Visible to the public Biblio

Filters: Keyword is Internet of Vehicles  [Clear All Filters]
2021-06-30
Lim, Wei Yang Bryan, Xiong, Zehui, Niyato, Dusit, Huang, Jianqiang, Hua, Xian-Sheng, Miao, Chunyan.  2020.  Incentive Mechanism Design for Federated Learning in the Internet of Vehicles. 2020 IEEE 92nd Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC2020-Fall). :1—5.
In the Internet of Vehicles (IoV) paradigm, a model owner is able to leverage on the enhanced capabilities of Intelligent Connected Vehicles (ICV) to develop promising Artificial Intelligence (AI) based applications, e.g., for traffic efficiency. However, in some cases, a model owner may have insufficient data samples to build an effective AI model. To this end, we propose a Federated Learning (FL) based privacy preserving approach to facilitate collaborative FL among multiple model owners in the IoV. Our system model enables collaborative model training without compromising data privacy given that only the model parameters instead of the raw data are exchanged within the federation. However, there are two main challenges of incentive mismatches between workers and model owners, as well as among model owners. For the former, we leverage on the self-revealing mechanism in contract theory under information asymmetry. For the latter, we use the coalitional game theory approach that rewards model owners based on their marginal contributions. The numerical results validate the performance efficiency of our proposed hierarchical incentive mechanism design.
Lahiri, Pralay Kumar, Das, Debashis, Mansoor, Wathiq, Banerjee, Sourav, Chatterjee, Pushpita.  2020.  A Trustworthy Blockchain based framework for Impregnable IoV in Edge Computing. 2020 IEEE 17th International Conference on Mobile Ad Hoc and Sensor Systems (MASS). :26—31.
The concept behind the Internet of Things (IoT) is taking everything and connecting to the internet so that all devices would be able to send and receive data online. Internet of Vehicles (IoV) is a key component of smart city which is an outcome of IoT. Nowadays the concept of IoT has plaid an important role in our daily life in different sectors like healthcare, agriculture, smart home, wearable, green computing, smart city applications, etc. The emerging IoV is facing a lack of rigor in data processing, limitation of anonymity, privacy, scalability, security challenges. Due to vulnerability IoV devices must face malicious hackers. Nowadays with the help of blockchain (BC) technology energy system become more intelligent, eco-friendly, transparent, energy efficient. This paper highlights two major challenges i.e. scalability and security issues. The flavor of edge computing (EC) considered here to deal with the scalability issue. A BC is a public, shared database that records transactions between two parties that confirms owners through cryptography. After a transaction is validated and cryptographically verified generates “block” on the BC and transactions are ordered chronologically and cannot be altered. Implementing BC and smart contracts technologies will bring security features for IoV. It plays a role to implement the rules and policies to govern the IoV information and transactions and keep them into the BC to secure the data and for future uses.
Mershad, Khaleel, Said, Bilal.  2020.  A Blockchain Model for Secure Communications in Internet of Vehicles. 2020 IEEE/ACS 17th International Conference on Computer Systems and Applications (AICCSA). :1—6.
The wide expansion of the Internet of Things is pushing the growth of vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANETs) into the Internet of Vehicles (IoV). Secure data communication is vital to the success and stability of the IoV and should be integrated into its various operations and aspects. In this paper, we present a framework for secure IoV communications by utilizing the High Performance Blockchain Consensus (HPBC) algorithm. Based on a previously published communication model for VANETs that uses an efficient routing protocol for transmitting packets between vehicles, we describe in this paper how to integrate a blockchain model on top of the IoV communications system. We illustrate the method that we used to implement HPBC within the IoV nodes. In order to prove the efficiency of the proposed model, we carry out extensive simulations that test the proposed model and study its overhead on the IoV network. The simulation results demonstrated the good performance of the HPBC algorithm when implemented within the IoV environment.
Yan, Chenyang, Zhang, Yulei, Wang, Hongshuo, Yu, Shaoyang.  2020.  A Safe and Efficient Message Authentication Scheme In The Internet Of Vehicles. 2020 International Conference on Information Science, Parallel and Distributed Systems (ISPDS). :10—13.
