greater accuracy of 84.8%.

2020-05-11
Memon, Raheel Ahmed, Li, Jianping, Ahmed, Junaid, Khan, Asif, Nazir, M. Irshad, Mangrio, M. Ismail.  2018.  Modeling of Blockchain Based Systems Using Queuing Theory Simulation. 2018 15th International Computer Conference on Wavelet Active Media Technology and Information Processing (ICCWAMTIP). :107–111.
Blockchain is the one of leading technology of this time; it has started to revolutionize several fields like, finance, business, industry, smart home, healthcare, social networks, Internet and the Internet of Things. It has many benefits like, decentralized network, robustness, availability, stability, anonymity, auditability and accountability. The applications of Blockchain are emerging, and it is found that most of the work is focused on its engineering implementation. While the theoretical part is very less considered and explored. In this paper we implemented the simulation of mining process in Blockchain based systems using queuing theory. We took the parameters of one of the mature Cryptocurrency, Bitcoin's real data and simulated using M/M/n/L queuing system in JSIMgraph. We have achieved realistic results; and expect that it will open up new research direction in theoretical research of Blockchain based systems.
Enos, James R., Nilchiani, Roshanak R..  2018.  Merging DoDAF architectures to develop and analyze the DoD network of systems. 2018 IEEE Aerospace Conference. :1–9.
The Department of Defense (DoD) manages capabilities through the Joint Interoperability and Capability Development System (JCIDS) process. As part of this process, sponsors develop a series of DoD Architecture Framework (DoDAF) products to assist analysts understand the proposed capability and how it fits into the broader network of DoD legacy systems and systems under development. However, the Joint Staff, responsible for executing the JCIDS process, often analyzes these architectures in isolation without considering the broader network of systems. DoD leadership, the Government Accountability Organization, and others have noted the lack of the DoD's ability to manage the broader portfolio of capabilities in various reports and papers. Several efforts have proposed merging DoDAF architecture into a larger meta-architecture based on individual system architectures. This paper specifically targets the Systems View 3 (SV-3), System-to-system matrix, as an opportunity to merge multiple DoDAF architecture views into a network of system and understand the potential benefits associated with analyzing a broader perspective. The goal of merging multiple SV-3s is to better understand the interoperability of a system within the network of DoD systems as network metrics may provide insights into the relative interoperability of a DoD system. Currently, the DoD's definition of interoperability focuses on the system or capability's ability to enter and operate within the DoD Information Network (DoDIN); however, this view limits the definition of interoperability as it focuses solely on information flows and not resource flows or physical connections that should be present in a SV-3. The paper demonstrates the importance of including all forms of connections between systems in a network by comparing network metrics associated with the different types of connections. Without a complete set of DoDAF architectures for each system within the DoD and based on the potential classification of these products, the paper collates data that should be included in an SV-3 from open source, unclassified references to build the overall network of DoD systems. From these sources, a network of over 300 systems with almost 1000 connections emerges based on the documented information, resource, and physical connections between these legacy and planned DoD systems. With this network, the paper explores the quantification of individual system's interoperability through the application of nodal and network metrics from social network analysis (SNA). A SNA perspective on a network of systems provides additional insights beyond traditional network analysis because of the emphasis on the importance of nodes, systems, in the network as well as the relationship, connections, between the nodes. Finally, the paper proposes future work to explore the quantification of additional attributes of systems as well as a method for further validating the findings.
2020-05-08
Huang, Yifan, Chung, Wingyan, Tang, Xinlin.  2018.  A Temporal Recurrent Neural Network Approach to Detecting Market Anomaly Attacks. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Intelligence and Security Informatics (ISI). :160—162.
In recent years, the spreading of malicious social media messages about financial stocks has threatened the security of financial market. Market Anomaly Attacks is an illegal practice in the stock or commodities markets that induces investors to make purchase or sale decisions based on false information. Identifying these threats from noisy social media datasets remains challenging because of the long time sequence in these social media postings, ambiguous textual context and the difficulties for traditional deep learning approaches to handle both temporal and text dependent data such as financial social media messages. This research developed a temporal recurrent neural network (TRNN) approach to capturing both time and text sequence dependencies for intelligent detection of market anomalies. We tested the approach by using financial social media of U.S. technology companies and their stock returns. Compared with traditional neural network approaches, TRNN was found to more efficiently and effectively classify abnormal returns.
