Visible to the public Biblio

Filters: Keyword is Design  [Clear All Filters]
2021-08-02
Navas, Renzo E., Sandaker, Håkon, Cuppens, Frédéric, Cuppens, Nora, Toutain, Laurent, Papadopoulos, Georgios Z..  2020.  IANVS: A Moving Target Defense Framework for a Resilient Internet of Things. 2020 IEEE Symposium on Computers and Communications (ISCC). :1—6.
The Internet of Things (IoT) is more and more present in fundamental aspects of our societies and personal life. Billions of objects now have access to the Internet. This networking capability allows for new beneficial services and applications. However, it is also the entry-point for a wide variety of cyber-attacks that target these devices. The security measures present in real IoT systems lag behind those of the standard Internet. Security is sometimes completely absent. Moving Target Defense (MTD) is a 10-year-old cyber-defense paradigm. It proposes to randomize components of a system. Reasonably, an attacker will have a higher cost attacking an MTD-version of a system compared with a static-version of it. Even if MTD has been successfully applied to standard systems, its deployment for IoT is still lacking. In this paper, we propose a generic MTD framework suitable for IoT systems: IANVS (pronounced Janus). Our framework has a modular design. Its components can be adapted according to the specific constraints and requirements of a particular IoT system. We use it to instantiate two concrete MTD strategies. One that targets the UDP port numbers (port-hopping), and another a CoAP resource URI. We implement our proposal on real hardware using Pycom LoPy4 nodes. We expose the nodes to a remote Denial-of-Service attack and evaluate the effectiveness of the IANVS-based port-hopping MTD proposal.
2021-02-03
Velaora, M., Roy, R. van, Guéna, F..  2020.  ARtect, an augmented reality educational prototype for architectural design. 2020 Fourth World Conference on Smart Trends in Systems, Security and Sustainability (WorldS4). :110—115.

ARtect is an Augmented Reality application developed with Unity 3D, which envisions an educational interactive and immersive tool for architects, designers, researchers, and artists. This digital instrument renders the competency to visualize custom-made 3D models and 2D graphics in interior and exterior environments. The user-friendly interface offers an accurate insight before the materialization of any architectural project, enabling evaluation of the design proposal. This practice could be integrated into learning architectural design process, saving resources of printed drawings, and 3D carton models during several stages of spatial conception.

2020-11-20
Wang, X., Herwono, I., Cerbo, F. D., Kearney, P., Shackleton, M..  2018.  Enabling Cyber Security Data Sharing for Large-scale Enterprises Using Managed Security Services. 2018 IEEE Conference on Communications and Network Security (CNS). :1—7.
Large enterprises and organizations from both private and public sectors typically outsource a platform solution, as part of the Managed Security Services (MSSs), from 3rd party providers (MSSPs) to monitor and analyze their data containing cyber security information. Sharing such data among these large entities is believed to improve their effectiveness and efficiency at tackling cybercrimes, via improved analytics and insights. However, MSS platform customers currently are not able or not willing to share data among themselves because of multiple reasons, including privacy and confidentiality concerns, even when they are using the same MSS platform. Therefore any proposed mechanism or technique to address such a challenge need to ensure that sharing is achieved in a secure and controlled way. In this paper, we propose a new architecture and use case driven designs to enable confidential, flexible and collaborative data sharing among such organizations using the same MSS platform. MSS platform is a complex environment where different stakeholders, including authorized MSSP personnel and customers' own users, have access to the same platform but with different types of rights and tasks. Hence we make every effort to improve the usability of the platform supporting sharing while keeping the existing rights and tasks intact. As an innovative and pioneering attempt to address the challenge of data sharing in the MSS platform, we hope to encourage further work to follow so that confidential and collaborative sharing eventually happens among MSS platform customers.
2020-11-02
Ivanov, I, Maple, C, Watson, T, Lee, S.  2018.  Cyber security standards and issues in V2X communications for Internet of Vehicles. Living in the Internet of Things: Cybersecurity of the IoT – 2018. :1—6.

Significant developments have taken place over the past few years in the area of vehicular communication systems in the ITS environment. It is vital that, in these environments, security is considered in design and implementation since compromised vulnerabilities in one vehicle can be propagated to other vehicles, especially given that V2X communication is through an ad-hoc type network. Recently, many standardisation organisations have been working on creating international standards related to vehicular communication security and the so-called Internet of Vehicles (IoV). This paper presents a discussion of current V2X communications cyber security issues and standardisation approaches being considered by standardisation bodies such as the ISO, the ITU, the IEEE, and the ETSI.