In order to realize the security authentication of information transmission between vehicle nodes in the vehicular ad hoc network, based on the certificateless public key cryptosystem and aggregate signature, a privacy-protected certificateless aggregate signature scheme is proposed, which eliminates the complicated certificate maintenance cost. This solution also solves the key escrow problem. By Communicating with surrounding nodes through the pseudonym of the vehicle, the privacy protection of vehicle users is realized. The signature scheme satisfies the unforgeability of an adaptive selective message attack under a random prophetic machine. The scheme meets message authentication, identity privacy protection, resistance to reply attacks.
Aswal, Kiran, Dobhal, Dinesh C., Pathak, Heman.  2020.  Comparative analysis of machine learning algorithms for identification of BOT attack on the Internet of Vehicles (IoV). 2020 International Conference on Inventive Computation Technologies (ICICT). :312—317.
In this digital era, technology is upgrading day by day and becoming more agile and intelligent. Smart devices and gadgets are now being used to find solutions to complex problems in various domains such as health care, industries, entertainment, education, etc. The Transport system, which is the biggest challenge for any governing authority of a state, is also not untouched with this development. There are numerous challenges and issues with the existing transport system, which can be addressed by developing intelligent and autonomous vehicles. The existing vehicles can be upgraded to use sensors and the latest communication techniques. The advancements in the Internet of Things (IoT) have the potential to completely transform the existing transport system to a more advanced and intelligent transport system that is the Internet of Vehicles (IoV). Due to the connectivity with the Internet, the Internet of Vehicles (IoV) is exposed to various security threats. Security is the primary issue, which requires to be addressed for success and adoption of the IoV. In this paper, the applicability of machine learning based solutions to address the security issue of IoV is analyzed. The performance of six machine-learning algorithms to detect Bot threats is validated by the k-fold cross-validation method in python.
Xu, Yue, Ni, Ming, Ying, Fei, Zhang, Jingwen.  2020.  Security Optimization Based on Mimic Common Operating Environment for the Internet of Vehicles. 2020 2nd International Conference on Computer Communication and the Internet (ICCCI). :18—23.
The increasing vehicles have brought convenience to people as well as many traffic problems. The Internet of Vehicles (IoV) is an extension of the intelligent transportation system based on the Internet of Things (IoT), which is the omnibearing network connection among “Vehicles, Loads, Clouds”. However, IoV also faces threats from various known and unknown security vulnerabilities. Traditional security defense methods can only deal with known attacks, while there is no effective way to deal with unknown attacks. In this paper, we show an IoV system deployed on a Mimic Common Operating Environment (MCOE). At the sensing layer, we introduce a lightweight cryptographic algorithm, LBlock, to encrypt the data collected by the hardware. Thus, we can prevent malicious tampering of information such as vehicle conditions. At the application layer, we firstly put the IoV system platform into MCOE to make it dynamic, heterogeneous and redundant. Extensive experiments prove that the sensing layer can encrypt data reliably and energy-efficiently. And we prove the feasibility and security of the Internet of Vehicles system platform on MCOE.
Ma, Ruhui, Cao, Jin, Feng, Dengguo, Li, Hui, Niu, Ben, Li, Fenghua, Yin, Lihua.  2020.  A Secure Authentication Scheme for Remote Diagnosis and Maintenance in Internet of Vehicles. 2020 IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC). :1—7.
Due to the low latency and high speed of 5G networks, the Internet of Vehicles (IoV) under the 5G network has been rapidly developed and has broad application prospects. The Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) committee has taken remote diagnosis as one of the development cores of IoV. However, how to ensure the security of remote diagnosis and maintenance services is also a key point to ensure vehicle safety, which is directly related to the safety of vehicle passengers. In this paper, we propose a secure and efficient authentication scheme based on extended chebyshev chaotic maps for remote diagnosis and maintenance in IoVs. In the proposed scheme, to provide strong security, anyone, such as the vehicle owner or the employee of the Vehicle Service Centre (VSC), must enter the valid biometrics and password in order to enjoy or provide remote diagnosis and maintenance services, and the vehicle and the VSC should authenticate each other to ensure that they are legitimate. The security analysis and performance evaluation results show that the proposed scheme can provide robust security with ideal efficiency.
