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Su, Yishan, Zhang, Ting, Jin, Zhigang, Guo, Lei.  2020.  An Anti-Attack Trust Mechanism Based on Collaborative Spectrum Sensing for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks. Global Oceans 2020: Singapore – U.S. Gulf Coast. :1—5.
The main method for long-distance underwater communication is underwater acoustic communication(UAC). The bandwidth of UAC channel is narrow and the frequency band resources are scarce. Therefore, it is important to improve the frequency band utilization of UAC system. Cognitive underwater acoustic (CUA) technology is an important method. CUA network can share spectrum resources with the primary network. Spectrum sensing (SS) technology is the premise of realizing CUA. Therefore, improving the accuracy of spectral sensing is the main purpose of this paper. However, the realization of underwater SS technology still faces many difficulties. First, underwater energy supplies are scarce, making it difficult to apply complex algorithms. Second, and more seriously, CUA network can sometimes be attacked and exploited by hostile forces, which will not only lead to data leakage, but also greatly affect the accuracy of SS. In order to improve the utilization of underwater spectrum and avoid attack, an underwater spectrum sensing model based on the two-threshold energy detection method and K of M fusion decision method is established. Then, the trust mechanism based on beta function and XOR operation are proposed to combat individual attack and multi-user joint attack (MUJA) respectively. Finally, simulation result shows the effectiveness of these methods.
Signori, Alberto, Campagnaro, Filippo, Wachlin, Kim-Fabian, Nissen, Ivor, Zorzi, Michele.  2020.  On the Use of Conversation Detection to Improve the Security of Underwater Acoustic Networks. Global Oceans 2020: Singapore – U.S. Gulf Coast. :1—8.
Security is one of the key aspects of underwater acoustic networks, due to the critical importance of the scenarios in which these networks can be employed. For example, attacks performed to military underwater networks or to assets deployed for tsunami prevention can lead to disastrous consequences. Nevertheless, countermeasures to possible network attacks have not been widely investigated so far. One way to identify possible attackers is by using reputation, where a node gains trust each time it exhibits a good behavior, and loses trust each time it behaves in a suspicious way. The first step for analyzing if a node is behaving in a good way is to inspect the network traffic, by detecting all conversations. This paper proposes both centralized and decentralized algorithms for performing this operation, either from the network or from the node perspective. While the former can be applied only in post processing, the latter can also be used in real time by each node, and so can be used for creating the trust value. To evaluate the algorithms, we used real experimental data acquired during the EDA RACUN project (Robust Underwater Communication in Underwater Networks).
Ozmen, Alper, Yildiz, Huseyin Ugur, Tavli, Bulent.  2020.  Impact of Minimizing the Eavesdropping Risks on Lifetime of Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks. 2020 28th Telecommunications Forum (℡FOR). :1—4.
Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks (UASNs) are often deployed in hostile environments, and they face many security threats. Moreover, due to the harsh characteristics of the underwater environment, UASNs are vulnerable to malicious attacks. One of the most dangerous security threats is the eavesdropping attack, where an adversary silently collects the information exchanged between the sensor nodes. Although careful assignment of transmission power levels and optimization of data flow paths help alleviate the extent of eavesdropping attacks, the network lifetime can be negatively affected since routing could be established using sub-optimal paths in terms of energy efficiency. In this work, two optimization models are proposed where the first model minimizes the potential eavesdropping risks in the network while the second model maximizes the network lifetime under a certain level of an eavesdropping risk. The results show that network lifetimes obtained when the eavesdropping risks are minimized significantly shorter than the network lifetimes obtained without considering any eavesdropping risks. Furthermore, as the countermeasures against the eavesdropping risks are relaxed, UASN lifetime is shown to be prolonged, significantly.
Khalid, Muhammad, Zhao, Ruiqin, Wang, Xin.  2020.  Node Authentication in Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks Using Time-Reversal. Global Oceans 2020: Singapore – U.S. Gulf Coast. :1—4.
Physical layer authentication scheme for node authentication using the time-reversal (TR) process and the location-specific key feature of the channel impulse response (CIR) in an underwater time-varying multipath environment is proposed. TR is a well-known signal focusing technique in signal processing; this focusing effect is used by the database maintaining node to authenticate the sensor node by convolving the estimated CIR from a probe signal with its database of CIRs. Maximum time-reversal resonating strength (MTRRS) is calculated to make an authentication decision. This work considers a static underwater acoustic sensor network (UASN) under the “Alice- Bob-Eve” scenario. The performance of the proposed scheme is expressed by the Probability of Detection (PD) and the Probability of False Alarm (PFA).
Cui, H., Liu, C., Hong, X., Wu, J., Sun, D..  2020.  An Improved BICM-ID Receiver for the Time-Varying Underwater Acoustic Communications with DDPSK Modulation. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Signal Processing, Communications and Computing (ICSPCC). :1—4.
Double differential phase shift keying(DDPSK) modulation is an efficient method to compensate the Doppler shifts, whereas the phase noise will be amplified which results in the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) loss. In this paper, we propose a novel receiver architecture for underwater acoustic DSSS communications with Doppler shifts. The proposed method adopts not only the DDPSK modulation to compensate the Doppler shifts, but also the improved bit-interleaved coded modulation with iterative decoding (BICM-ID) algorithm for DDPSK to recover the SNR loss. The improved DDPSK demodulator adopts the multi-symbol estimation to track the channel variation, and an extended trellis diagram is constructed for DDPSK demodulator. Theoretical simulation shows that our system can obtain around 10.2 dB gain over the uncoded performance, and 7.4 dB gain over the hard-decision decoding performance. Besides, the experiment conducted in the Songhua Lake also shows that the proposed receiver can achieve lower BER performance when Doppler shifts exists.
Qiao, G., Zhao, Y., Liu, S., Ahmed, N..  2020.  The Effect of Acoustic-Shell Coupling on Near-End Self-Interference Signal of In-Band Full-Duplex Underwater Acoustic Communication Modem. 2020 17th International Bhurban Conference on Applied Sciences and Technology (IBCAST). :606–610.
In-Band Full-Duplex (IBFD) Underwater Acoustic (UWA) communication technology plays a major role in enhancing the performance of Underwater acoustic sensor networks (UWSN). Self-Interference (SI) is one of the main inherent challenges affecting the performance of IBFD UWA communication. To reconstruct the SI signal and counteract the SI effect, this is important to estimate the short range channel through which the SI signal passes. Inaccurate estimation will result in the performance degradation of IBFD UWA communication. From the perspective of engineering implementation, we consider that the UWA communication modem shell has a significant influence on the short-range SI channel, which will limit the efficiency of self-interference cancellation in the analog domain to some degree. Therefore we utilize a simplified model to simulate the influence of the structure of the IBFD UWA communication modem on the receiving end. This paper studies the effect of acoustic-shell coupling on near-end self-interference signal of IBFD UWA communication modem. Some suggestions on the design of shell structure of IBFD UWA communication modem are given.
Lowney, M. Phil, Liu, Hong, Chabot, Eugene.  2018.  Trust Management in Underwater Acoustic MANETs based on Cloud Theory using Multi-Parameter Metrics. 2018 International Carnahan Conference on Security Technology (ICCST). :1—5.

