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2021-07-08
Alamsyah, Zaenal, Mantoro, Teddy, Adityawarman, Umar, Ayu, Media Anugerah.  2020.  Combination RSA with One Time Pad for Enhanced Scheme of Two-Factor Authentication. 2020 6th International Conference on Computing Engineering and Design (ICCED). :1—5.
RSA is a popular asymmetric key algorithm with two keys scheme, a public key for encryption and private key for decryption. RSA has weaknesses in encryption and decryption of data, including slow in the process of encryption and decryption because it uses a lot of number generation. The reason is RSA algorithm can work well and is resistant to attacks such as brute force and statistical attacks. in this paper, it aims to strengthen the scheme by combining RSA with the One Time Pad algorithm so that it will bring up a new design to be used to enhance security on two-factor authentication. Contribution in this paper is to find a new scheme algorithm for an enhanced scheme of RSA. One Time Pad and RSA can combine as well.
2021-07-07
G H, Samyama Gunjal, Swamy, Samarth C.  2020.  A Security Approach to Build a Trustworthy Ubiquitous Learning System. 2020 IEEE Bangalore Humanitarian Technology Conference (B-HTC). :1–6.
Modern learning systems, say a tutoring platform, has many characteristics like digital data presentation with interactivity, mobility, which provides information about the study-content as per the learners understanding levels, intelligent learners behavior, etc. A sophisticated ubiquitous learner system maintains security and monitors the mischievous behavior of the learner, and authenticates and authorizes every learner, which is quintessential. Some of the existing security schemes aim only at single entry-point authentication, which may not suit to ubiquitous tutor platform. We propose a secured authentication scheme which is based on the information utility of the learner. Whenever a learner moves into a tutor platform, which has ubiquitous learner system technology, the system at first-begins with learners' identity authentication, and then it initiates trust evaluation after the successful authentication of the learner. Periodic credential verification of the learner will be carried out, which intensifies the authentication scheme of the system proposed. BAN logic has been used to prove the authentication in this system. The proposed authentication scheme has been simulated and analyzed for the indoor tutor platform environment.
2021-06-30
Sikarwar, Himani, Nahar, Ankur, Das, Debasis.  2020.  LABVS: Lightweight Authentication and Batch Verification Scheme for Universal Internet of Vehicles (UIoV). 2020 IEEE 91st Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC2020-Spring). :1—6.
With the rapid technological advancement of the universal internet of vehicles (UIoV), it becomes crucial to ensure safe and secure communication over the network, in an effort to achieve the implementation objective of UIoV effectively. A UIoV is characterized by highly dynamic topology, scalability, and thus vulnerable to various types of security and privacy attacks (i.e., replay attack, impersonation attack, man-in-middle attack, non-repudiation, and modification). Since the components of UIoV are constrained by numerous factors (e.g., low memory devices, low power), which makes UIoV highly susceptible. Therefore, existing schemes to address the privacy and security facets of UIoV exhibit an enormous scope of improvement in terms of time complexity and efficiency. This paper presents a lightweight authentication and batch verification scheme (LABVS) for UIoV using a bilinear map and cryptographic operations (i.e., one-way hash function, concatenation, XOR) to minimize the rate of message loss occurred due to delay in response time as in single message verification scheme. Subsequently, the scheme results in a high level of security and privacy. Moreover, the performance analysis substantiates that LABVS minimizes the computational delay and has better performance in the delay-sensitive network in terms of security and privacy as compared to the existing schemes.
Sikarwar, Himani, Das, Debasis.  2020.  An Efficient Lightweight Authentication and Batch Verification Scheme for Universal Internet of Vehicles (UIoV). 2020 International Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing (IWCMC). :1266—1271.
Ensuring secure transmission over the communication channel is a fundamental responsibility to achieve the implementation objective of universal internet of vehicles (UIoV) efficiently. Characteristics like highly dynamic topology and scalability of UIoV makes it more vulnerable to different types of privacy and security attacks. Considerable scope of improvement in terms of time complexity and performance can be observed within the existing schemes that address the privacy and security aspects of UIoV. In this paper, we present an improvised authentication and lightweight batch verification method for security and privacy in UIoV. The suggested method reduces the message loss rate, which occurred due to the response time delay by implementing some low-cost cryptographic operations like one-way hash function, concatenation, XOR, and bilinear map. Furthermore, the performance analysis proves that the proposed method is more reliable that reduces the computational delay and has a better performance in the delay-sensitive network as compared to the existing schemes. The experimental results are obtained by implementing the proposed scheme on a desktop-based configuration as well as Raspberry Pi 4.
Solomon Doss, J. Kingsleen, Kamalakkannan, S..  2020.  IoT System Accomplishment using BlockChain in Validating and Data Security with Cloud. 2020 Fourth International Conference on I-SMAC (IoT in Social, Mobile, Analytics and Cloud) (I-SMAC). :60—64.
In a block channel IoT system, sensitive details can be leaked by means of the proof of work or address check, as data or application Validation data is applied on the blockchain. In this, the zero-knowledge evidence is applied to a smart metering system to show how to improve the anonymity of the blockchain for privacy safety without disclosing information as a public key. Within this article, a blockchain has been implemented to deter security risks such as data counterfeiting by utilizing intelligent meters. Zero-Knowledge Proof, an anonymity blockchain technology, has been implemented through block inquiry to prevent threats to security like personal information infringement. It was suggested that intelligent contracts would be used to avoid falsification of intelligent meter data and abuse of personal details.
2021-05-25
Susilo, Willy, Duong, Dung Hoang, Le, Huy Quoc.  2020.  Efficient Post-quantum Identity-based Encryption with Equality Test. 2020 IEEE 26th International Conference on Parallel and Distributed Systems (ICPADS). :633—640.
Public key encryption with equality test (PKEET) enables the testing whether two ciphertexts encrypt the same message. Identity-based encryption with equality test (IBEET) simplify the certificate management of PKEET, which leads to many potential applications such as in smart city applications or Wireless Body Area Networks. Lee et al. (ePrint 2016) proposed a generic construction of IBEET scheme in the standard model utilising a 3-level hierachy IBE together with a one-time signature scheme, which can be instantiated in lattice setting. Duong et al. (ProvSec 2019) proposed the first direct construction of IBEET in standard model from lattices. However, their scheme achieve CPA security only. In this paper, we improve the Duong et al.'s construction by proposing an IBEET in standard model which achieves CCA2 security and with smaller ciphertext and public key size.
Ahmedova, Oydin, Mardiyev, Ulugbek, Tursunov, Otabek.  2020.  Generation and Distribution Secret Encryption Keys with Parameter. 2020 International Conference on Information Science and Communications Technologies (ICISCT). :1—4.
This article describes a new way to generate and distribute secret encryption keys, in which the processes of generating a public key and formicating a secret encryption key are performed in algebra with a parameter, the secrecy of which provides increased durability of the key.
2021-05-20
Dua, Amit, Barpanda, Siddharth Sekhar, Kumar, Neeraj, Tanwar, Sudeep.  2020.  Trustful: A Decentralized Public Key Infrastructure and Identity Management System. 2020 IEEE Globecom Workshops GC Wkshps. :1—6.