2020-10-05
McDermott, Thomas Allen.  2019.  A Rigorous System Engineering Process for Resilient Cyber-Physical Systems Design. 2019 International Symposium on Systems Engineering (ISSE). :1–8.
System assurance is the justified confidence that a system functions as intended and is free of exploitable vulnerabilities, either intentionally or unintentionally designed or inserted as part of the system at any time during the life cycle. The computation and communication backbone of Internet of Things (IoT) devices and other cyber-physical systems (CPS) makes them vulnerable to classes of threats previously not relevant for many physical control and computational systems. The design of resilient IoT systems encompasses vulnerabilities to adversarial disruption (Security), behavior in an operational environments (Function), and increasing interdependencies (Connectedness). System assurance can be met only through a comprehensive and aggressive systems engineering approach. Engineering methods to "design in" security have been explored in the United States through two separate research programs, one through the Systems Engineering Research Center (SERC) and one through the Defense Advanced Research Process Agency (DARPA). This paper integrates these two programs and discusses how assurance practices can be improved using new system engineering and system design strategies that rely on both functional and formal design methods.
2020-04-03
Pothong, Kruakae, Pschetz, Larissa, Watson, Jeremy, Gbadamosi, James, Asaturyan, Andre.  2019.  Making IoT security policies relevant, inclusive and practical for people: A multi-dimensional method. Living in the Internet of Things (IoT 2019). :1—11.

Growing amounts of research on IoT and its implications for security, privacy, economy and society has been carried out to inform policies and design. However, ordinary people who are citizens and users of these emerging technologies have rarely been involved in the processes that inform these policies, governance mechanisms and design due to the institutionalised processes that prioritise objective knowledge over subjective ones. People's subjective experiences are often discarded. This priority is likely to further widen the gap between people, technology policies and design as technologies advance towards delegated human agencies, which decreases human interfaces in technology-mediated relationships with objects, systems, services, trade and other (often) unknown third-party beneficiaries. Such a disconnection can have serious implications for policy implementation, especially when it involves human limitations. To address this disconnection, we argue that a space for people to meaningfully contribute their subjective knowledge — experience- to complex technology policies that, in turn, shape their experience and well-being needs to be constructed. To this end, our paper contributes the design and pilot implementation of a method to reconnect and involve people in IoT security policymaking and development.

2019-12-30
Wallace, Jayne, Rogers, Jon, Shorter, Michael, Thomas, Pete, Skelly, Martin, Cook, Richard.  2018.  The SelfReflector: Design, IoT and the High Street. Proceedings of the 2018 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. :423:1–423:12.
We describe the design of SelfReflector an internet-connected mirror that uses online facial recognition to estimate your age and play music from when it thinks you were 14 years old. The mirror was created for a specific shop (SPeX PisTOls optical boutique), within a research through design project centered on the high street as a space of vital social, economic and environmental exchange that offers a myriad of psychosocial support for people beyond a place to purchase goods. We present in detail how the design emerged as our research interests developed related to IoT and how people use the high street to experiment with, and support sense of self. We discuss SelfReflector in relation to challenges for IoT, facial recognition and surveillance technologies, mirrorness and the values of a craft approach to designing technology centering on the nature of the bespoke and 'one-off'.
2019-06-17
Sion, Laurens, Yskout, Koen, Van Landuyt, Dimitri, Joosen, Wouter.  2018.  Risk-Based Design Security Analysis. Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Security Awareness from Design to Deployment. :11-18.

Implementing security by design in practice often involves the application of threat modeling to elicit security threats and to aid designers in focusing efforts on the most stringent problems first. Existing threat modeling methodologies are capable of generating lots of threats, yet they lack even basic support to triage these threats, except for relying on the expertise and manual assessment by the threat modeler. Since the essence of creating a secure design is to minimize associated risk (and countermeasure costs), risk analysis approaches offer a very compelling solution to this problem. By combining risk analysis and threat modeling, elicited threats in a design can be enriched with risk analysis information in order to provide support in triaging and prioritizing threats and focusing security efforts on the high-risk threats. It requires the following inputs: the asset values, the strengths of countermeasures, and an attacker model. In his paper, we provide an integrated threat elicitation and risk analysis approach, implemented in a threat modeling tool prototype, and evaluate it using a real-world application, namely the SecureDrop whistleblower submission system. We show that the security measures implemented in SecureDrop indeed correspond to the high-risk threats identified by our approach. Therefore, the risk-based security analysis provides useful guidance on focusing security efforts on the most important problems first.