Dionísio, Nuno, Alves, Fernando, Ferreira, Pedro M., Bessani, Alysson.  2019.  Cyberthreat Detection from Twitter using Deep Neural Networks. 2019 International Joint Conference on Neural Networks (IJCNN). :1—8.
To be prepared against cyberattacks, most organizations resort to security information and event management systems to monitor their infrastructures. These systems depend on the timeliness and relevance of the latest updates, patches and threats provided by cyberthreat intelligence feeds. Open source intelligence platforms, namely social media networks such as Twitter, are capable of aggregating a vast amount of cybersecurity-related sources. To process such information streams, we require scalable and efficient tools capable of identifying and summarizing relevant information for specified assets. This paper presents the processing pipeline of a novel tool that uses deep neural networks to process cybersecurity information received from Twitter. A convolutional neural network identifies tweets containing security-related information relevant to assets in an IT infrastructure. Then, a bidirectional long short-term memory network extracts named entities from these tweets to form a security alert or to fill an indicator of compromise. The proposed pipeline achieves an average 94% true positive rate and 91% true negative rate for the classification task and an average F1-score of 92% for the named entity recognition task, across three case study infrastructures.
Chaudhary, Anshika, Mittal, Himangi, Arora, Anuja.  2019.  Anomaly Detection using Graph Neural Networks. 2019 International Conference on Machine Learning, Big Data, Cloud and Parallel Computing (COMITCon). :346—350.
Conventional methods for anomaly detection include techniques based on clustering, proximity or classification. With the rapidly growing social networks, outliers or anomalies find ingenious ways to obscure themselves in the network and making the conventional techniques inefficient. In this paper, we utilize the ability of Deep Learning over topological characteristics of a social network to detect anomalies in email network and twitter network. We present a model, Graph Neural Network, which is applied on social connection graphs to detect anomalies. The combinations of various social network statistical measures are taken into account to study the graph structure and functioning of the anomalous nodes by employing deep neural networks on it. The hidden layer of the neural network plays an important role in finding the impact of statistical measure combination in anomaly detection.
2020-04-20
Djoudi, Aghiles, Pujolle, Guy.  2019.  Social Privacy Score Through Vulnerability Contagion Process. 2019 Fifth Conference on Mobile and Secure Services (MobiSecServ). :1–6.
The exponential usage of messaging services for communication raises many questions in privacy fields. Privacy issues in such services strongly depend on the graph-theoretical properties of users' interactions representing the real friendships between users. One of the most important issues of privacy is that users may disclose information of other users beyond the scope of the interaction, without realizing that such information could be aggregated to reveal sensitive information. Determining vulnerable interactions from non-vulnerable ones is difficult due to the lack of awareness mechanisms. To address this problem, we analyze the topological relationships with the level of trust between users to notify each of them about their vulnerable social interactions. Particularly, we analyze the impact of trusting vulnerable friends in infecting other users' privacy concerns by modeling a new vulnerability contagion process. Simulation results show that over-trusting vulnerable users speeds the vulnerability diffusion process through the network. Furthermore, vulnerable users with high reputation level lead to a high convergence level of infection, this means that the vulnerability contagion process infects the biggest number of users when vulnerable users get a high level of trust from their interlocutors. This work contributes to the development of privacy awareness framework that can alert users of the potential private information leakages in their communications.
Yuan, Jing, Ou, Yuyi, Gu, Guosheng.  2019.  An Improved Privacy Protection Method Based on k-degree Anonymity in Social Network. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Computer Applications (ICAICA). :416–420.
To preserve the privacy of social networks, most existing methods are applied to satisfy different anonymity models, but there are some serious problems such as huge large information losses and great structural modifications of original social network. Therefore, an improved privacy protection method called k-subgraph is proposed, which is based on k-degree anonymous graph derived from k-anonymity to keep the network structure stable. The method firstly divides network nodes into several clusters by label propagation algorithm, and then reconstructs the sub-graph by means of moving edges to achieve k-degree anonymity. Experimental results show that our k-subgraph method can not only effectively improve the defense capability against malicious attacks based on node degrees, but also maintain stability of network structure. In addition, the cost of information losses due to anonymity is minimized ideally.
