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2020-02-10
Shahinzadeh, Hossein, Moradi, Jalal, Gharehpetian, Gevork B., Nafisi, Hamed, Abedi, Mehrdad.  2019.  IoT Architecture for Smart Grids. 2019 International Conference on Protection and Automation of Power System (IPAPS). :22–30.
The tremendous advances in information and communications technology (ICT), as well as the embedded systems, have been led to the emergence of the novel concept of the internet of things (IoT). Enjoying IoT-based technologies, many objects and components can be connected to each other through the internet or other modern communicational platforms. Embedded systems which are computing machines for special purposes like those utilized in high-tech devices, smart buildings, aircraft, and vehicles including advanced controllers, sensors, and meters with the ability of information exchange using IT infrastructures. The phrase "internet", in this context, does not exclusively refer to the World Wide Web rather than any type of server-based or peer-to-peer networks. In this study, the application of IoT in smart grids is addressed. Hence, at first, an introduction to the necessity of deployment of IoT in smart grids is presented. Afterwards, the applications of IoT in three levels of generation, transmission, and distribution is proposed. The generation level is composed of applications of IoT in renewable energy resources, wind and solar in particular, thermal generation, and energy storage facilities. The deployment of IoT in transmission level deals with congestion management in power system and guarantees the security of the system. In the distribution level, the implications of IoT in active distribution networks, smart cities, microgrids, smart buildings, and industrial sector are evaluated.
2019-07-01
Zabetian-Hosseini, A., Mehrizi-Sani, A., Liu, C..  2018.  Cyberattack to Cyber-Physical Model of Wind Farm SCADA. IECON 2018 - 44th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society. :4929–4934.

In recent years, there has been a significant increase in wind power penetration into the power system. As a result, the behavior of the power system has become more dependent on wind power behavior. Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems responsible for monitoring and controlling wind farms often have vulnerabilities that make them susceptible to cyberattacks. These vulnerabilities allow attackers to exploit and intrude in the wind farm SCADA system. In this paper, a cyber-physical system (CPS) model for the information and communication technology (ICT) model of the wind farm SCADA system integrated with SCADA of the power system is proposed. Cybersecurity of this wind farm SCADA system is discussed. Proposed cyberattack scenarios on the system are modeled and the impact of these cyberattacks on the behavior of the power systems on the IEEE 9-bus modified system is investigated. Finally, an anomaly attack detection algorithm is proposed to stop the attack of tripping of all wind farms. Case studies validate the performance of the proposed CPS model of the test system and the attack detection algorithm.

2018-09-05
Zhong, Q., Blaabjerg, F., Cecati, C..  2017.  Power-Electronics-Enabled Autonomous Power Systems. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics. 64:5904–5906.

The eleven papers in this special section focus on power electronics-enabled autonomous systems. Power systems are going through a paradigm change from centralized generation to distributed generation and further onto smart grid. Millions of relatively small distributed energy resources (DER), including wind turbines, solar panels, electric vehicles and energy storage systems, and flexible loads are being integrated into power systems through power electronic converters. This imposes great challenges to the stability, scalability, reliability, security, and resiliency of future power systems. This section joins the forces of the communities of control/systems theory, power electronics, and power systems to address various emerging issues of power-electronics-enabled autonomous power systems, paving the way for large-scale deployment of DERs and flexible loads.

2017-03-08
Wang, J., Zhou, Y..  2015.  Multi-objective dynamic unit commitment optimization for energy-saving and emission reduction with wind power. 2015 5th International Conference on Electric Utility Deregulation and Restructuring and Power Technologies (DRPT). :2074–2078.

As a clean energy, wind power is massively utilized in net recent years, which significantly reduced the pollution emission created from unit. This article referred to the concept of energy-saving and emission reducing; built a multiple objective function with represent of the emission of CO2& SO2, the coal-fired from units and the lowest unit fees of commitment; Proposed a algorithm to improving NSGA-D (Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm-II) for the dynamic characteristics, consider of some constraint conditions such as the shortest operation and fault time and climbing etc.; Optimized and commitment discrete magnitude and Load distribution continuous quantity with the double-optimization strategy; Introduced the fuzzy satisfaction-maximizing method to reaching a decision for Pareto solution and also nested into each dynamic solution; Through simulation for 10 units of wind power, the result show that this method is an effective way to optimize the Multi-objective unit commitment modeling in wind power integrated system with Mixed-integer variable.

2015-04-30
Godwin, J.L., Matthews, P..  2014.  Rapid labelling of SCADA data to extract transparent rules using RIPPER. Reliability and Maintainability Symposium (RAMS), 2014 Annual. :1-7.

This paper addresses a robust methodology for developing a statistically sound, robust prognostic condition index and encapsulating this index as a series of highly accurate, transparent, human-readable rules. These rules can be used to further understand degradation phenomena and also provide transparency and trust for any underlying prognostic technique employed. A case study is presented on a wind turbine gearbox, utilising historical supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) data in conjunction with a physics of failure model. Training is performed without failure data, with the technique accurately identifying gearbox degradation and providing prognostic signatures up to 5 months before catastrophic failure occurred. A robust derivation of the Mahalanobis distance is employed to perform outlier analysis in the bivariate domain, enabling the rapid labelling of historical SCADA data on independent wind turbines. Following this, the RIPPER rule learner was utilised to extract transparent, human-readable rules from the labelled data. A mean classification accuracy of 95.98% of the autonomously derived condition was achieved on three independent test sets, with a mean kappa statistic of 93.96% reported. In total, 12 rules were extracted, with an independent domain expert providing critical analysis, two thirds of the rules were deemed to be intuitive in modelling fundamental degradation behaviour of the wind turbine gearbox.