Modern Internet TCP uses Secure Sockets Layers (SSL)/Transport Layer Security (TLS) for secure communication, which relies on Public Key Infrastructure (PKIs) to authenticate public keys. Conventional PKI is done by Certification Authorities (CAs), issuing and storing Digital Certificates, which are public keys of users with the users identity. This leads to centralization of authority with the CAs and the storage of CAs being vulnerable and imposes a security concern. There have been instances in the past where CAs have issued rogue certificates or the CAs have been hacked to issue malicious certificates. Motivated from these facts, in this paper, we propose a method (named as Trustful), which aims to build a decentralized PKI using blockchain. Blockchains provide immutable storage in a decentralized manner and allows us to write smart contracts. Ethereum blockchain can be used to build a web of trust model where users can publish attributes, validate attributes about other users by signing them and creating a trust store of users that they trust. Trustful works on the Web-of-Trust (WoT) model and allows for any entity on the network to verify attributes about any other entity through a trusted network. This provides an alternative to the conventional CA-based identity verification model. The proposed model has been implemented and tested for efficacy and known major security attacks.

2021-05-13
Yu, Chen, Chen, Liquan, Lu, Tianyu.  2020.  A Direct Anonymous Attestation Scheme Based on Mimic Defense Mechanism. 2020 International Conference on Internet of Things and Intelligent Applications (ITIA). :1—5.

Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communication is a essential subset of the Internet of Things (IoT). Secure access to communication network systems by M2M devices requires the support of a secure and efficient anonymous authentication protocol. The Direct Anonymous Attestation (DAA) scheme in Trustworthy Computing is a verified security protocol. However, the existing defense system uses a static architecture. The “mimic defense” strategy is characterized by active defense, which is not effective against continuous detection and attack by the attacker. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a Mimic-DAA scheme that incorporates mimic defense to establish an active defense scheme. Multiple heterogeneous and redundant actuators are used to form a DAA verifier and optimization is scheduled so that the behavior of the DAA verifier unpredictable by analysis. The Mimic-DAA proposed in this paper is capable of forming a security mechanism for active defense. The Mimic-DAA scheme effectively safeguard the unpredictability, anonymity, security and system-wide security of M2M communication networks. In comparison with existing DAA schemes, the scheme proposed in this paper improves the safety while maintaining the computational complexity.

Feng, Liu, Jie, Yang, Deli, Kong, Jiayin, Qi.  2020.  A Secure Multi-party Computation Protocol Combines Pederson Commitment with Schnorr Signature for Blockchain. 2020 IEEE 20th International Conference on Communication Technology (ICCT). :57—63.

Blockchain is being pursued by a growing number of people with its characteristics of openness, transparency, and decentralization. At the same time, how to secure privacy protection in such an open and transparent ledger is an urgent issue to be solved for deep study. Therefore, this paper proposes a protocol based on Secure multi-party computation, which can merge and sign different transaction messages under the anonymous condition by using Pedersen commitment and Schnorr Signature. Through the rationality proof and security analysis, this paper demonstrates the private transaction is safe under the semi-honest model. And its computational cost is less than the equivalent multi-signature model. The research has made some innovative contributions to the privacy computing theory.

Xia, Yusheng, Chen, Rongmao, Su, Jinshu, Pan, Chen, Su, Han.  2020.  Hybrid Routing: Towards Resilient Routing in Anonymous Communication Networks. ICC 2020 - 2020 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC). :1—7.

Anonymous communication networks (ACNs) are intended to protect the metadata during communication. As classic ACNs, onion mix-nets are famous for strong anonymity, in which the source defines a static path and wraps the message multi-times with the public keys of nodes on the path, through which the message is relayed to the destination. However, onion mix-nets lacks in resilience when the static on-path mixes fail. Mix failure easily results in message loss, communication failure, and even specific attacks. Therefore, it is desirable to achieve resilient routing in onion mix-nets, providing persistent routing capability even though node failure. The state-of-theart solutions mainly adopt mix groups and thus need to share secret keys among all the group members which may cause single point of failure. To address this problem, in this work we propose a hybrid routing approach, which embeds the onion mix-net with hop-by-hop routing to increase routing resilience. Furthermore, we propose the threshold hybrid routing to achieve better key management and avoid single point of failure. As for experimental evaluations, we conduct quantitative analysis of the resilience and realize a local T-hybrid routing prototype to test performance. The experimental results show that our proposed routing strategy increases routing resilience effectively, at the expense of acceptable latency.

2021-05-03
Wu, Shanglun, Yuan, Yujie, Kar, Pushpendu.  2020.  Lightweight Verification and Fine-grained Access Control in Named Data Networking Based on Schnorr Signature and Hash Functions. 2020 IEEE 20th International Conference on Communication Technology (ICCT). :1561–1566.
Named Data Networking (NDN) is a new kind of architecture for future Internet, which is exactly satisfied with the rapidly increasing mobile requirement and information-depended applications that dominate today's Internet. However, the current verification-data accessed system is not safe enough to prevent data leakage because no strongly method to resist any device or user to access it. We bring up a lightweight verification based on hash functions and a fine-grained access control based on Schnorr Signature to address the issue seamlessly. The proposed scheme is scalable and protect data confidentiality in a NDN network.
2021-04-27
Syafalni, I., Fadhli, H., Utami, W., Dharma, G. S. A., Mulyawan, R., Sutisna, N., Adiono, T..  2020.  Cloud Security Implementation using Homomorphic Encryption. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Communication, Networks and Satellite (Comnetsat). :341—345.

