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Pani, Samita Rani, Samal, Rajat Kanti.  2022.  Vulnerability Assessment of Power System Under N-1 Contingency Conditions. 2022 Second International Conference on Power, Control and Computing Technologies (ICPC2T). :1–4.
Despite the fact that the power grid is typically regarded as a relatively stable system, outages and electricity shortages are common occurrences. Grid security is mainly dependent on accurate vulnerability assessment. The vulnerability can be assessed in terms of topology-based metrics and flow-based metrics. In this work, power flow analysis is used to calculate the metrics under single line contingency (N-1) conditions. The effect of load uncertainty on system vulnerability is checked. The IEEE 30 bus power network has been used for the case study. It has been found that the variation in load demand affects the system vulnerability.
Chen, Duanyun, Chen, Zewen, Li, Jie, Liu, Jidong.  2022.  Vulnerability analysis of Cyber-physical power system based on Analytic Hierarchy Process. 2022 IEEE 10th Joint International Information Technology and Artificial Intelligence Conference (ITAIC). 10:2024–2028.
In recent years, the blackout accident shows that the cause of power failure is not only in the power network, but also in the cyber network. Aiming at the problem of cyber network fault Cyber-physical power systems, combined with the structure and functional attributes of cyber network, the comprehensive criticality of information node is defined. By evaluating the vulnerability of ieee39 node system, it is found that the fault of high comprehensive criticality information node will cause greater load loss to the system. The simulation results show that the comprehensive criticality index can effectively identify the key nodes of the cyber network.
ISSN: 2693-2865
Zhai, Lijing, Vamvoudakis, Kyriakos G., Hugues, Jérôme.  2022.  A Graph-Theoretic Security Index Based on Undetectability for Cyber-Physical Systems. 2022 American Control Conference (ACC). :1479—1484.
In this paper, we investigate the conditions for the existence of dynamically undetectable attacks and perfectly undetectable attacks. Then we provide a quantitative measure on the security for discrete-time linear time-invariant (LTI) systems under both actuator and sensor attacks based on undetectability. Finally, the computation of proposed security index is reduced to a min-cut problem for the structured systems by graph theory. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate the theoretical results.
Almashfi, Nabil, Lu, Lunjin.  2020.  Code Smell Detection Tool for Java Script Programs. 2020 5th International Conference on Computer and Communication Systems (ICCCS). :172–176.
JavaScript is a client-side scripting language that is widely used in web applications. It is dynamic, loosely-typed and prototype-based with first-class functions. The dynamic nature of JavaScript makes it powerful and highly flexible in almost every way. However, this flexibility may result in what is known as code smells. Code smells are characteristics in the source code of a program that usually correspond to a deeper problem. They can lead to a variety of comprehension and maintenance issues and they may impact fault- and change-proneness of the application in the future. We present TAJSlint, an automated code smell detection tool for JavaScript programs that is based on static analysis. TAJSlint includes a set of 14 code smells, 9 of which are collected from various sources and 5 new smells we propose. We conduct an empirical evaluation of TAJSlint on a number of JavaScript projects and show that TAJSlint achieves an overall precision of 98% with a small number of false positives. We also study the prevalence of code smells in these projects.
Xu, Rong-Zhen, He, Meng-Ke.  2020.  Application of Deep Learning Neural Network in Online Supply Chain Financial Credit Risk Assessment. 2020 International Conference on Computer Information and Big Data Applications (CIBDA). :224—232.
Under the background of "Internet +", in order to solve the problem of deeply mining credit risk behind online supply chain financial big data, this paper proposes an online supply chain financial credit risk assessment method based on deep belief network (DBN). First, a deep belief network evaluation model composed of Restricted Boltzmann Machine (RBM) and classifier SOFTMAX is established, and the performance evaluation test of three kinds of data sets is carried out by using this model. Using factor analysis to select 8 indicators from 21 indicators, and then input them into RBM for conversion to form a more scientific evaluation index, and finally input them into SOFTMAX for evaluation. This method of online supply chain financial credit risk assessment based on DBN is applied to an example for verification. The results show that the evaluation accuracy of this method is 96.04%, which has higher evaluation accuracy and better rationality compared with SVM method and Logistic method.
hong, Xue, zhifeng, Liao, yuan, Wang, ruidi, Xu, zhuoran, Xu.  2020.  Research on risk severity decision of cluster supply chain based on data flow fuzzy clustering. 2020 Chinese Control And Decision Conference (CCDC). :2810—2815.