2019-02-13
Sion, Laurens, Yskout, Koen, Van Landuyt, Dimitri, Joosen, Wouter.  2018.  Knowledge-enriched Security and Privacy Threat Modeling. Proceedings of the 40th International Conference on Software Engineering: Companion Proceeedings. :290–291.
Creating secure and privacy-protecting systems entails the simultaneous coordination of development activities along three different yet mutually influencing dimensions: translating (security and privacy) goals to design choices, analyzing the design for threats, and performing a risk analysis of these threats in light of the goals. These activities are often executed in isolation, and such a disconnect impedes the prioritization of elicited threats, assessment which threats are sufficiently mitigated, and decision-making in terms of which risks can be accepted. In the proposed TMaRA approach, we facilitate the simultaneous consideration of these dimensions by integrating support for threat modeling, risk analysis, and design decisions. Key risk assessment inputs are systematically modeled and threat modeling efforts are fed back into the risk management process. This enables prioritizing threats based on their estimated risk, thereby providing decision support in the mitigation, acceptance, or transferral of risk for the system under design.
2018-01-10
Garcia, R., Modesti, P..  2017.  An IDE for the Design, Verification and Implementation of Security Protocols. 2017 IEEE International Symposium on Software Reliability Engineering Workshops (ISSREW). :157–163.

Security protocols are critical components for the construction of secure and dependable distributed applications, but their implementation is challenging and error prone. Therefore, tools for formal modelling and analysis of security protocols can be potentially very useful to support software engineers. However, despite such tools have been available for a long time, their adoption outside the research community has been very limited. In fact, most practitioners find such applications too complex and hardly usable for their daily work. In this paper, we present an Integrated Development Environment for the design, verification and implementation of security protocols, aimed at lowering the adoption barrier of formal methods tools for security. In the spirit of Model Driven Development, the environment supports the user in the specification of the model using the simple and intuitive language AnB (and its extension AnBx). Moreover, it provides a push-button solution for the formal verification of the abstract and concrete models, and for the automatic generation of Java implementation. This Eclipse-based IDE leverages on existing languages and tools for modelling and verification of security protocols, such as the AnBx Compiler and Code Generator, the model checker OFMC and the protocol verifier ProVerif.

2017-11-13
Venugopalan, V., Patterson, C. D., Shila, D. M..  2016.  Detecting and thwarting hardware trojan attacks in cyber-physical systems. 2016 IEEE Conference on Communications and Network Security (CNS). :421–425.

Cyber-physical system integrity requires both hardware and software security. Many of the cyber attacks are successful as they are designed to selectively target a specific hardware or software component in an embedded system and trigger its failure. Existing security measures also use attack vector models and isolate the malicious component as a counter-measure. Isolated security primitives do not provide the overall trust required in an embedded system. Trust enhancements are proposed to a hardware security platform, where the trust specifications are implemented in both software and hardware. This distribution of trust makes it difficult for a hardware-only or software-only attack to cripple the system. The proposed approach is applied to a smart grid application consisting of third-party soft IP cores, where an attack on this module can result in a blackout. System integrity is preserved in the event of an attack and the anomalous behavior of the IP core is recorded by a supervisory module. The IP core also provides a snapshot of its trust metric, which is logged for further diagnostics.

2017-11-03
Xu, X., Pautasso, C., Zhu, L., Gramoli, V., Ponomarev, A., Tran, A. B., Chen, S..  2016.  The Blockchain as a Software Connector. 2016 13th Working IEEE/IFIP Conference on Software Architecture (WICSA). :182–191.

Blockchain is an emerging technology for decentralized and transactional data sharing across a large network of untrusted participants. It enables new forms of distributed software architectures, where components can find agreements on their shared states without trusting a central integration point or any particular participating components. Considering the blockchain as a software connector helps make explicitly important architectural considerations on the resulting performance and quality attributes (for example, security, privacy, scalability and sustainability) of the system. Based on our experience in several projects using blockchain, in this paper we provide rationales to support the architectural decision on whether to employ a decentralized blockchain as opposed to other software solutions, like traditional shared data storage. Additionally, we explore specific implications of using the blockchain as a software connector including design trade-offs regarding quality attributes.

2017-05-18
Kohn, Josh, Rank, Stefan.  2016.  Evaluating Physical Movement As Trigger for Transitioning Between Environments in Virtual Reality. Proceedings of the 2016 CHI Conference Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems. :1973–1979.