With the advancement of computing and communication technologies, data transmission in the internet are getting bigger and faster. However, it is necessary to secure the data to prevent fraud and criminal over the internet. Furthermore, most of the data related to statistics requires to be analyzed securely such as weather data, health data, financial and other services. This paper presents an implementation of cloud security using homomorphic encryption for data analytic in the cloud. We apply the homomorphic encryption that allows the data to be processed without being decrypted. Experimental results show that, for the polynomial degree 26, 28, and 210, the total executions are 2.2 ms, 4.4 ms, 25 ms per data, respectively. The implementation is useful for big data security such as for environment, financial and hospital data analytics.

Beckwith, E., Thamilarasu, G..  2020.  BA-TLS: Blockchain Authentication for Transport Layer Security in Internet of Things. 2020 7th International Conference on Internet of Things: Systems, Management and Security (IOTSMS). :1—8.

Traditional security solutions that rely on public key infrastructure present scalability and transparency challenges when deployed in Internet of Things (IoT). In this paper, we develop a blockchain based authentication mechanism for IoT that can be integrated into the traditional transport layer security protocols such as Transport Layer Security (TLS) and Datagram Transport Layer Security (DTLS). Our proposed mechanism is an alternative to the traditional Certificate Authority (CA)-based Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) that relies on x.509 certificates. Specifically, the proposed solution enables the modified TLS/DTLS a viable option for resource constrained IoT devices where minimizing memory utilization is critical. Experiments show that blockchain based authentication can reduce dynamic memory usage by up to 20%, while only minimally increasing application image size and time of execution of the TLS/DTLS handshake.

Noh, S., Rhee, K.-H..  2020.  Implicit Authentication in Neural Key Exchange Based on the Randomization of the Public Blockchain. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Blockchain (Blockchain). :545—549.

A neural key exchange is a secret key exchange technique based on neural synchronization of the neural network. Since the neural key exchange is based on synchronizing weights within the neural network structure, the security of the algorithm does not depend on the attacker's computational capabilities. However, due to the neural key exchange's repetitive mutual-learning processes, using explicit user authentication methods -such as a public key certificate- is inefficient due to high communication overhead. Implicit authentication based on information that only authorized users know can significantly reduce overhead in communications. However, there was a lack of realistic methods to distribute secret information for authentication among authorized users. In this paper, we propose the concept idea of distributing shared secret values for implicit authentication based on the randomness of the public blockchain. Moreover, we present a method to prevent the unintentional disclosure of shared secret values to third parties in the network due to the transparency of the blockchain.