Based on the analysis of cluster supply chain risk characteristics, starting from the analysis of technical risk dimensions, information risk dimensions, human risk dimensions, and capital risk dimensions, a cluster supply chain risk severity assessment index system is designed. The fuzzy C-means clustering algorithm based on data flow is used to cluster each supply chain, analyze the risk severity of the supply chain, and evaluate the decision of the supply chain risk severity level based on the cluster weights and cluster center range. Based on the analytic hierarchy process, the risk severity of the entire clustered supply chain is made an early warning decision, and the clustered supply chain risk severity early warning level is obtained. The results of simulation experiments verify the feasibility of the decision method for cluster supply chain risk severity, and improve the theoretical support for cluster supply chain risk severity prediction.
Dai, Jiahao, Chen, Yongqun.  2021.  Analysis of Attack Effectiveness Evaluation of AD hoc Networks based on Rough Set Theory. 2021 17th International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Security (CIS). :489—492.
This paper mainly studies an attack effectiveness evaluation method for AD hoc networks based on rough set theory. Firstly, we use OPNET to build AD hoc network simulation scenario, design and develop attack module, and obtain network performance parameters before and after the attack. Then the rough set theory is used to evaluate the attack effectiveness. The results show that this method can effectively evaluate the performance of AD hoc networks before and after attacks.
Tumash, Liudmila, Canudas-de-Wit, Carlos, Monache, Maria Laura Delle.  2021.  Boundary Control for Multi-Directional Traffic on Urban Networks. 2021 60th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control (CDC). :2671–2676.
This paper is devoted to boundary control design for urban traffic described on a macroscopic scale. The state corresponds to vehicle density that evolves on a continuum two-dimensional domain that represents a continuous approximation of a urban network. Its parameters are interpolated as a function of distance to physical roads. The dynamics are governed by a new macroscopic multi-directional traffic model that encompasses a system of four coupled partial differential equations (PDE) each describing density evolution in one direction layer: North, East, West and South (NEWS). We analyse the class of desired states that the density governed by NEWS model can achieve. Then a boundary control is designed to drive congested traffic to an equilibrium with the minimal congestion level. The result is validated numerically using the real structure of Grenoble downtown (a city in France).
Liyanarachchi, Lakna, Hosseinzadeh, Nasser, Mahmud, Apel, Gargoom, Ameen, Farahani, Ehsan M..  2020.  Contingency Ranking Selection using Static Security Performance Indices in Future Grids. 2020 Australasian Universities Power Engineering Conference (AUPEC). :1–6.

Power system security assessment and enhancement in grids with high penetration of renewables is critical for pragmatic power system planning. Static Security Assessment (SSA) is a fast response tool to assess system stability margins following considerable contingencies assuming post fault system reaches a steady state. This paper presents a contingency ranking methodology using static security indices to rank credible contingencies considering severity. A Modified IEEE 9 bus system integrating renewables was used to test the approach. The static security indices used independently provides accurate results in identifying severe contingencies but further assessment is needed to provide an accurate picture of static security assessment in an increased time frame of the steady state. The indices driven for static security assessment could accurately capture and rank contingencies with renewable sources but due to intermittency of the renewable source various contingency ranking lists are generated. This implies that using indices in future grids without consideration on intermittent nature of renewables will make it difficult for the grid operator to identify severe contingencies and assist the power system operator to make operational decisions. This makes it necessary to integrate the behaviour of renewables in security indices for practical application in real time security assessment.

Jiang, Qingwei.  2021.  An Image Hiding Algorithm based on Bit Plane and Two-Dimensional Code. 2021 Third International Conference on Intelligent Communication Technologies and Virtual Mobile Networks (ICICV). :851–854.