Virtual reality allows users to experience unusual immersive environments. There are still several aspect of design for virtual reality that need more investigation, such as transitioning between environments. Multiple studies have shown that physical movement in a virtual environment supports immersion and presence. Our setup will allow the comparative study of the coupling of virtual camera movements with simultaneous physical movements of the user in terms of user preference and comfort. This work-in-progress uses a within-subject experimental design for evaluating interaction prototypes based on the Oculus Rift DK2 where participants will be tasked with transitioning between different environments; once using physical motion to merely trigger the transition and once with the virtual camera movement being coupled to the physical motion. Qualitative and quantitative data will be collected utilizing questionnaires and in-game metrics. Pretests of a similar setup were used to establish minimal levels of comfort.

2017-04-03
Frey, Sylvain, Rashid, Awais, Zanutto, Alberto, Busby, Jerry, Follis, Karolina.  2016.  On the Role of Latent Design Conditions in Cyber-physical Systems Security. Proceedings of the 2Nd International Workshop on Software Engineering for Smart Cyber-Physical Systems. :43–46.

As cyber-physical systems (CPS) become prevalent in everyday life, it is critical to understand the factors that may impact the security of such systems. In this paper, we present insights from an initial study of historical security incidents to analyse such factors for a particular class of CPS: industrial control systems (ICS). Our study challenges the usual tendency to blame human fallibility or resort to simple explanations for what are often complex issues that lead to a security incident. We highlight that (i) perception errors are key in such incidents (ii) latent design conditions – e.g., improper specifications of a system's borders and capabilities – play a fundamental role in shaping perceptions, leading to security issues. Such design-time considerations are particularly critical for ICS, the life-cycle of which is usually measured in decades. Based on this analysis, we discuss how key characteristics of future smart CPS in such industrial settings can pose further challenges with regards to tackling latent design flaws.

2016-11-17
Zbigniew Kalbarczyk, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.  2015.  Resilience of Cyber Physical Systems and Technologies.

Presented at a tutorial at the Symposium and Bootcamp on the Science of Security (HotSoS 2015), April 2015.

2015-04-30
Riveiro, M., Lebram, M., Warston, H..  2014.  On visualizing threat evaluation configuration processes: A design proposal. Information Fusion (FUSION), 2014 17th International Conference on. :1-8.

Threat evaluation is concerned with estimating the intent, capability and opportunity of detected objects in relation to our own assets in an area of interest. To infer whether a target is threatening and to which degree is far from a trivial task. Expert operators have normally to their aid different support systems that analyze the incoming data and provide recommendations for actions. Since the ultimate responsibility lies in the operators, it is crucial that they trust and know how to configure and use these systems, as well as have a good understanding of their inner workings, strengths and limitations. To limit the negative effects of inadequate cooperation between the operators and their support systems, this paper presents a design proposal that aims at making the threat evaluation process more transparent. We focus on the initialization, configuration and preparation phases of the threat evaluation process, supporting the user in the analysis of the behavior of the system considering the relevant parameters involved in the threat estimations. For doing so, we follow a known design process model and we implement our suggestions in a proof-of-concept prototype that we evaluate with military expert system designers.

Shila, D.M., Venugopal, V..  2014.  Design, implementation and security analysis of Hardware Trojan Threats in FPGA. Communications (ICC), 2014 IEEE International Conference on. :719-724.

Hardware Trojan Threats (HTTs) are stealthy components embedded inside integrated circuits (ICs) with an intention to attack and cripple the IC similar to viruses infecting the human body. Previous efforts have focused essentially on systems being compromised using HTTs and the effectiveness of physical parameters including power consumption, timing variation and utilization for detecting HTTs. We propose a novel metric for hardware Trojan detection coined as HTT detectability metric (HDM) that uses a weighted combination of normalized physical parameters. HTTs are identified by comparing the HDM with an optimal detection threshold; if the monitored HDM exceeds the estimated optimal detection threshold, the IC will be tagged as malicious. As opposed to existing efforts, this work investigates a system model from a designer perspective in increasing the security of the device and an adversary model from an attacker perspective exposing and exploiting the vulnerabilities in the device. Using existing Trojan implementations and Trojan taxonomy as a baseline, seven HTTs were designed and implemented on a FPGA testbed; these Trojans perform a variety of threats ranging from sensitive information leak, denial of service to beat the Root of Trust (RoT). Security analysis on the implemented Trojans showed that existing detection techniques based on physical characteristics such as power consumption, timing variation or utilization alone does not necessarily capture the existence of HTTs and only a maximum of 57% of designed HTTs were detected. On the other hand, 86% of the implemented Trojans were detected with HDM. We further carry out analytical studies to determine the optimal detection threshold that minimizes the summation of false alarm and missed detection probabilities.