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Zhu, S., Chen, H., Xi, W., Chen, M., Fan, L., Feng, D..  2019.  A Worst-Case Entropy Estimation of Oscillator-Based Entropy Sources: When the Adversaries Have Access to the History Outputs. 2019 18th IEEE International Conference On Trust, Security And Privacy In Computing And Communications/13th IEEE International Conference On Big Data Science And Engineering (TrustCom/BigDataSE). :152—159.
Entropy sources are designed to provide unpredictable random numbers for cryptographic systems. As an assessment of the sources, Shannon entropy is usually adopted to quantitatively measure the unpredictability of the outputs. In several related works about the entropy evaluation of ring oscillator-based (RO-based) entropy sources, authors evaluated the unpredictability with the average conditional Shannon entropy (ACE) of the source, moreover provided a lower bound of the ACE (LBoACE). However, in this paper, we have demonstrated that when the adversaries have access to the history outputs of the entropy source, for example, by some intrusive attacks, the LBoACE may overestimate the actual unpredictability of the next output for the adversaries. In this situation, we suggest to adopt the specific conditional Shannon entropy (SCE) which exactly measures the unpredictability of the future output with the knowledge of previous output sequences and so is more consistent with the reality than the ACE. In particular, to be conservative, we propose to take the lower bound of the SCE (LBoSCE) as an estimation of the worst-case entropy of the sources. We put forward a detailed method to estimate this worst-case entropy of RO-based entropy sources, which we have also verified by experiment on an FPGA device. We recommend to adopt this method to provide a conservative assessment of the unpredictability when the entropy source works in a vulnerable environment and the adversaries might obtain the previous outputs.
Erbay, C., Ergïn, S..  2018.  Random Number Generator Based on Hydrogen Gas Sensor for Security Applications. 2018 IEEE 61st International Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems (MWSCAS). :709–712.
Cryptographic applications need high-quality random number generator (RNG) for strong security and privacy measures. This paper presents RNG based on a hydrogen gas sensor that is fabricated by using microfabrication techniques. The proposed approach extracts the thermal noise information as an entropy source from the gas sensor that is non-deterministic during its operation and using hash function SHA-256 as post processing. This non-deterministic noise is then processed to acquire a random number set fulfilling the NIST 800-22 statistical randomness test suite and it demonstrates that a gas sensor based RNG can provide high-quality random numbers. Secure data transfer is possible by having this method directly without any other hardware where hydrogen gas sensor needs to be used such as petrochemical field, fuel cells, and nuclear reactors.
Li, T., Wu, L., Zhang, X., Wu, X., Zhou, J., Wang, X..  2017.  A novel transition effect ring oscillator based true random number generator for a security SoC. 2017 International Conference on Electron Devices and Solid-State Circuits (EDSSC). :1–2.

The transition effect ring oscillator (TERO) based true random number generator (TRNG) was proposed by Varchola and Drutarovsky in 2010. There were several stochastic models for this advanced TRNG based on ring oscillator. This paper proposed an improved TERO based TRNG and implements both on Altera Cyclone series FPGA platform and on a 0.13um CMOS ASIC process. FPGA experimental results show that this balanced TERO TRNG is in good performance as the experimental data results past the national institute of standards and technology (NIST) test in 1M bit/s. The TRNG is feasible for a security SoC.