An image hiding algorithm based on bit plane and two-dimensional code is proposed in this paper. The main characteristic of information hiding is to use the information redundant data of the existing image, to embed the information into these redundant data by the information hiding algorithm, or to partially replace redundant information with information to be embedded to achieve a visual invisible purpose. We first analyze the color index usage frequency of the block index matrix in the algorithm, and calculate the distance between the color of the block index matrix with only one color and the other color in the palette that is closest to the color. Then, the QR model and the compression model are applied to improve the efficiency. We compare the proposed model with the stateof-the-art models.
Dolev, Shlomi, Kalma, Arseni.  2021.  Verifiable Computing Using Computation Fingerprints Within FHE. 2021 IEEE 20th International Symposium on Network Computing and Applications (NCA). :1—9.
We suggest using Fully Homomorphic Encryption (FHE) to be used, not only to keep the privacy of information but also, to verify computations with no additional significant overhead, using only part of the variables length for verification. This method supports the addition of encrypted values as well as multiplication of encrypted values by the addition of their logarithmic representations and is based on a separation between hardware functionalities. The computer/server performs blackbox additions and is based on the separation of server/device/hardware, such as the enclave, that may deal with additions of logarithmic values and exponentiation. The main idea is to restrict the computer operations and to use part of the variable for computation verification (computation fingerprints) and the other for the actual calculation. The verification part holds the FHE value, of which the calculated result is known (either due to computing locally once or from previously verified computations) and will be checked against the returned FHE value. We prove that a server with bit computation granularity can return consistent encrypted wrong results even when the public key is not provided. For the case of computer word granularity the verification and the actual calculation parts are separated, the verification part (the consecutive bits from the LSB to the MSB of the variables) is fixed across all input vectors. We also consider the case of Single Instruction Multiple Data (SIMD) where the computation fingerprints index in the input vectors is fixed across all vectors.
Xu, Zhengwei, Ge, Yuan, Cao, Jin, Yang, Shuquan, Lin, Qiyou, Zhou, Xu.  2021.  Robustness Analysis of Cyber-Physical Power System Based on Adjacent Matrix Evolution. 2021 China Automation Congress (CAC). :2104—2109.
Considering the influence of load, This paper proposes a robust analysis method of cyber-physical power system based on the evolution of adjacency matrix. This method uses the load matrix to detect whether the system has overload failure, utilizes the reachable matrix to detect whether the system has unconnected failure, and uses the dependency matrix to reveal the cascading failure mechanism in the system. Finally, analyze the robustness of the cyber-physical power system. The IEEE30 standard node system is taken as an example for simulation experiment, and introduced the connectivity index and the load loss ratio as evaluation indexes. The robustness of the system is evaluated and analyzed by comparing the variation curves of connectivity index and load loss ratio under different tolerance coefficients. The results show that the proposed method is feasible, reduces the complexity of graph-based attack methods, and easy to research and analyze.
Mbanaso, U. M., Makinde, J. A..  2021.  Conceptual Modelling of Criticality of Critical Infrastructure Nth Order Dependency Effect Using Neural Networks. 2020 IEEE 2nd International Conference on Cyberspac (CYBER NIGERIA). :127—131.
This paper presents conceptual modelling of the criticality of critical infrastructure (CI) nth order dependency effect using neural networks. Incidentally, critical infrastructures are usually not stand-alone, they are mostly interconnected in some way thereby creating a complex network of infrastructures that depend on each other. The relationships between these infrastructures can be either unidirectional or bidirectional with possible cascading or escalating effect. Moreover, the dependency relationships can take an nth order, meaning that a failure or disruption in one infrastructure can cascade to nth interconnected infrastructure. The nth-order dependency and criticality problems depict a sequential characteristic, which can result in chronological cyber effects. Consequently, quantifying the criticality of infrastructure demands that the impact of its failure or disruption on other interconnected infrastructures be measured effectively. To understand the complex relational behaviour of nth order relationships between infrastructures, we model the behaviour of nth order dependency using Neural Network (NN) to analyse the degree of dependency and criticality of the dependent infrastructure. The outcome, which is to quantify the Criticality Index Factor (CIF) of a particular infrastructure as a measure of its risk factor can facilitate a collective response in the event of failure or disruption. Using our novel NN approach, a comparative view of CIFs of infrastructures or organisations can provide an efficient mechanism for Critical Information Infrastructure Protection and resilience (CIIPR) in a more coordinated and harmonised way nationally. Our model demonstrates the capability to measure and establish the degree of dependency (or interdependency) and criticality of CIs as a criterion for a proactive CIIPR.
