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Sultana, Kazi Zakia, Chong, Tai-Yin.  2019.  A Proposed Approach to Build an Automated Software Security Assessment Framework using Mined Patterns and Metrics. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Computational Science and Engineering (CSE) and IEEE International Conference on Embedded and Ubiquitous Computing (EUC). :176–181.

Software security is a major concern of the developers who intend to deliver a reliable software. Although there is research that focuses on vulnerability prediction and discovery, there is still a need for building security-specific metrics to measure software security and vulnerability-proneness quantitatively. The existing methods are either based on software metrics (defined on the physical characteristics of code; e.g. complexity or lines of code) which are not security-specific or some generic patterns known as nano-patterns (Java method-level traceable patterns that characterize a Java method or function). Other methods predict vulnerabilities using text mining approaches or graph algorithms which perform poorly in cross-project validation and fail to be a generalized prediction model for any system. In this paper, we envision to construct an automated framework that will assist developers to assess the security level of their code and guide them towards developing secure code. To accomplish this goal, we aim to refine and redefine the existing nano-patterns and software metrics to make them more security-centric so that they can be used for measuring the software security level of a source code (either file or function) with higher accuracy. In this paper, we present our visionary approach through a series of three consecutive studies where we (1) will study the challenges of the current software metrics and nano-patterns in vulnerability prediction, (2) will redefine and characterize the nano-patterns and software metrics so that they can capture security-specific properties of code and measure the security level quantitatively, and finally (3) will implement an automated framework for the developers to automatically extract the values of all the patterns and metrics for the given code segment and then flag the estimated security level as a feedback based on our research results. We accomplished some preliminary experiments and presented the results which indicate that our vision can be practically implemented and will have valuable implications in the community of software security.