Sikarwar, Himani, Nahar, Ankur, Das, Debasis.  2020.  LABVS: Lightweight Authentication and Batch Verification Scheme for Universal Internet of Vehicles (UIoV). 2020 IEEE 91st Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC2020-Spring). :1—6.
With the rapid technological advancement of the universal internet of vehicles (UIoV), it becomes crucial to ensure safe and secure communication over the network, in an effort to achieve the implementation objective of UIoV effectively. A UIoV is characterized by highly dynamic topology, scalability, and thus vulnerable to various types of security and privacy attacks (i.e., replay attack, impersonation attack, man-in-middle attack, non-repudiation, and modification). Since the components of UIoV are constrained by numerous factors (e.g., low memory devices, low power), which makes UIoV highly susceptible. Therefore, existing schemes to address the privacy and security facets of UIoV exhibit an enormous scope of improvement in terms of time complexity and efficiency. This paper presents a lightweight authentication and batch verification scheme (LABVS) for UIoV using a bilinear map and cryptographic operations (i.e., one-way hash function, concatenation, XOR) to minimize the rate of message loss occurred due to delay in response time as in single message verification scheme. Subsequently, the scheme results in a high level of security and privacy. Moreover, the performance analysis substantiates that LABVS minimizes the computational delay and has better performance in the delay-sensitive network in terms of security and privacy as compared to the existing schemes.
Sikarwar, Himani, Das, Debasis.  2020.  An Efficient Lightweight Authentication and Batch Verification Scheme for Universal Internet of Vehicles (UIoV). 2020 International Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing (IWCMC). :1266—1271.
Ensuring secure transmission over the communication channel is a fundamental responsibility to achieve the implementation objective of universal internet of vehicles (UIoV) efficiently. Characteristics like highly dynamic topology and scalability of UIoV makes it more vulnerable to different types of privacy and security attacks. Considerable scope of improvement in terms of time complexity and performance can be observed within the existing schemes that address the privacy and security aspects of UIoV. In this paper, we present an improvised authentication and lightweight batch verification method for security and privacy in UIoV. The suggested method reduces the message loss rate, which occurred due to the response time delay by implementing some low-cost cryptographic operations like one-way hash function, concatenation, XOR, and bilinear map. Furthermore, the performance analysis proves that the proposed method is more reliable that reduces the computational delay and has a better performance in the delay-sensitive network as compared to the existing schemes. The experimental results are obtained by implementing the proposed scheme on a desktop-based configuration as well as Raspberry Pi 4.
Chen, Jichang, Lu, Zhixiang, Zhu, Xueping.  2020.  A Lightweight Dual Authentication Protocol for the Internet of Vehicles. 2020 IEEE 3rd International Conference on Information Systems and Computer Aided Education (ICISCAE). :17—22.
With the development of 5G communication technology, the status of the Internet of Vehicles in people's lives is greatly improved in the general trend of intelligent transportation. The combination of vehicles and Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) makes the application prospects of vehicle networking gradually expand. However, the wireless network of the Internet of Vehicles is open and mobile, so it can be easily stolen or tampered with by attackers. Moreover, it will cause serious traffic security problems and even threat people's lives. In this paper, we propose a lightweight authentication protocol for the Internet of Vehicles based on a mobile RFID system and give corresponding security requirements for modeling potential attacks. The protocol is based on the three-party mutual authentication, and uses bit-operated left-cycle shift operations and hetero-oriented operations to generate encrypted data. The simultaneous inclusion of triparty shared key information and random numbers makes the protocol resistant to counterfeit attacks, violent attacks, replay attacks and desynchronization attacks. Finally, a simulation analysis of the security protocol using the ProVerif tool shows that the protocol secures is not accessible to attackers during the data transfer, and achieve the three-party authentication between sensor nodes (SN), vehicle nodes (Veh) and backend servers.
2020-11-02
Fraiji, Yosra, Ben Azzouz, Lamia, Trojet, Wassim, Saidane, Leila Azouz.  2018.  Cyber security issues of Internet of electric vehicles. 2018 IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC). :1—6.