Song, X., Dong, C., Yuan, D., Xu, Q., Zhao, M..  2020.  Forward Private Searchable Symmetric Encryption with Optimized I/O Efficiency. IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing. 17:912–927.
Recently, several practical attacks raised serious concerns over the security of searchable encryption. The attacks have brought emphasis on forward privacy, which is the key concept behind solutions to the adaptive leakage-exploiting attacks, and will very likely to become a must-have property of all new searchable encryption schemes. For a long time, forward privacy implies inefficiency and thus most existing searchable encryption schemes do not support it. Very recently, Bost (CCS 2016) showed that forward privacy can be obtained without inducing a large communication overhead. However, Bost's scheme is constructed with a relatively inefficient public key cryptographic primitive, and has poor I/O performance. Both of the deficiencies significantly hinder the practical efficiency of the scheme, and prevent it from scaling to large data settings. To address the problems, we first present FAST, which achieves forward privacy and the same communication efficiency as Bost's scheme, but uses only symmetric cryptographic primitives. We then present FASTIO, which retains all good properties of FAST, and further improves I/O efficiency. We implemented the two schemes and compared their performance with Bost's scheme. The experiment results show that both our schemes are highly efficient.
Chen, B., Wu, L., Li, L., Choo, K. R., He, D..  2020.  A Parallel and Forward Private Searchable Public-Key Encryption for Cloud-Based Data Sharing. IEEE Access. 8:28009–28020.
Data sharing through the cloud is flourishing with the development of cloud computing technology. The new wave of technology will also give rise to new security challenges, particularly the data confidentiality in cloud-based sharing applications. Searchable encryption is considered as one of the most promising solutions for balancing data confidentiality and usability. However, most existing searchable encryption schemes cannot simultaneously satisfy requirements for both high search efficiency and strong security due to lack of some must-have properties, such as parallel search and forward security. To address this problem, we propose a variant searchable encryption with parallelism and forward privacy, namely the parallel and forward private searchable public-key encryption (PFP-SPE). PFP-SPE scheme achieves both the parallelism and forward privacy at the expense of slightly higher storage costs. PFP-SPE has similar search efficiency with that of some searchable symmetric encryption schemes but no key distribution problem. The security analysis and the performance evaluation on a real-world dataset demonstrate that the proposed scheme is suitable for practical application.
Chen, B., Wu, L., Wang, H., Zhou, L., He, D..  2020.  A Blockchain-Based Searchable Public-Key Encryption With Forward and Backward Privacy for Cloud-Assisted Vehicular Social Networks. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology. 69:5813–5825.
As the integration of the Internet of Vehicles and social networks, vehicular social networks (VSN) not only improves the efficiency and reliability of vehicular communication environment, but also provide more comprehensive social services for users. However, with the emergence of advanced communication and computing technologies, more and more data can be fast and conveniently collected from heterogeneous devices, and VSN has to meet new security challenges such as data security and privacy protection. Searchable encryption (SE) as a promising cryptographic primitive is devoted to data confidentiality without sacrificing data searchability. However, most existing schemes are vulnerable to the adaptive leakage-exploiting attacks or can not meet the efficiency requirements of practical applications, especially the searchable public-key encryption schemes (SPE). To achieve secure and efficient keyword search in VSN, we design a new blockchain-based searchable public-key encryption scheme with forward and backward privacy (BSPEFB). BSPEFB is a decentralized searchable public-key encryption scheme since the central search cloud server is replaced by the smart contract. Meanwhile, BSPEFB supports forward and backward privacy to achieve privacy protection. Finally, we implement a prototype of our basic construction and demonstrate the practicability of the proposed scheme in applications.