Yoshikawa, Takashi, Date, Susumu, Watashiba, Yasuhiro, Matsui, Yuki, Nozaki, Kazunori, Murakami, Shinya, Lee, Chonho, Hida, Masami, Shimojo, Shinji.  2019.  Secure Staging System for Highly Confidential Data Built on Reconfigurable Computing Platform. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Computational Science and Engineering (CSE) and IEEE International Conference on Embedded and Ubiquitous Computing (EUC). :308–313.
Cloud use for High Performance Computing (HPC) and High Performance Data Analytics (HPDA) is increasing. The data are transferred to the cloud and usually left there even after the data being processed. There is security concern for such data being left online. We propose secure staging system to prepare not only data but also computing platform for processing the data dynamically just while the data is processed. The data plane of the secure staging system has dynamic reconfigurability with several lower-than-IP-layer partitioning mechanisms. The control plane consists of a scheduler and a resource provisioner working together to reconfigure the partitioning in the data plane dynamically. A field trial system is deployed for treating secure data in dental school to be processed in the computer center with the location distance of 1km. The system shows high score in the Common Vulnerability Scoring System (CVSS) evaluation.
Zheng, Zhengfan, Zheng, Bo, Wu, Yuechao, Chen, Shangui.  2019.  An Integrated Safety Management System Based on Ubiquitous Internet of Things in Electricity for Smart Pumped-storage Power Stations. 2019 4th International Conference on Intelligent Green Building and Smart Grid (IGBSG). :548–551.
The safety management is an important and fundamental task in the construction and operation of pumped-storage power stations. However, because of the traditional technical framework, the relevant systems are separated from each other, leading to a lot of disadvantages in application and performance. In order to meet the requirements of smart pumped-storage power stations, an integrated safety management system (ISMS) based on ubiquitous internet of things in electricity is proposed in this paper. The ISMS is divided into five layers including data display layer, data manipulation layer, data processing layer, data transmission layer and data acquisition layer. It consists of six modules, i.e., central control module, cave access control and personnel location module, video and security monitoring module, emergency broadcasting and communication module, geological warning module, and fall protection module. All modules are integrated into a unified information platform.
Ranaweera, Pasika, Jurcut, Anca Delia, Liyanage, Madhusanka.  2019.  Realizing Multi-Access Edge Computing Feasibility: Security Perspective. 2019 IEEE Conference on Standards for Communications and Networking (CSCN). :1–7.
Internet of Things (IoT) and 5G are emerging technologies that prompt a mobile service platform capable of provisioning billions of communication devices which enable ubiquitous computing and ambient intelligence. These novel approaches are guaranteeing gigabit-level bandwidth, ultra-low latency and ultra-high storage capacity for their subscribers. To achieve these limitations, ETSI has introduced the paradigm of Multi-Access Edge Computing (MEC) for creating efficient data processing architecture extending the cloud computing capabilities in the Radio Access Network (RAN). Despite the gained enhancements to the mobile network, MEC is subjected to security challenges raised from the heterogeneity of IoT services, intricacies in integrating virtualization technologies, and maintaining the performance guarantees of the mobile networks (i.e. 5G). In this paper, we are identifying the probable threat vectors in a typical MEC deployment scenario that comply with the ETSI standards. We analyse the identified threat vectors and propose solutions to mitigate them.
Alioto, Massimo, Taneja, Sachin.  2019.  Enabling Ubiquitous Hardware Security via Energy-Efficient Primitives and Systems : (Invited Paper). 2019 IEEE Custom Integrated Circuits Conference (CICC). :1–8.
Security down to hardware (HW) has become a fundamental requirement in highly-connected and ubiquitously deployed systems, as a result of the recent discovery of a wide range of vulnerabilities in commercial devices, as well as the affordability of several attacks that were traditionally considered unlikely. HW security is now a fundamental requirement in view of the massive attack surface that they expose, and the substantial power penalty entailed by solutions at higher levels of abstraction.In large-scale networks of connected devices, attacks need to be counteracted at low cost down to individual nodes, which need to be identified or authenticated securely, and protect confidentiality and integrity of the data that is sensed, stored, processed and wirelessly exchanged. In many security-sensitive applications, physical attacks against individual chips need to be counteracted to truly enable an end-to-end chain of trust from nodes to cloud and actuation (i.e., always-on security). These requirements have motivated the on-going global research and development effort to assure hardware security at low cost and power penalty down to low-end devices (i.e., ubiquitous security).This paper provides a fresh overview of the fundamentals, the design requirements and the state of the art in primitives for HW security. Challenges and future directions are discussed using recent silicon demonstrations as case studies.
Ullah, Rehmat, Ur Rehman, Muhammad Atif, Kim, Byung-Seo, Sonkoly, Balázs, Tapolcai, János.  2019.  On Pending Interest Table in Named Data Networking based Edge Computing: The Case of Mobile Augmented Reality. 2019 Eleventh International Conference on Ubiquitous and Future Networks (ICUFN). :263–265.
Future networks require fast information response time, scalable content distribution, security and mobility. In order to enable future Internet many key enabling technologies have been proposed such as Edge computing (EC) and Named Data Networking (NDN). In EC substantial compute and storage resources are placed at the edge of the network, in close proximity to end users. Similarly, NDN provides an alternative to traditional host centric IP architecture which seems a perfect candidate for distributed computation. Although NDN with EC seems a promising approach for enabling future Internet, it can cause various challenges such as expiry time of the Pending Interest Table (PIT) and non-trivial computation of the edge node. In this paper we discuss the expiry time and non-trivial computation in NDN based EC. We argue that if NDN is integrated in EC, then the PIT expiry time will be affected in relation with the processing time on the edge node. Our analysis shows that integrating NDN in EC without considering PIT expiry time may result in the degradation of network performance in terms of Interest Satisfaction Rate.
Zhao, Zhijun, Jiang, Zhengwei, Wang, Yueqiang, Chen, Guoen, Li, Bo.  2019.  Experimental Verification of Security Measures in Industrial Environments. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Computational Science and Engineering (CSE) and IEEE International Conference on Embedded and Ubiquitous Computing (EUC). :498–502.
Industrial Control Security (ICS) plays an important role in protecting Industrial assets and processed from being tampered by attackers. Recent years witness the fast development of ICS technology. However there are still shortage of techniques and measures to verify the effectiveness of ICS approaches. In this paper, we propose a verification framework named vICS, for security measures in industrial environments. vICS does not requires installing any agent in industrial environments, and could be viewed as a non-intrusive way. We use vICS to evaluate the effectiveness of classic ICS techniques and measures through several experiments. The results shown that vICS provide an feasible solution for verifying the effectiveness of classic ICS techniques and measures for industrial environments.
Gong, Yue, Chen, Cuiyun, Liu, Buyu, Gong, Gangjun, Zhou, Bo, Mahato, Nawaraj Kumar.  2019.  Research on the Ubiquitous Electric Power Internet of Things Security Management Based on Edge-Cloud Computing Collaboration Technology. 2019 IEEE Sustainable Power and Energy Conference (iSPEC). :1997–2002.
With the rapid development of the power industry and Internet of Things technologies and their industries, society's dependence on electricity and power supply reliability are higher. The increasing number and types of access devices makes the power grid change its behavior dramatically making it more complex. The specification and requirements for safe operation of the grid has increased. In order to cope with the challenges of the future power system, the security management and control architecture of ubiquitous electric power internet of things (UEP-IoT) based on Edge-Cloud Computing Collaboration Technology (ECCC) is proposed around the national power grid "Three-type and Two-network" world-class energy Internet enterprise construction requirements. The architecture is committed for solving the current security protection, information interaction, data security and offsite backup of the power system through edge cloud collaboration. By building UEP-IoT, the grid will be safer to operate, leaner in management, more accurate in investment, and better in service.
Rizk, Dominick, Rizk, Rodrigue, Hsu, Sonya.  2019.  Applied Layered-Security Model to IoMT. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Intelligence and Security Informatics (ISI). :227–227.