With wide applications like surveillance and imaging, securing underwater acoustic Mobile Ad-hoc NETworks (MANET) becomes a double-edged sword for oceanographic operations. Underwater acoustic MANET inherits vulnerabilities from 802.11-based MANET which renders traditional cryptographic approaches defenseless. A Trust Management Framework (TMF), allowing maintained confidence among participating nodes with metrics built from their communication activities, promises secure, efficient and reliable access to terrestrial MANETs. TMF cannot be directly applied to the underwater environment due to marine characteristics that make it difficult to differentiate natural turbulence from intentional misbehavior. This work proposes a trust model to defend underwater acoustic MANETs against attacks using a machine learning method with carefully chosen communication metrics, and a cloud model to address the uncertainty of trust in harsh underwater environments. By integrating the trust framework of communication with the cloud model to combat two kinds of uncertainties: fuzziness and randomness, trust management is greatly improved for underwater acoustic MANETs.

Lv, Chengcai, Shen, Binjian, Guo, Xinxin, Zhu, Chengwei.  2019.  Communication Design for Underwater Acoustic Positioning Networks. 2019 IEEE 4th International Conference on Signal and Image Processing (ICSIP). :573–577.
The past decade has seen a growing interest in underwater acoustic positioning networks (UAPNs) because of their wide applications in marine research, ocean monitoring, offshore exploration, and defense or homeland security. Efficient communication among all sensors and receivers is crucial so as to make positioning service available. Traditional UAPNs could locate only one target, that are growing obsolete due to increasing demands for multiple users working at the same time. Due to the demands for multiple users working simultaneously and narrow acoustic bandwidth, new efficient and reliable communication and networking protocols are required in design for UAPNs. In this paper, we aim to provide the procedure of communication design for UAPNs based on sonar equation and spread spectrum communication. What's more, signal design and performance analysis are supplied. The results show that the signal we designed have ideal correlation performance and high processing gain. The signal is suitable for multiple users UAPNs and thus show favorable potential in ocean engineering applications.
Wang, Q., Dai, H. N..  2017.  On modeling of eavesdropping behavior in underwater acoustic sensor networks. 2017 IEEE 18th International Symposium on A World of Wireless, Mobile and Multimedia Networks (WoWMoM). :1–3.

In this paper, we propose a theoretical framework to investigate the eavesdropping behavior in underwater acoustic sensor networks. In particular, we quantify the eavesdropping activities by the eavesdropping probability. Our derived results show that the eavesdropping probability heavily depends on acoustic signal frequency, underwater acoustic channel characteristics (such as spreading factor and wind speed) and different hydrophones (such as isotropic hydrophones and array hydrophones). Simulation results have further validate the effectiveness and the accuracy of our proposed model.

Komulainen, A., Nilsson, J., Sterner, U..  2017.  Effects of Topology Information on Routing in Contention-Based Underwater Acoustic Networks. OCEANS 2017 - Aberdeen. :1–7.

Underwater acoustic networks is an enabling technology for a range of applications such as mine countermeasures, intelligence and reconnaissance. Common for these applications is a need for robust information distribution while minimizing energy consumption. In terrestrial wireless networks topology information is often used to enhance the efficiency of routing, in terms of higher capacity and less overhead. In this paper we asses the effects of topology information on routing in underwater acoustic networks. More specifically, the interplay between long propagation delays, contention-based channels access and dissemination of varying degrees of topology information is investigated. The study is based on network simulations of a number of network protocols that make use of varying amounts of topology information. The results indicate that, in the considered scenario, relying on local topology information to reduce retransmissions may have adverse effects on the reliability. The difficult channel conditions and the contention-based channels access methods create a need for an increased amount of diversity, i.e., more retransmissions. In the scenario considered, an opportunistic flooding approach is a better, both in terms of robustness and energy consumption.