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Danilchenko, Victor, Theobald, Matthew, Cohen, Daniel.  2019.  Bootstrapping Security Configuration for IoT Devices on Networks with TLS Inspection. 2019 IEEE Globecom Workshops (GC Wkshps). :1—7.

In the modern security-conscious world, Deep Packet Inspection (DPI) proxies are increasingly often used on industrial and enterprise networks to perform TLS unwrapping on all outbound connections. However, enabling TLS unwrapping requires local devices to have the DPI proxy Certificate Authority certificates installed. While for conventional computing devices this is addressed via enterprise management, it's a difficult problem for Internet of Things ("IoT") devices which are generally not under enterprise management, and may not even be capable of it due to their resource-constrained nature. Thus, for typical IoT devices, being installed on a network with DPI requires either manual device configuration or custom DPI proxy configuration, both of which solutions have significant shortcomings. This poses a serious challenge to the deployment of IoT devices on DPI-enabled intranets. The authors propose a solution to this problem: a method of installing on IoT devices the CA certificates for DPI proxy CAs, as well as other security configuration ("security bootstrapping"). The proposed solution respects the DPI policies, while allowing the commissioning of IoT and IIoT devices without the need for additional manual configuration either at device scope or at network scope. This is accomplished by performing the bootstrap operation over unsecured connection, and downloading certificates using TLS validation at application level. The resulting solution is light-weight and secure, yet does not require validation of the DPI proxy's CA certificates in order to perform the security bootstrapping, thus avoiding the chicken-and-egg problem inherent in using TLS on DPI-enabled intranets.

Hossain, M., Hasan, R..  2017.  Boot-IoT: A Privacy-Aware Authentication Scheme for Secure Bootstrapping of IoT Nodes. 2017 IEEE International Congress on Internet of Things (ICIOT). :1–8.

The Internet of Things (IoT) devices perform security-critical operations and deal with sensitive information in the IoT-based systems. Therefore, the increased deployment of smart devices will make them targets for cyber attacks. Adversaries can perform malicious actions, leak private information, and track devices' and their owners' location by gaining unauthorized access to IoT devices and networks. However, conventional security protocols are not primarily designed for resource constrained devices and therefore cannot be applied directly to IoT systems. In this paper, we propose Boot-IoT - a privacy-preserving, lightweight, and scalable security scheme for limited resource devices. Boot-IoT prevents a malicious device from joining an IoT network. Boot-IoT enables a device to compute a unique identity for authentication each time the device enters a network. Moreover, during device to device communication, Boot-IoT provides a lightweight mutual authentication scheme that ensures privacy-preserving identity usages. We present a detailed analysis of the security strength of BootIoT. We implemented a prototype of Boot-IoT on IoT devices powered by Contiki OS and provided an extensive comparative analysis of Boot-IoT with contemporary authentication methods. Our results show that Boot-IoT is resource efficient and provides better scalability compared to current solutions.

Sen, S., Guha, S., Datta, A., Rajamani, S.K., Tsai, J., Wing, J.M..  2014.  Bootstrapping Privacy Compliance in Big Data Systems. Security and Privacy (SP), 2014 IEEE Symposium on. :327-342.

With the rapid increase in cloud services collecting and using user data to offer personalized experiences, ensuring that these services comply with their privacy policies has become a business imperative for building user trust. However, most compliance efforts in industry today rely on manual review processes and audits designed to safeguard user data, and therefore are resource intensive and lack coverage. In this paper, we present our experience building and operating a system to automate privacy policy compliance checking in Bing. Central to the design of the system are (a) Legal ease-a language that allows specification of privacy policies that impose restrictions on how user data is handled, and (b) Grok-a data inventory for Map-Reduce-like big data systems that tracks how user data flows among programs. Grok maps code-level schema elements to data types in Legal ease, in essence, annotating existing programs with information flow types with minimal human input. Compliance checking is thus reduced to information flow analysis of Big Data systems. The system, bootstrapped by a small team, checks compliance daily of millions of lines of ever-changing source code written by several thousand developers.