Nowadays, IoT has crossed all borders and become ubiquitous in everyday life. This emerging technology has a huge success in closing the gap between the digital and the real world. However, security and privacy become huge concerns especially in the medical field which prevent the healthcare industry from adopting it despite its benefits and potentials. This paper focuses on identifying potential security threats to the IoMT and presents the security mechanisms to remove any possible impediment from immune information security of IoMT. A summarized framework of the layered-security model is proposed followed by a specific assessment review of each layer.

Yang, Weiyong, Liu, Wei, Wei, Xingshen, Lv, Xiaoliang, Qi, Yunlong, Sun, Boyan, Liu, Yin.  2019.  Micro-Kernel OS Architecture and its Ecosystem Construction for Ubiquitous Electric Power IoT. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Energy Internet (ICEI). :179–184.

The operating system is extremely important for both "Made in China 2025" and ubiquitous electric power Internet of Things. By investigating of five key requirements for ubiquitous electric power Internet of Things at the OS level (performance, ecosystem, information security, functional security, developer framework), this paper introduces the intelligent NARI microkernel Operating System and its innovative schemes. It is implemented with microkernel architecture based on the trusted computing. Some technologies such as process based fine-grained real-time scheduling algorithm, sigma0 efficient message channel and service process binding in multicore are applied to improve system performance. For better ecological expansion, POSIX standard API is compatible, Linux container, embedded virtualization and intelligent interconnection technology are supported. Native process sandbox and mimicry defense are considered for security mechanism design. Multi-level exception handling and multidimensional partition isolation are adopted to provide High Reliability. Theorem-assisted proof tools based on Isabelle/HOL is used to verify the design and implementation of NARI microkernel OS. Developer framework including tools, kit and specification is discussed when developing both system software and user software on this IoT OS.

Mispan, M. S., Halak, B., Zwolinski, M..  2017.  Lightweight Obfuscation Techniques for Modeling Attacks Resistant PUFs. 2017 IEEE 2nd International Verification and Security Workshop (IVSW). :19–24.