Wang, Xin, Ma, Xiaobo, Qu, Jian.  2021.  A Link Flooding Attack Detection Method based on Non-Cooperative Active Measurement. 2021 8th International Conference on Dependable Systems and Their Applications (DSA). :172–177.
In recent years, a new type of DDoS attacks against backbone routing links have appeared. They paralyze the communication network of a large area by directly congesting the key routing links concerning the network accessibility of the area. This new type of DDoS attacks make it difficult for traditional countermeasures to take effect. This paper proposes and implements an attack detection method based on non-cooperative active measurement. Experiments show that our detection method can efficiently perceive changes of network link performance and assist in identifying such new DDoS attacks. In our testbed, the network anomaly detection accuracy can reach 93.7%.
Liu, Tang, Tuninetti, Daniela.  2021.  Optimal Linear Coding Schemes for the Secure Decentralized Pliable Index Coding Problem. 2020 IEEE Information Theory Workshop (ITW). :1—5.
This paper studies the secure decentralized Pliable Index CODing (PICOD) problem, where the security constraint forbids users to decode more than one message while the decentralized setting imposes that there is no central transmitter in the system, and thus transmissions occur only among users. A converse bound from the Authors' previous work showed a factor of three difference in optimal code-length between the centralized and the decentralized versions of the problem, under the constraint of linear encoding. This paper first lists all linearly infeasible cases, that is, problems where no linear code can simultaneously achieve both correctness/decodability and security. Then, it proposes linear coding schemes for the remaining cases and shows that their code-length is to within an additive constant gap from the converse bound.
Qin, Yishuai, Xiao, Bing, Li, Yaodong, Yu, Jintao.  2021.  Structure adjustment of early warning information system based on timeliness. 2021 IEEE 5th Advanced Information Technology, Electronic and Automation Control Conference (IAEAC). 5:2742–2747.
Aimed at the high requirement of timeliness in the process of information assurance, this paper describes the average time delay of information transmission in the system, and designs a timeliness index that can quantitatively describe the ability of early warning information assurance. In response to the problem that system capability cannot meet operational requirements due to enemy attacks, this paper analyzes the structure of the early warning information system, Early warning information complex network model is established, based on the timeliness index, a genetic algorithm based on simulated annealing with special chromosome coding is proposed.the algorithm is used to adjust the network model structure, the ability of early warning information assurance has been improved. Finally, the simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Zhang, Qiao-Jia, Ye, Qing, Li, Liang, Liu, Si-jie, Chen, Kai-qiang.  2021.  An efficient selective encryption scheme for HEVC based on hyperchaotic Lorenz system. 2021 IEEE 5th Advanced Information Technology, Electronic and Automation Control Conference (IAEAC). 5:683—690.
With the wide application of video information, the protection of video information from illegal access has been widely investigated recently. An efficient selective encryption scheme for high efficiency video coding (HEVC) based on hyperchaotic Lorenz system is proposed. Firstly, the hyperchaotic Lorenz system is discretized and the generated chaotic state values are converted into chaotic pseudorandom sequences for encryption. The important syntax elements in HEVC are then selectively encrypted with the generated stream cipher. The experimental results show that the encrypted video is highly disturbed and the video information cannot be recognized. Through the analysis of objective index results, it is shown that the scheme is both efficient and security.
Andres Lara-Nino, Carlos, Diaz-Perez, Arturo, Morales-Sandoval, Miguel.  2021.  A comparison of Differential Addition and Doubling in Binary Edwards Curves for Elliptic Curve Cryptography. 2021 Fifth World Conference on Smart Trends in Systems Security and Sustainability (WorldS4). :12—18.