Zhang, Xue, Yan, Wei Qi.  2018.  Comparative Evaluations of Privacy on Digital Images. 2018 15th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Video and Signal Based Surveillance (AVSS). :1–6.
Privacy preservation on social networks is nowadays a societal issue. In this paper, our contributions are to establish such a model for privacy preservation. We use differential privacy for personal privacy analysis and measurement. Our conclusion is that privacy could be measured and preserved if the corresponding approaches could be taken.
Zhang, Xue, Yan, Wei Qi.  2018.  Comparative Evaluations of Privacy on Digital Images. 2018 15th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Video and Signal Based Surveillance (AVSS). :1–6.
Privacy preservation on social networks is nowadays a societal issue. In this paper, our contributions are to establish such a model for privacy preservation. We use differential privacy for personal privacy analysis and measurement. Our conclusion is that privacy could be measured and preserved if the corresponding approaches could be taken.
Raber, Frederic, Krüger, Antonio.  2018.  Deriving Privacy Settings for Location Sharing: Are Context Factors Always the Best Choice? 2018 IEEE Symposium on Privacy-Aware Computing (PAC). :86–94.
Research has observed context factors like occasion and time as influential factors for predicting whether or not to share a location with online friends. In other domains like social networks, personality was also found to play an important role. Furthermore, users are seeking a fine-grained disclosement policy that also allows them to display an obfuscated location, like the center of the current city, to some of their friends. In this paper, we observe which context factors and personality measures can be used to predict the correct privacy level out of seven privacy levels, which include obfuscation levels like center of the street or current city. Our results show that a prediction is possible with a precision 20% better than a constant value. We will give design indications to determine which context factors should be recorded, and how much the precision can be increased if personality and privacy measures are recorded using either a questionnaire or automated text analysis.
Raber, Frederic, Krüger, Antonio.  2018.  Deriving Privacy Settings for Location Sharing: Are Context Factors Always the Best Choice? 2018 IEEE Symposium on Privacy-Aware Computing (PAC). :86–94.
Research has observed context factors like occasion and time as influential factors for predicting whether or not to share a location with online friends. In other domains like social networks, personality was also found to play an important role. Furthermore, users are seeking a fine-grained disclosement policy that also allows them to display an obfuscated location, like the center of the current city, to some of their friends. In this paper, we observe which context factors and personality measures can be used to predict the correct privacy level out of seven privacy levels, which include obfuscation levels like center of the street or current city. Our results show that a prediction is possible with a precision 20% better than a constant value. We will give design indications to determine which context factors should be recorded, and how much the precision can be increased if personality and privacy measures are recorded using either a questionnaire or automated text analysis.
2020-04-13
Horne, Benjamin D., Gruppi, Mauricio, Adali, Sibel.  2019.  Trustworthy Misinformation Mitigation with Soft Information Nudging. 2019 First IEEE International Conference on Trust, Privacy and Security in Intelligent Systems and Applications (TPS-ISA). :245–254.
Research in combating misinformation reports many negative results: facts may not change minds, especially if they come from sources that are not trusted. Individuals can disregard and justify lies told by trusted sources. This problem is made even worse by social recommendation algorithms which help amplify conspiracy theories and information confirming one's own biases due to companies' efforts to optimize for clicks and watch time over individuals' own values and public good. As a result, more nuanced voices and facts are drowned out by a continuous erosion of trust in better information sources. Most misinformation mitigation techniques assume that discrediting, filtering, or demoting low veracity information will help news consumers make better information decisions. However, these negative results indicate that some news consumers, particularly extreme or conspiracy news consumers will not be helped. We argue that, given this background, technology solutions to combating misinformation should not simply seek facts or discredit bad news sources, but instead use more subtle nudges towards better information consumption. Repeated exposure to such nudges can help promote trust in better information sources and also improve societal outcomes in the long run. In this article, we will talk about technological solutions that can help us in developing such an approach, and introduce one such model called Trust Nudging.
Lange, Thomas, Kettani, Houssain.  2019.  On Security Threats of Botnets to Cyber Systems. 2019 6th International Conference on Signal Processing and Integrated Networks (SPIN). :176–183.