Building lightweight security for low-cost pervasive devices is a major challenge considering the design requirements of a small footprint and low power consumption. Physical Unclonable Functions (PUFs) have emerged as a promising technology to provide a low-cost authentication for such devices. By exploiting intrinsic manufacturing process variations, PUFs are able to generate unique and apparently random chip identifiers. Strong-PUFs represent a variant of PUFs that have been suggested for lightweight authentication applications. Unfortunately, many of the Strong-PUFs have been shown to be susceptible to modelling attacks (i.e., using machine learning techniques) in which an adversary has access to challenge and response pairs. In this study, we propose an obfuscation technique during post-processing of Strong-PUF responses to increase the resilience against machine learning attacks. We conduct machine learning experiments using Support Vector Machines and Artificial Neural Networks on two Strong-PUFs: a 32-bit Arbiter-PUF and a 2-XOR 32-bit Arbiter-PUF. The predictability of the 32-bit Arbiter-PUF is reduced to $\approx$ 70% by using an obfuscation technique. Combining the obfuscation technique with 2-XOR 32-bit Arbiter-PUF helps to reduce the predictability to $\approx$ 64%. More reduction in predictability has been observed in an XOR Arbiter-PUF because this PUF architecture has a good uniformity. The area overhead with an obfuscation technique consumes only 788 and 1080 gate equivalents for the 32-bit Arbiter-PUF and 2-XOR 32-bit Arbiter-PUF, respectively.

Khan, M. F. F., Sakamura, K..  2017.  A Tamper-Resistant Digital Token-Based Rights Management System. 2017 International Carnahan Conference on Security Technology (ICCST). :1–6.

Use of digital token - which certifies the bearer's rights to some kind of products or services - is quite common nowadays for its convenience, ease of use and cost-effectiveness. Many of such digital tokens, however, are produced with software alone, making them vulnerable to forgery, including alteration and duplication. For a more secure safeguard for both token owner's right and service provider's accountability, digital tokens should be tamper-resistant as much as possible in order for them to withstand physical attacks as well. In this paper, we present a rights management system that leverages tamper-resistant digital tokens created by hardware-software collaboration in our eTRON architecture. The system features the complete life cycle of a digital token from generation to storage and redemption. Additionally, it provides a secure mechanism for transfer of rights in a peer-to-peer manner over the Internet. The proposed system specifies protocols for permissible manipulation on digital tokens, and subsequently provides a set of APIs for seamless application development. Access privileges to the tokens are strictly defined and state-of-the-art asymmetric cryptography is used for ensuring their confidentiality. Apart from the digital tokens being physically tamper-resistant, the protocols involved in the system are proven to be secure against attacks. Furthermore, an authentication mechanism is implemented that invariably precedes any operation involving the digital token in question. The proposed system presents clear security gains compared to existing systems that do not take tamper-resistance into account, and schemes that use symmetric key cryptography.

Sain, M., Bruce, N., Kim, K. H., Lee, H. J..  2017.  A Communication Security Protocol for Ubiquitous Sensor Networks. 2017 19th International Conference on Advanced Communication Technology (ICACT). :228–231.

The data accessibility anytime and anywhere is nowadays the key feature for information technology enabled by the ubiquitous network system for huge applications. However, security and privacy are perceived as primary obstacles to its wide adoption when it is applied to the end user application. When sharing sensitive information, personal s' data protection is the paramount requirement for the security and privacy to ensure the trustworthiness of the service provider. To this end, this paper proposes communication security protocol to achieve data protection when a user is sending his sensitive data to the network through gateway. We design a cipher content and key exchange computation process. Finally, the performance analysis of the proposed scheme ensure the honesty of the gateway service provider, since the user has the ability to control who has access to his data by issuing a cryptographic access credential to data users.

Salman, O., Kayssi, A., Chehab, A., Elhajj, I..  2017.  Multi-Level Security for the 5G/IoT Ubiquitous Network. 2017 Second International Conference on Fog and Mobile Edge Computing (FMEC). :188–193.

5G, the fifth generation of mobile communication networks, is considered as one of the main IoT enablers. Connecting billions of things, 5G/IoT will be dealing with trillions of GBytes of data. Securing such large amounts of data is a very challenging task. Collected data varies from simple temperature measurements to more critical transaction data. Thus, applying uniform security measures is a waste of resources (processing, memory, and network bandwidth). Alternatively, a multi-level security model needs to be applied according to the varying requirements. In this paper, we present a multi-level security scheme (BLP) applied originally in the information security domain. We review its application in the network domain, and propose a modified version of BLP for the 5G/IoT case. The proposed model is proven to be secure and compliant with the model rules.

