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Yang, S., Liu, S., Huang, J., Su, H., Wang, H..  2020.  Control Conflict Suppressing and Stability Improving for an MMC Distributed Control System. IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics. 35:13735–13747.
Compared with traditional centralized control strategies, the distributed control systems significantly improve the flexibility and expandability of an modular multilevel converter (MMC). However, the stability issue in the MMC distributed control system with the presence of control loop coupling interactions is rarely discussed in existing research works. This article is to improve the stability of an MMC distributed control system by inhibiting the control conflict due to the coupling interactions among control loops with incomplete control information. By modeling the MMC distributed control system, the control loop coupling interactions are analyzed and the essential cause of control conflict is revealed. Accordingly, a control parameter design principle is proposed to effectively suppress the disturbances from the targeted control conflict and improve the MMC system stability. The rationality of the theoretical analysis and the effectiveness of the control parameter design principle are confirmed by simulation and experimental results.
Rudolph, Hendryk, Lan, Tian, Strehl, Konrad, He, Qinwei, Lan, Yuanliang.  2019.  Simulating the Efficiency of Thermoelectrical Generators for Sensor Nodes. 2019 4th IEEE Workshop on the Electronic Grid (eGRID). :1—6.

In order to be more environmentally friendly, a lot of parts and aspects of life become electrified to reduce the usage of fossil fuels. This can be seen in the increased number of electrical vehicles in everyday life. This of course only makes a positive impact on the environment, if the electricity is produced environmentally friendly and comes from renewable sources. But when the green electrical power is produced, it still needs to be transported to where it's needed, which is not necessarily near the production site. In China, one of the ways to do this transport is to use High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) technology. This of course means, that the current has to be converted to DC before being transported to the end user. That implies that the converter stations are of great importance for the grid security. Therefore, a precise monitoring of the stations is necessary. Ideally, this could be accomplished with wireless sensor nodes with an autarkic energy supply. A role in this energy supply could be played by a thermoelectrical generator (TEG). But to assess the power generated in the specific environment, a simulation would be highly desirable, to evaluate the power gained from the temperature difference in the converter station. This paper proposes a method to simulate the generated power by combining a model for the generator with a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model converter.

Richter, Michael, Mehlmann, Gert, Luther, Matthias.  2019.  Grid Code Compliant Modeling and Control of Modular Multilevel Converters during Unbalanced Faults. 2019 54th International Universities Power Engineering Conference (UPEC). :1–6.

This paper presents necessary modeling and control enhancements for Modular Multilevel Converters (MMC) to provide Fault-Ride-Through capability and fast fault current injection as required by the new German Technical Connection Rules for HVDC. HVDC converters have to be able to detect and control the grid voltage and grid currents accurately during all fault conditions. That applies to the positive as well as negative sequence components, hence a Decoupled Double Synchronous Reference Frame - Phase-Locked-Loop (DDSRF-PLL) and Current Control (DDSRF-CC) are implemented. In addition, an enhanced current limitation and an extension of the horizontal balancing control are proposed to complement the control structure for safe operation.

Wang, C., Lizana, F. R., Li, Z., Peterchev, A. V., Goetz, S. M..  2017.  Submodule short-circuit fault diagnosis based on wavelet transform and support vector machines for modular multilevel converter with series and parallel connectivity. IECON 2017 - 43rd Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society. :3239–3244.

The modular multilevel converter with series and parallel connectivity was shown to provide advantages in several industrial applications. Its reliability largely depends on the absence of failures in the power semiconductors. We propose and analyze a fault-diagnosis technique to identify shorted switches based on features generated through wavelet transform of the converter output and subsequent classification in support vector machines. The multi-class support vector machine is trained with multiple recordings of the output of each fault condition as well as the converter under normal operation. Simulation results reveal that the proposed method has high classification latency and high robustness. Except for the monitoring of the output, which is required for the converter control in any case, this method does not require additional module sensors.