As the dynamics of cyber warfare continue to change, it is very important to be aware of the issues currently confronting cyberspace. One threat which continues to grow in the danger it poses to cyber security are botnets. Botnets can launch massive Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks against internet connected hosts anonymously, undertake intricate spam campaigns, launch mass financial fraud campaigns, and even manipulate public opinion via social media bots. The network topology and technology undergirding each botnet varies greatly, as do the motivations commonly behind such networks. Furthermore, as botnets have continued to evolve, many newer ones demonstrate increased levels of anonymity and sophistication, making it more difficult to effectively counter them. Increases in the production of vulnerable Internet of Things (IoT) devices has made it easier for malicious actors to quickly assemble sizable botnets. Because of this, the steps necessary to stop botnets also vary, and in some cases, it may be extremely difficult to effectively defeat a fully functional and sophisticated botnet. While in some cases, the infrastructure supporting the botnet can be targeted and remotely disabled, other cases require the physical assistance of law enforcement to shut down the botnet. In the latter case, it is often a significant challenge to cheaply end a botnet. On the other hand, there are many steps and mitigations that can be taken by end-users to prevent their own devices from becoming part of a botnet. Many of these solutions involve implementing basic cybersecurity practices like installing firewalls and changing default passwords. More sophisticated botnets may require similarly sophisticated intrusion detection systems, to detect and remove malicious infections. Much research has gone into such systems and in recent years many researchers have begun to implement machine learning techniques to defeat botnets. This paper is intended present a review on botnet evolution, trends and mitigations, and offer related examples and research to provide the reader with quick access to a broad understanding of the issues at hand.
2020-03-23
Nakayama, Johannes, Plettenberg, Nils, Halbach, Patrick, Burbach, Laura, Ziefle, Martina, Calero Valdez, André.  2019.  Trust in Cyber Security Recommendations. 2019 IEEE International Professional Communication Conference (ProComm). :48–55.
Over the last two decades, the Internet has established itself as part of everyday life. With the recent invention of Social Media, the advent of the Internet of Things as well as trends like "bring your own device" (BYOD), the needs for connectivity rise exponentially and so does the need for proper cyber security. However, human factors research of cyber security in private contexts comprises only a small fraction of the research in the field. In this study, we investigated adoption behaviours and trust in cyber security in private contexts by measuring - among other trust measures - disposition to trust and providing five cyber security scenarios. In each, a person/agent recommends the use of a cyber security tool. Trust is then measured regarding the recommending agent. We compare personal, expert, institutional, and magazine recommendations along with manufacturer information in an exploratory study of sixty participants. We found that personal, expert and institutional recommendations were trusted significantly more than manufacturer information and magazine reports. The highest trust scores were produced by the expert and the personal recommendation scenarios. We argue that technical and professional communicators should aim for cyber security knowledge permeation through personal relations, educating people with high technology self-efficacy beliefs who then disperse the acquired knowledge.
2020-03-18
Lin, Yongze, Zhang, Xinyuan, Xia, Liting, Ren, Yue, Li, Weimin.  2019.  A Hybrid Algorithm for Influence Maximization of Social Networks. 2019 IEEE Intl Conf on Dependable, Autonomic and Secure Computing, Intl Conf on Pervasive Intelligence and Computing, Intl Conf on Cloud and Big Data Computing, Intl Conf on Cyber Science and Technology Congress (DASC/PiCom/CBDCom/CyberSciTech). :427–431.
Influence Maximization is an important research content in the dissemination process of information and behavior in social networks. Because Hill Climbing and Greedy Algorithm have good dissemination effect on this topic, researchers have used it to solve this NP problem for a long time. These algorithms only consider the number of active nodes in each round, ignoring the characteristic that the influence will be accumulated, so its effect is still far from the optimal solution. Also, the time complexity of these algorithms is considerable. Aiming at the problem of Influence Maximization, this paper improves the traditional Hill Climbing and Greedy Algorithm. We propose a Hybrid Distribution Value Accumulation Algorithm for Influence Maximization, which has better activation effect than Hill Climbing and Greedy Algorithm. In the first stage of the algorithm, the region is numerically accumulating rapidly and is easy to activate through value-greed. Experiments are conducted on two data sets: the voting situation on Wikipedia and the transmission situation of Gnutella node-to-node file sharing network. Experimental results verify the efficiency of our methods.