Zhang, H., Wang, J., Chang, J..  2017.  A Multi-Level Security Access Control Framework for Cross-Domain Networks. 2017 IEEE International Conference on Computational Science and Engineering (CSE) and IEEE International Conference on Embedded and Ubiquitous Computing (EUC). 2:316–319.

The increasing demand for secure interactions between network domains brings in new challenges to access control technologies. In this paper we design an access control framework which provides a multilevel mapping method between hierarchical access control structures for achieving multilevel security protection in cross-domain networks. Hierarchical access control structures ensure rigorous multilevel security in intra domains. And the mapping method based on subject attributes is proposed to determine the subject's security level in its target domain. Experimental results we obtained from simulations are also reported in this paper to verify the effectiveness of the proposed access control model.

Brunner, M., Sillaber, C., Breu, R..  2017.  Towards Automation in Information Security Management Systems. 2017 IEEE International Conference on Software Quality, Reliability and Security (QRS). :160–167.

Establishing and operating an Information Security Management System (ISMS) to protect information values and information systems is in itself a challenge for larger enterprises and small and medium sized businesses alike. A high level of automation is required to reduce operational efforts to an acceptable level when implementing an ISMS. In this paper we present the ADAMANT framework to increase automation in information security management as a whole by establishing a continuous risk-driven and context-aware ISMS that not only automates security controls but considers all highly interconnected information security management tasks. We further illustrate how ADAMANT is suited to establish an ISO 27001 compliant ISMS for small and medium-sized enterprises and how not only the monitoring of security controls but a majority of ISMS related activities can be supported through automated process execution and workflow enactment.

Eidle, D., Ni, S. Y., DeCusatis, C., Sager, A..  2017.  Autonomic Security for Zero Trust Networks. 2017 IEEE 8th Annual Ubiquitous Computing, Electronics and Mobile Communication Conference (UEMCON). :288–293.

There is a long-standing need for improved cybersecurity through automation of attack signature detection, classification, and response. In this paper, we present experimental test bed results from an implementation of autonomic control plane feedback based on the Observe, Orient, Decide, Act (OODA) framework. This test bed modeled the building blocks for a proposed zero trust cloud data center network. We present test results of trials in which identity management with automated threat response and packet-based authentication were combined with dynamic management of eight distinct network trust levels. The log parsing and orchestration software we created work alongside open source log management tools to coordinate and integrate threat response from firewalls, authentication gateways, and other network devices. Threat response times are measured and shown to be a significant improvement over conventional methods.

Berkowsky, J. A., Hayajneh, T..  2017.  Security Issues with Certificate Authorities. 2017 IEEE 8th Annual Ubiquitous Computing, Electronics and Mobile Communication Conference (UEMCON). :449–455.

The current state of the internet relies heavily on SSL/TLS and the certificate authority model. This model has systematic problems, both in its design as well as its implementation. There are problems with certificate revocation, certificate authority governance, breaches, poor security practices, single points of failure and with root stores. This paper begins with a general introduction to SSL/TLS and a description of the role of certificates, certificate authorities and root stores in the current model. This paper will then explore problems with the current model and describe work being done to help mitigate these problems.

Chakraborty, N., Kalaimannan, E..  2017.  Minimum Cost Security Measurements for Attack Tree Based Threat Models in Smart Grid. 2017 IEEE 8th Annual Ubiquitous Computing, Electronics and Mobile Communication Conference (UEMCON). :614–618.