Cao, L., Kang, Y., Wu, Q., Wu, R., Guo, X., Feng, T..  2020.  Searchable encryption cloud storage with dynamic data update to support efficient policy hiding. China Communications. 17:153–163.
Ciphertext policy attribute based encryption (CP-ABE) can provide high finegrained access control for cloud storage. However, it needs to solve problems such as property privacy protection, ciphertext search and data update in the application process. Therefore, based on CP-ABE scheme, this paper proposes a dynamically updatable searchable encryption cloud storage (DUSECS) scheme. Using the characteristics of homomorphic encryption, the encrypted data is compared to achieve efficient hiding policy. Meanwhile, adopting linked list structure, the DUSECS scheme realizes the dynamic data update and integrity detection, and the search encryption against keyword guessing attacks is achieved by combining homomorphic encryption with aggregation algorithm. The analysis of security and performance shows that the scheme is secure and efficient.
2021-03-29
Dorri, A., Jurdak, R..  2020.  Tree-Chain: A Fast Lightweight Consensus Algorithm for IoT Applications. 2020 IEEE 45th Conference on Local Computer Networks (LCN). :369–372.
Blockchain has received tremendous attention in non-monetary applications including the Internet of Things (IoT) due to its salient features including decentralization, security, auditability, and anonymity. Most conventional blockchains rely on computationally expensive validator selection and consensus algorithms, have limited throughput, and high transaction delays. In this paper, we propose tree-chain a scalable fast blockchain instantiation that introduces two levels of randomization among the validators: i) transaction level where the validator of each transaction is selected randomly based on the most significant characters of the hash function output (known as consensus code), and ii) blockchain level where validator is randomly allocated to a particular consensus code based on the hash of their public key. Tree-chain introduces parallel chain branches where each validator commits the corresponding transactions in a unique ledger.
2021-03-22
Fan, X., Zhang, F., Turamat, E., Tong, C., Wu, J. H., Wang, K..  2020.  Provenance-based Classification Policy based on Encrypted Search. 2020 2nd International Conference on Industrial Artificial Intelligence (IAI). :1–6.
As an important type of cloud data, digital provenance is arousing increasing attention on improving system performance. Currently, provenance has been employed to provide cues regarding access control and to estimate data quality. However, provenance itself might also be sensitive information. Therefore, provenance might be encrypted and stored in the Cloud. In this paper, we provide a mechanism to classify cloud documents by searching specific keywords from their encrypted provenance, and we prove our scheme achieves semantic security. In term of application of the proposed techniques, considering that files are classified to store separately in the cloud, in order to facilitate the regulation and security protection for the files, the classification policies can use provenance as conditions to determine the category of a document. Such as the easiest sample policy goes like: the documents have been reviewed twice can be classified as “public accessible”, which can be accessed by the public.
Singh, P., Saroj, S. K..  2020.  A Secure Data Dynamics and Public Auditing Scheme for Cloud Storage. 2020 6th International Conference on Advanced Computing and Communication Systems (ICACCS). :695–700.
Cloud computing is an evolving technology that provides data storage and highly fast computing services at a very low cost. All data stored in the cloud is handled by their cloud service providers or the caretaker of the cloud. The data owner is concerned about the authenticity and reliability of the data stored in the cloud as the data owners. Data can be misappropriated or altered by any unauthorized user or person. This paper desire to suggest a secure public auditing scheme applying third party auditors to authenticate the privacy, reliability, and integrity of data stored in the cloud. This proposed auditing scheme composes the use of the AES-256 algorithm for encryption, SHA-512 for integrity check and RSA-15360 for public-key encryption. And perform data dynamics operation which deals with mostly insertion, deletion, and, modification.
2021-03-17
Bajpai, P., Enbody, R..  2020.  Attacking Key Management in Ransomware. IT Professional. 22:21—27.