The use of Electric Vehicle (EV) is growing rapidly due to its environmental benefits. However, the major problem of these vehicles is their limited battery, the lack of charging stations and the re-charge time. Introducing Information and Communication Technologies, in the field of EV, will improve energy efficiency, energy consumption predictions, availability of charging stations, etc. The Internet of Vehicles based only on Electric Vehicles (IoEV) is a complex system. It is composed of vehicles, humans, sensors, road infrastructure and charging stations. All these entities communicate using several communication technologies (ZigBee, 802.11p, cellular networks, etc). IoEV is therefore vulnerable to significant attacks such as DoS, false data injection, modification. Hence, security is a crucial factor for the development and the wide deployment of Internet of Electric Vehicles (IoEV). In this paper, we present an overview of security issues of the IoEV architecture and we highlight open issues that make the IoEV security a challenging research area in the future.

Xiong, Wenjie, Shan, Chun, Sun, Zhaoliang, Meng, Qinglei.  2018.  Real-time Processing and Storage of Multimedia Data with Content Delivery Network in Vehicle Monitoring System. 2018 6th International Conference on Wireless Networks and Mobile Communications (WINCOM). :1—4.

With the rapid development of the Internet of vehicles, there is a huge amount of multimedia data becoming a hidden trouble in the Internet of Things. Therefore, it is necessary to process and store them in real time as a way of big data curation. In this paper, a method of real-time processing and storage based on CDN in vehicle monitoring system is proposed. The MPEG-DASH standard is used to process the multimedia data by dividing them into MPD files and media segments. A real-time monitoring system of vehicle on the basis of the method introduced is designed and implemented.

Davydov, Vadim, Bezzateev, Sergey.  2018.  Secure Information Exchange in Defining the Location of the Vehicle. 2018 41st International Conference on Telecommunications and Signal Processing (TSP). :1—5.

With the advent of the electric vehicle market, the problem of locating a vehicle is becoming more and more important. Smart roads are creating, where the car control system can work without a person - communicating with the elements on the road. The standard technologies, such as GPS, can't always accurately determine the location, and not all vehicles have a GPS-module. It is very important to build an effective secure communication protocol between the vehicle and the base stations on the road. In this paper we consider different methods of location determination, propose the improved communicating protocol between the vehicle and the base station.

Singh, Dhananjay, Tripathi, Gaurav, Shah, Sayed Chhattan, da Rosa Righi, Rodrigo.  2018.  Cyber physical surveillance system for Internet of Vehicles. 2018 IEEE 4th World Forum on Internet of Things (WF-IoT). :546—551.

Internet of Vehicle (IoV) is an essential part of the Intelligent Transportation system (ITS) which is growing exponentially in the automotive industry domain. The term IoV is used in this paper for Internet of Vehicles. IoV is conceptualized for sharing traffic, safety and several other vehicle-related information between vehicles and end user. In recent years, the number of connected vehicles has increased allover the world. Having information sharing and connectivity as its advantage, IoV also faces the challenging task in the cybersecurity-related matters. The future consists of crowded places in an interconnected world through wearable's, sensors, smart phones etc. We are converging towards IoV technology and interactions with crowded space of connected peoples. However, this convergence demands high-security mechanism from the connected crowd as-well-as other connected vehicles to safeguard of proposed IoV system. In this paper, we coin the term of smart people crowd (SPC) and the smart vehicular crowd (SVC) for the Internet of Vehicles (IoV). These specific crowds of SPC and SVC are the potential cyber attackers of the smart IoV. People connected to the internet in the crowded place are known as a smart crowd. They have interfacing devices with sensors and the environment. A smart crowd would also consist of the random number of smart vehicles. With the future converging in to the smart connected framework for crowds, vehicles and connected vehicles, we present a novel cyber-physical surveillance system (CPSS) framework to tackle the security threats in the crowded environment for the smart automotive industry and provide the cyber security mechanism in the crowded places. We also describe an overview of use cases and their security challenges on the Internet of Vehicles.

Anzer, Ayesha, Elhadef, Mourad.  2018.  A Multilayer Perceptron-Based Distributed Intrusion Detection System for Internet of Vehicles. 2018 IEEE 4th International Conference on Collaboration and Internet Computing (CIC). :438—445.