In this paper, we focus on the security issues and challenges in smart grid. Smart grid security features must address not only the expected deliberate attacks, but also inadvertent compromises of the information infrastructure due to user errors, equipment failures, and natural disasters. An important component of smart grid is the advanced metering infrastructure which is critical to support two-way communication of real time information for better electricity generation, distribution and consumption. These reasons makes security a prominent factor of importance to AMI. In recent times, attacks on smart grid have been modelled using attack tree. Attack tree has been extensively used as an efficient and effective tool to model security threats and vulnerabilities in systems where the ultimate goal of an attacker can be divided into a set of multiple concrete or atomic sub-goals. The sub-goals are related to each other as either AND-siblings or OR-siblings, which essentially depicts whether some or all of the sub-goals must be attained for the attacker to reach the goal. On the other hand, as a security professional one needs to find out the most effective way to address the security issues in the system under consideration. It is imperative to assume that each attack prevention strategy incurs some cost and the utility company would always look to minimize the same. We present a cost-effective mechanism to identify minimum number of potential atomic attacks in an attack tree.

Bhattacharya, S., Kumar, C. R. S..  2017.  Ransomware: The CryptoVirus Subverting Cloud Security. 2017 International Conference on Algorithms, Methodology, Models and Applications in Emerging Technologies (ICAMMAET). :1–6.

Cloud computing presents unlimited prospects for Information Technology (IT) industry and business enterprises alike. Rapid advancement brings a dark underbelly of new vulnerabilities and challenges unfolding with alarming regularity. Although cloud technology provides a ubiquitous environment facilitating business enterprises to conduct business across disparate locations, security effectiveness of this platform interspersed with threats which can bring everything that subscribes to the cloud, to a halt raises questions. However advantages of cloud platforms far outweighs drawbacks and study of new challenges helps overcome drawbacks of this technology. One such emerging security threat is of ransomware attack on the cloud which threatens to hold systems and data on cloud network to ransom with widespread damaging implications. This provides huge scope for IT security specialists to sharpen their skillset to overcome this new challenge. This paper covers the broad cloud architecture, current inherent cloud threat mechanisms, ransomware vulnerabilities posed and suggested methods to mitigate it.

Lim, K., Tuladhar, K. M., Wang, X., Liu, W..  2017.  A scalable and secure key distribution scheme for group signature based authentication in VANET. 2017 IEEE 8th Annual Ubiquitous Computing, Electronics and Mobile Communication Conference (UEMCON). :478–483.

Security issues in vehicular communication have become a huge concern to safeguard increasing applications. A group signature is one of the popular authentication approaches for VANETs (Vehicular ad hoc networks) which can be implemented to secure the vehicular communication. However, securely distributing group keys to fast-moving vehicular nodes is still a challenging problem. In this paper, we propose an efficient key management protocol for group signature based authentication, where a group is extended to a domain with multiple road side units. Our scheme not only provides a secure way to deliver group keys to vehicular nodes, but also ensures security features. The experiment results show that our key distribution scheme is a scalable, efficient and secure solution to vehicular networking.

Krupp, B., Jesenseky, D., Szampias, A..  2017.  SPEProxy: Enforcing fine grained security and privacy controls on unmodified mobile devices. 2017 IEEE 8th Annual Ubiquitous Computing, Electronics and Mobile Communication Conference (UEMCON). :520–526.

Mobile applications have grown from knowing basic personal information to knowing intimate details of consumer's lives. The explosion of knowledge that applications contain and share can be contributed to many factors. Mobile devices are equipped with advanced sensors including GPS and cameras, while storing large amounts of personal information including photos and contacts. With millions of applications available to install, personal data is at constant risk of being misused. While mobile operating systems provide basic security and privacy controls, they are insufficient, leaving the consumer unaware of how applications are using permissions that were granted. In this paper, we propose a solution that aims to provide consumers awareness of applications misusing data and policies that can protect their data. From this investigation we present SPEProxy. SPEProxy utilizes a knowledge based approach to provide consumer's an ability to understand how applications are using permissions beyond their stated intent. Additionally, SPEProxy provides an awareness of fine grained policies that would allow the user to protect their data. SPEProxy is device and mobile operating system agnostic, meaning it does not require a specific device or operating system nor modification to the operating system or applications. This approach allows consumers to utilize the solution without requiring a high degree of technical expertise. We evaluated SPEProxy across 817 of the most popular applications in the iOS App Store and Google Play. In our evaluation, SPEProxy was highly effective across 86.55% applications where several well known applications exhibited misusing granted permissions.