Binary Edwards curves (BEC) over finite fields can be used as an additive cyclic elliptic curve group to enable elliptic curve cryptography (ECC), where the most time consuming is scalar multiplication. This operation is computed by means of the group operation, either point addition or point doubling. The most notorious property of these curves is that their group operation is complete, which mitigates the need to verify for special cases. Different formulae for the group operation in BECs have been reported in the literature. Of particular interest are those designed to work with the differential properties of the Montgomery ladder, which offer constant time computation of the scalar multiplication as well as reduced field operations count. In this work, we review and compare the complexity of BEC differential addition and doubling in terms of field operations. We also provide software implementations of scalar multiplications which employ these formulae under a fair scenario. Our work provides insights on the advantages of using BECs in ECC. Our study of the different formulae for group addition in BEC also showcases the advantages and limitations of the different design strategies employed in each case.
Hu, Yifang, He, Jianjun, Xu, Luyao.  2021.  Infrared and Visible Image Fusion Based on Multiscale Decomposition with Gaussian and Co-Occurrence Filters. 2021 4th International Conference on Pattern Recognition and Artificial Intelligence (PRAI). :46—50.
The fusion of infrared and visible images using traditional multi-scale decomposition methods often leads to the loss of detailed information or the blurring of image edges, which is because the contour information and the detailed information within the contour cannot be retained simultaneously in the fusion process. To obtain high-quality fused images, a hybrid multi-scale decomposition fusion method using co-occurrence and Gaussian filters is proposed in this research. At first, by making full use of the smoothing effect of the Gaussian filter and edge protection characteristic of the co-occurrence filter, source images are decomposed into multiple hierarchical structures with different characteristics. Then, characteristics of sub-images at each level are analyzed, and the corresponding fusion rules are designed for images at different levels. At last, the final fused image obtained by combining fused sub-images of each level has rich scene information and clear infrared targets. Compared with several traditional multi-scale fusion algorithms, the proposed method has great advantages in some objective evaluation indexes.
Tushar, Venkataramanan, V., Srivastava, A., Hahn, A..  2020.  CP-TRAM: Cyber-Physical Transmission Resiliency Assessment Metric. IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid. 11:5114—5123.
Natural disasters and cyber intrusions threaten the normal operation of the critical electric grid infrastructure. There is still no widely accepted methodology to quantify the resilience in power systems. In this work, power system resiliency refers to the ability of the system to keep provide energy to the critical load even with adverse events. A significant amount of work has been done to quantify the resilience for distribution systems. Even though critical loads are located in distribution system, transmission system play a critical role in supplying energy to distribution feeder in addition to the Distributed Energy Resources (DERs). This work focuses on developing a framework to quantify the resiliency of cyber-physical transmission systems. Quantifying the resiliency of the transmission network, is important to determine and devise suitable control mechanisms to minimize the effects of undesirable events in the power grid. The proposed metric is based on both system infrastructure and with changing operating conditions. A graphical analysis along with measure of critical parameters of the network is performed to quantify the redundancy and vulnerabilities in the physical network of the system. A similar approach is used to quantify the cyber-resiliency. The results indicate the capability of the proposed framework to quantify cyber-physical resilience of the transmission systems.
Conference Name: IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid
Tronchin, Davide, Francescon, Roberto, Campagnaro, Filippo, Signori, Alberto, Petroccia, Roberto, Pelekanakis, Konstantinos, Paglierani, Pietro, Alves, João, Zorzi, Michele.  2021.  A Secure Cross-Layer Communication Stack for Underwater Acoustic Networks. OCEANS 2021: San Diego – Porto. :1–8.
Underwater Acoustic Networks (UANs) have long been recognized as an instrumental technology in various fields, from ocean monitoring to defense settings. Their security, though, has been scarcely investigated despite the strategic areas involved and the intrinsic vulnerability due to the broadcast nature of the wireless medium. In this work, we focus on attacks for which the attacker has partial or total knowledge of the network protocol stack. Our strategy uses a watchdog layer that allows upper layers to gather knowledge of overheard packets. In addition, a reputation system that is able to label nodes as trustful or suspicious is analyzed and evaluated via simulations. The proposed security mechanism has been implemented in the DESERT Underwater framework and a simulation study is conducted to validate the effectiveness of the proposed solution against resource exhaustion and sinkhole attacks.