Security of Internet of vehicles (IoV) is critical as it promises to provide with safer and secure driving. IoV relies on VANETs which is based on V2V (Vehicle to Vehicle) communication. The vehicles are integrated with various sensors and embedded systems allowing them to gather data related to the situation on the road. The collected data can be information associated with a car accident, the congested highway ahead, parked car, etc. This information exchanged with other neighboring vehicles on the road to promote safe driving. IoV networks are vulnerable to various security attacks. The V2V communication comprises specific vulnerabilities which can be manipulated by attackers to compromise the whole network. In this paper, we concentrate on intrusion detection in IoV and propose a multilayer perceptron (MLP) neural network to detect intruders or attackers on an IoV network. Results are in the form of prediction, classification reports, and confusion matrix. A thorough simulation study demonstrates the effectiveness of the new MLP-based intrusion detection system.

Sharma, Sachin, Ghanshala, Kamal Kumar, Mohan, Seshadri.  2018.  A Security System Using Deep Learning Approach for Internet of Vehicles (IoV). 2018 9th IEEE Annual Ubiquitous Computing, Electronics Mobile Communication Conference (UEMCON). :1—5.

The Internet of Vehicles (IoV) will connect not only mobile devices with vehicles, but it will also connect vehicles with each other, and with smart offices, buildings, homes, theaters, shopping malls, and cities. The IoV facilitates optimal and reliable communication services to connected vehicles in smart cities. The backbone of connected vehicles communication is the critical V2X infrastructures deployment. The spectrum utilization depends on the demand by the end users and the development of infrastructure that includes efficient automation techniques together with the Internet of Things (IoT). The infrastructure enables us to build smart environments for spectrum utilization, which we refer to as Smart Spectrum Utilization (SSU). This paper presents an integrated system consisting of SSU with IoV. However, the tasks of securing IoV and protecting it from cyber attacks present considerable challenges. This paper introduces an IoV security system using deep learning approach to develop secure applications and reliable services. Deep learning composed of unsupervised learning and supervised learning, could optimize the IoV security system. The deep learning methodology is applied to monitor security threats. Results from simulations show that the monitoring accuracy of the proposed security system is superior to that of the traditional system.

Siddiqui, Abdul Jabbar, Boukerche, Azzedine.  2018.  On the Impact of DDoS Attacks on Software-Defined Internet-of-Vehicles Control Plane. 2018 14th International Wireless Communications Mobile Computing Conference (IWCMC). :1284—1289.

To enhance the programmability and flexibility of network and service management, the Software-Defined Networking (SDN) paradigm is gaining growing attention by academia and industry. Motivated by its success in wired networks, researchers have recently started to embrace SDN towards developing next generation wireless networks such as Software-Defined Internet of Vehicles (SD-IoV). As the SD-IoV evolves, new security threats would emerge and demand attention. And since the core of the SD-IoV would be the control plane, it is highly vulnerable to Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) Attacks. In this work, we investigate the impact of DDoS attacks on the controllers in a SD-IoV environment. Through experimental evaluations, we highlight the drastic effects DDoS attacks could have on a SD-IoV in terms of throughput and controller load. Our results could be a starting point to motivate further research in the area of SD-IoV security and would give deeper insights into the problems of DDoS attacks on SD-IoV.

Ivanov, I, Maple, C, Watson, T, Lee, S.  2018.  Cyber security standards and issues in V2X communications for Internet of Vehicles. Living in the Internet of Things: Cybersecurity of the IoT – 2018. :1—6.

Significant developments have taken place over the past few years in the area of vehicular communication systems in the ITS environment. It is vital that, in these environments, security is considered in design and implementation since compromised vulnerabilities in one vehicle can be propagated to other vehicles, especially given that V2X communication is through an ad-hoc type network. Recently, many standardisation organisations have been working on creating international standards related to vehicular communication security and the so-called Internet of Vehicles (IoV). This paper presents a discussion of current V2X communications cyber security issues and standardisation approaches being considered by standardisation bodies such as the ISO, the ITU, the IEEE, and the ETSI.

Sahbi, Roumissa, Ghanemi, Salim, Djouani, Ramissa.  2018.  A Network Model for Internet of vehicles based on SDN and Cloud Computing. 2018 6th International Conference on Wireless Networks and Mobile Communications (WINCOM). :1—4.