Ransomware have observed a steady growth over the years with several concerning trends that indicate efficient, targeted attacks against organizations and individuals alike. These opportunistic attackers indiscriminately target both public and private sector entities to maximize gain. In this article, we highlight the criticality of key management in ransomware's cryptosystem in order to facilitate building effective solutions against this threat. We introduce the ransomware kill chain to elucidate the path our adversaries must take to attain their malicious objective. We examine current solutions presented against ransomware in light of this kill chain and specify which constraints on ransomware are being violated by the existing solutions. Finally, we present the notion of memory attacks against ransomware's key management and present our initial experiments with dynamically extracting decryption keys from real-world ransomware. Results of our preliminary research are promising and the extracted keys were successfully deployed in subsequent data decryption.

2021-03-09
Ahmed, H. M., Jassim, R. W..  2020.  Distributed Transform Encoder to Improve Diffie-Hellman Protocol for Big Message Security. 2020 3rd International Conference on Engineering Technology and its Applications (IICETA). :84—88.

Man in the middle Attack (MIMA) problem of Diffie-Hellman key exchange (D-H) protocol, has led to introduce the Hash Diffie-Hellman key exchange (H-D-H) protocol. Which was cracked by applying the brute force attack (BFA) results of hash function. For this paper, a system will be suggested that focusses on an improved key exchange (D-H) protocol, and distributed transform encoder (DTE). That system utilized for enhanced (D-H) protocol algorithm when (D-H) is applied for generating the keys used for encrypting data of long messages. Hash256, with two secret keys and one public key are used for D-H protocol improvements. Finally, DTE where applied, this cryptosystem led to increase the efficiency of data transfer security with strengthening the shared secret key code. Also, it has removed the important problems such as MITM and BFA, as compared to the previous work.

2021-03-04
Wang, L..  2020.  Trusted Connect Technology of Bioinformatics Authentication Cloud Platform Based on Point Set Topology Transformation Theory. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Power, Intelligent Computing and Systems (ICPICS). :151—154.
The bioinformatics features are collected by pattern recognition technology, and the digital coding and format conversion of the feature data are realized by using the theory of topological group transformation. Authentication and Signature based on Zero Knowledge Proof Technology can be used as the trusted credentials of cloud platform and cannot be forged, thus realizing trusted and secure access.