2020-03-04
Puteaux, Pauline, Puech, William.  2019.  Image Analysis and Processing in the Encrypted Domain. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP). :3020–3022.

In this research project, we are interested by finding solutions to the problem of image analysis and processing in the encrypted domain. For security reasons, more and more digital data are transferred or stored in the encrypted domain. However, during the transmission or the archiving of encrypted images, it is often necessary to analyze or process them, without knowing the original content or the secret key used during the encryption phase. We propose to work on this problem, by associating theoretical aspects with numerous applications. Our main contributions concern: data hiding in encrypted images, correction of noisy encrypted images, recompression of crypto-compressed images and secret image sharing.

2020-03-02
Gordin, Ionel, Graur, Adrian, Potorac, Alin.  2019.  Two-factor authentication framework for private cloud. 2019 23rd International Conference on System Theory, Control and Computing (ICSTCC). :255–259.
Authorizing access to the public cloud has evolved over the last few years, from simple user authentication and password authentication to two-factor authentication (TOTP), with the addition of an additional field for entering a unique code. Today it is used by almost all major websites such as Facebook, Microsoft, Apple and is a frequently used solution for banking websites. On the other side, the private cloud solutions like OpenStack, CloudStack or Eucalyptus doesn't offer this security improvement. This article is presenting the advantages of this new type of authentication and synthetizes the TOTP authentication forms used by major cloud providers. Furthermore, the article is proposing to solve this challenge by presenting a practical solution for adding two-factor authentication for OpenStack cloud. For this purpose, the web authentication form has been modified and a new authentication module has been developed. The present document covers as well the entire process of adding a TOTP user, generating and sending the secret code in QR form to the user. The study concludes with OpenStack tools used for simplifying the entire process presented above.
2020-02-26
Saad, Muhammad, Anwar, Afsah, Ahmad, Ashar, Alasmary, Hisham, Yuksel, Murat, Mohaisen, Aziz.  2019.  RouteChain: Towards Blockchain-Based Secure and Efficient BGP Routing. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Blockchain and Cryptocurrency (ICBC). :210–218.

Routing on the Internet is defined among autonomous systems (ASes) based on a weak trust model where it is assumed that ASes are honest. While this trust model strengthens the connectivity among ASes, it results in an attack surface which is exploited by malicious entities to hijacking routing paths. One such attack is known as the BGP prefix hijacking, in which a malicious AS broadcasts IP prefixes that belong to a target AS, thereby hijacking its traffic. In this paper, we proposeRouteChain: a blockchain-based secure BGP routing system that counters BGP hijacking and maintains a consistent view of the Internet routing paths. Towards that, we leverage provenance assurance and tamper-proof properties of blockchains to augment trust among ASes. We group ASes based on their geographical (network) proximity and construct a bihierarchical blockchain model that detects false prefixes prior to their spread over the Internet. We validate strengths of our design by simulations and show its effectiveness by drawing a case study with the Youtube hijacking of 2008. Our proposed scheme is a standalone service that can be incrementally deployed without the need of a central authority.

Wang, Jun-Wei, Jiang, Yu-Ting, Liu, Zhe.  2019.  A Trusted Routing Mechanism for Mobile Social Networks. 2019 IEEE 7th International Conference on Computer Science and Network Technology (ICCSNT). :365–369.

In recent years, mobile social networks (MSNs) have developed rapidly and their application fields are becoming more and more widespread. Due to the continuous movement of nodes in mobile social networks, the network topology is very unstable. How to ensure the credibility of network communication is a subject worth studying. In this paper, based on the characteristics of mobile social networks, the definition of trust level is introduced into the DSR routing protocol, and a trusted DSR routing mechanism (TDR) is proposed. The scheme combines the sliding window model to design the calculation method of trust level between nodes and path trust level. The nodes in the network participate in the routing process according to their trust level. When the source node receives multiple routes carried by the response, the appropriate trusted path is selected according to the path trust level. Through simulation analysis, compared with the original DSR protocol, the TDR protocol improves the performance of average delay, route cost and packet delivery fraction, and verifies the reliability and credibility of the TDR protocol.