Internet of vehicles (IoV) is the evolution of conventional vehicle network (VANET), a recent domain attracting a large number of companies and researchers. It is an integration of three networks: an inter-vehicle network, an intra-vehicle network, and vehicular mobile Internet, in which the vehicle is considered as a smart object equipped with powerful multi-sensors platform, connectivity and communication technologies, enabling it to communicate with the world. The cooperative communication between vehicles and other devices causes diverse challenges in terms of: storage and computing capability, energy of vehicle and network's control and management. Security is very important aspect in IoV and it is required to protect connected cars from cybercrime and accidents. In this article, we propose a network model for IoV based on software Defined Network and Cloud Computing.

Xiaoyu, Xu, Huang, Zhiqing, Lin, Zhuying.  2018.  Trajectory-Based Task Allocation for Crowd Sensing in Internet of Vehicles. 2018 International Conference on Robots Intelligent System (ICRIS). :226—231.

Crowd sensing is one of the core features of internet of vehicles, the use of internet of vehicles for crowd sensing is conducive to the rational allocation of sensing tasks. This paper mainly studies the problem of task allocation for crowd sensing in internet of vehicles, proposes a trajectory-based task allocation scheme for crowd sensing in internet of vehicles. With limited budget constraints, participants' trajectory is taken as an indicator of the spatiotemporal availability. Based on the solution idea of the minimal-cover problem, select the minimum number of participating vehicles to achieve the coverage of the target area.