Raj, Mariam, Tahir, Shahzaib, Khan, Fawad, Tahir, Hasan, Zulkifl, Zeeshan.  2021.  A Novel Fog-based Framework for Preventing Cloud Lock-in while Enabling Searchable Encryption. 2021 International Conference on Digital Futures and Transformative Technologies (ICoDT2). :1—6.
Cloud computing has helped in managing big data and providing resources remotely and ubiquitously, but it has some latency and security concerns. Fog has provided tremendous advantages over cloud computing which include low latency rate, improved real-time interactions, reduced network traffic overcrowding, and improved reliability, however, security concerns need to be addressed separately. Another major issue in the cloud is Cloud Lock-in/Vendor Lock-in. Through this research, an effort has been made to extend fog computing and Searchable Encryption technologies. The proposed system can reduce the issue of cloud lock-in faced in traditional cloud computing. The SE schemes used in this paper are Symmetric Searchable Encryption (SSE) and Multi-keyword Ranked Searchable Encryption (MRSE) to achieve confidentiality, privacy, fine-grained access control, and efficient keyword search. This can help to achieve better access control and keyword search simultaneously. An important use of this technique is it helps to prevent the issue of cloud/vendor lock-in. This can shift some computation and storage of index tables over fog nodes that will reduce the dependency on Cloud Service Providers (CSPs).
Hirano, Takato, Kawai, Yutaka, Koseki, Yoshihiro.  2021.  DBMS-Friendly Searchable Symmetric Encryption: Constructing Index Generation Suitable for Database Management Systems. 2021 IEEE Conference on Dependable and Secure Computing (DSC). :1—8.
Searchable symmetric encryption enables users with the secret key to conduct keyword search on encrypted data without decryption. Recently, dynamic searchable symmetric encryption (DSSE) which provides secure functionalities for adding or deleting documents has been studied extensively. Many DSSE schemes construct indexes in order to efficiently conduct keyword search. On the other hand, the indexes constructed in DSSE are complicated and independent to indexes supported by database management systems (DBMSs). Plug-in developments over DBMSs are often restricted, and therefore it is not easy to develop softwares which can deploy DSSE schemes to DBMSs. In this paper, we propose a DBMS-friendly searchable symmetric encryption scheme which can generate indexes suitable for DBMSs. Our index can narrow down encrypted data which should be conducted keyword search, and be combined with well-used indexes supported by many DBMSs. Our index consists of a small portion of an output value of a cryptographic deterministic function (e.g. pseudo-random function or hash function). We also show an experiment result of our scheme deployed to DBMSs.
Gattineni, Pradeep, Dharan, G.R Sakthi.  2021.  Intrusion Detection Mechanisms: SVM, random forest, and extreme learning machine (ELM). 2021 Third International Conference on Inventive Research in Computing Applications (ICIRCA). :273–276.
Intrusion detection method cautions and through build recognition rate. Through determine worries forth execution support vector machine (SVM), multilayer perceptron and different procedures have endured utilized trig ongoing work. Such strategies show impediments & persist not effective considering use trig enormous informational indexes, considering example, outline & system information. Interruption recognition outline utilized trig examining colossal traffic information; consequently, a proficient grouping strategy important through beat issue. Aforementioned issue considered trig aforementioned paper. Notable AI methods, specifically, SVM, arbitrary backwoods, & extreme learning machine (ELM) persist applied. These procedures persist notable trig view epithetical their capacity trig characterization. NSL-information revelation & knowledge mining informational collection components. Outcomes demonstrate a certain ELM beats different methodologies.
Ramadhan, Hani, Kwon, Joonho.  2021.  Enhancing Learned Index for A Higher Recall Trajectory K-Nearest Neighbor Search. 2021 IEEE International Conference on Big Data (Big Data). :6006—6007.
Learned indices can significantly shorten the query response time of k-Nearest Neighbor search of points data. However, extending the learned index for k-Nearest Neighbor search of trajectory data may return incorrect results (low recall) and require longer pruning time. Thus, we introduce an enhancement for trajectory learned index which is a pruning step for a learned index to retrieve the k-Nearest Neighbors correctly by learning the query workload. The pruning utilizes a predicted range query that covers the correct neighbors. We show that that our approach has the potential to work effectively in a large real-world trajectory dataset.