2020-10-19
Bao, Shihan, Lei, Ao, Cruickshank, Haitham, Sun, Zhili, Asuquo, Philip, Hathal, Waleed.  2019.  A Pseudonym Certificate Management Scheme Based on Blockchain for Internet of Vehicles. 2019 IEEE Intl Conf on Dependable, Autonomic and Secure Computing, Intl Conf on Pervasive Intelligence and Computing, Intl Conf on Cloud and Big Data Computing, Intl Conf on Cyber Science and Technology Congress (DASC/PiCom/CBDCom/CyberSciTech). :28–35.
Research into the established area of ITS is evolving into the Internet of Vehicles (IoV), itself a fast-moving research area, fuelled in part by rapid changes in computing and communication technologies. Using pseudonym certificate is a popular way to address privacy issues in IoV. Therefore, the certificate management scheme is considered as a feasible technique to manage system and maintain the lifecycle of certificate. In this paper, we propose an efficient pseudonym certificate management scheme in IoV. The Blockchain concept is introduced to simplify the network structure and distributed maintenance of the Certificate Revocation List (CRL). The proposed scheme embeds part of the certificate revocation functions within the security and privacy applications, aiming to reduce the communication overhead and shorten the processing time cost. Extensive simulations and analysis show the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed scheme, in which the Blockchain structure costs fewer network resources and gives a more economic solution to against further cybercrime attacks.
Peng, Ruxiang, Li, Weishi, Yang, Tao, Huafeng, Kong.  2019.  An Internet of Vehicles Intrusion Detection System Based on a Convolutional Neural Network. 2019 IEEE Intl Conf on Parallel Distributed Processing with Applications, Big Data Cloud Computing, Sustainable Computing Communications, Social Computing Networking (ISPA/BDCloud/SocialCom/SustainCom). :1595–1599.
With the continuous development of the Internet of Vehicles, vehicles are no longer isolated nodes, but become a node in the car network. The open Internet will introduce traditional security issues into the Internet of Things. In order to ensure the safety of the networked cars, we hope to set up an intrusion detection system (IDS) on the vehicle terminal to detect and intercept network attacks. In our work, we designed an intrusion detection system for the Internet of Vehicles based on a convolutional neural network, which can run in a low-powered embedded vehicle terminal to monitor the data in the car network in real time. Moreover, for the case of packet encryption in some car networks, we have also designed a separate version for intrusion detection by analyzing the packet header. Experiments have shown that our system can guarantee high accuracy detection at low latency for attack traffic.
Indira, K, Ajitha, P, Reshma, V, Tamizhselvi, A.  2019.  An Efficient Secured Routing Protocol for Software Defined Internet of Vehicles. 2019 International Conference on Computational Intelligence in Data Science (ICCIDS). :1–4.
Vehicular ad hoc network is one of most recent research areas to deploy intelligent Transport System. Due to their highly dynamic topology, energy constrained and no central point coordination, routing with minimal delay, minimal energy and maximize throughput is a big challenge. Software Defined Networking (SDN) is new paradigm to improve overall network lifetime. It incorporates dynamic changes with minimal end-end delay, and enhances network intelligence. Along with this, intelligence secure routing is also a major constraint. This paper proposes a novel approach to Energy efficient secured routing protocol for Software Defined Internet of vehicles using Restricted Boltzmann Algorithm. This algorithm is to detect hostile routes with minimum delay, minimum energy and maximum throughput compared with traditional routing protocols.
Sharma, Sachin, Ghanshala, Kamal Kumar, Mohan, Seshadri.  2019.  Blockchain-Based Internet of Vehicles (IoV): An Efficient Secure Ad Hoc Vehicular Networking Architecture. 2019 IEEE 2nd 5G World Forum (5GWF). :452–457.
With the transformation of connected vehicles into the Internet of Vehicles (IoV), the time is now ripe for paving the way for the next generation of connected vehicles with novel applications and innovative security measures. The connected vehicles are experiencing prenominal growth in the auto industry, but are still studded with many security and privacy vulnerabilities. Today's IoV applications are part of cyber physical communication systems that collect useful information from thousands of smart sensors associated with the connected vehicles. The technology advancement has paved the way for connected vehicles to share significant information among drivers, auto manufacturers, auto insurance companies and operational and maintenance service providers for various applications. The critical issues in engineering the IoV applications are effective to use of the available spectrum and effective allocation of good channels an opportunistic manner to establish connectivity among vehicles, and the effective utilization of the infrastructure under various traffic conditions. Security and privacy in information sharing are the main concerns in a connected vehicle communication network. Blockchain technology facilitates secured communication among users in a connected vehicles network. Originally, blockchain technology was developed and employed with the cryptocurrency. Bitcoin, to provide increased trust, reliability, and security among users based on peer-to-peer networks for transaction sharing. In this paper, we propose to integrate blockchain technology into ad hoc vehicular networking so that the vehicles can share network resources with increased trust, reliability, and security using distributed access control system and can benefit a wider scope of scalable IoV applications scenarios for decision making. The proposed architecture is the faithful environment for information sharing among connected vehicles. Blockchain technology allows multiple copies of data storage at the distribution cloud. Distributed access control system is significantly more secure than a traditional centralized system. This paper also describes how important of ad hoc vehicular networking in human life, possibilities in real-world implementation and its future trends. The ad hoc vehicular networking may become one of the most trendy networking concepts in the future that has the perspective to bring out much ease human beneficial and secured applications.
Hasan, Khondokar Fida, Kaur, Tarandeep, Hasan, Md. Mhedi, Feng, Yanming.  2019.  Cognitive Internet of Vehicles: Motivation, Layered Architecture and Security Issues. 2019 International Conference on Sustainable Technologies for Industry 4.0 (STI). :1–6.
Over the past few years, we have experienced great technological advancements in the information and communication field, which has significantly contributed to reshaping the Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) concept. Evolving from the platform of a collection of sensors aiming to collect data, the data exchanged paradigm among vehicles is shifted from the local network to the cloud. With the introduction of cloud and edge computing along with ubiquitous 5G mobile network, it is expected to see the role of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in data processing and smart decision imminent. So as to fully understand the future automobile scenario in this verge of industrial revolution 4.0, it is necessary first of all to get a clear understanding of the cutting-edge technologies that going to take place in the automotive ecosystem so that the cyber-physical impact on transportation system can be measured. CIoV, which is abbreviated from Cognitive Internet of Vehicle, is one of the recently proposed architectures of the technological evolution in transportation, and it has amassed great attention. It introduces cloud-based artificial intelligence and machine learning into transportation system. What are the future expectations of CIoV? To fully contemplate this architecture's future potentials, and milestones set to achieve, it is crucial to understand all the technologies that leaned into it. Also, the security issues to meet the security requirements of its practical implementation. Aiming to that, this paper presents the evolution of CIoV along with the layer abstractions to outline the distinctive functional parts of the proposed architecture. It also gives an investigation of the prime security and privacy issues associated with technological evolution to take measures.