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Malzahn, D., Birnbaum, Z., Wright-Hamor, C..  2020.  Automated Vulnerability Testing via Executable Attack Graphs. 2020 International Conference on Cyber Security and Protection of Digital Services (Cyber Security). :1–10.
Cyber risk assessments are an essential process for analyzing and prioritizing security issues. Unfortunately, many risk assessment methodologies are marred by human subjectivity, resulting in non-repeatable, inconsistent findings. The absence of repeatable and consistent results can lead to suboptimal decision making with respect to cyber risk reduction. There is a pressing need to reduce cyber risk assessment uncertainty by using tools that use well defined inputs, producing well defined results. This paper presents Automated Vulnerability and Risk Analysis (AVRA), an end-to-end process and tool for identifying and exploiting vulnerabilities, designed for use in cyber risk assessments. The approach presented is more comprehensive than traditional vulnerability scans due to its analysis of an entire network, integrating both host and network information. AVRA automatically generates a detailed model of the network and its individual components, which is used to create an attack graph. Then, AVRA follows individual attack paths, automatically launching exploits to reach a particular objective. AVRA was successfully tested within a virtual environment to demonstrate practicality and usability. The presented approach and resulting system enhances the cyber risk assessment process through rigor, repeatability, and objectivity.
Arthy, R., Daniel, E., Maran, T. G., Praveen, M..  2020.  A Hybrid Secure Keyword Search Scheme in Encrypted Graph for Social Media Database. 2020 Fourth International Conference on Computing Methodologies and Communication (ICCMC). :1000–1004.
Privacy preservation is a challenging task with the huge amount of data that are available in social media. The data those are stored in the distributed environment or in cloud environment need to ensure confidentiality to data. In addition, representing the voluminous data is graph will be convenient to perform keyword search. The proposed work initially reads the data corresponding to social media and converts that into a graph. In order to prevent the data from the active attacks Advanced Encryption Standard algorithm is used to perform graph encryption. Later, search operation is done using two algorithms: kNK keyword search algorithm and top k nearest keyword search algorithm. The first scheme is used to fetch all the data corresponding to the keyword. The second scheme is used to fetch the nearest neighbor. This scheme increases the efficiency of the search process. Here shortest path algorithm is used to find the minimum distance. Now, based on the minimum value the results are produced. The proposed algorithm shows high performance for graph generation and searching and moderate performance for graph encryption.
Zhang, T.-Y., Ye, D..  2020.  Distributed Secure Control Against Denial-of-Service Attacks in Cyber-Physical Systems Based on K-Connected Communication Topology. IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics. 50:3094–3103.
In this article, the security problem in cyber-physical systems (CPSs) against denial-of-service (DoS) attacks is studied from the perspectives of the designs of communication topology and distributed controller. To resist the DoS attacks, a new construction algorithm of the k-connected communication topology is developed based on the proposed necessary and sufficient criteria of the k-connected graph. Furthermore, combined with the k-connected topology, a distributed event-triggered controller is designed to guarantee the consensus of CPSs under mode-switching DoS (MSDoS) attacks. Different from the existing distributed control schemes, a new technology, that is, the extended Laplacian matrix method, is combined to design the distributed controller independent on the knowledge and the dwell time of DoS attack modes. Finally, the simulation example illustrates the superiority and effectiveness of the proposed construction algorithm and a distributed control scheme.
Ghazo, A. T. Al, Ibrahim, M., Ren, H., Kumar, R..  2020.  A2G2V: Automatic Attack Graph Generation and Visualization and Its Applications to Computer and SCADA Networks. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics: Systems. 50:3488–3498.
Securing cyber-physical systems (CPS) and Internet of Things (IoT) systems requires the identification of how interdependence among existing atomic vulnerabilities may be exploited by an adversary to stitch together an attack that can compromise the system. Therefore, accurate attack graphs play a significant role in systems security. A manual construction of the attack graphs is tedious and error-prone, this paper proposes a model-checking-based automated attack graph generator and visualizer (A2G2V). The proposed A2G2V algorithm uses existing model-checking tools, an architecture description tool, and our own code to generate an attack graph that enumerates the set of all possible sequences in which atomic-level vulnerabilities can be exploited to compromise system security. The architecture description tool captures a formal representation of the networked system, its atomic vulnerabilities, their pre-and post-conditions, and security property of interest. A model-checker is employed to automatically identify an attack sequence in the form of a counterexample. Our own code integrated with the model-checker parses the counterexamples, encodes those for specification relaxation, and iterates until all attack sequences are revealed. Finally, a visualization tool has also been incorporated with A2G2V to generate a graphical representation of the generated attack graph. The results are illustrated through application to computer as well as control (SCADA) networks.
Hu, W., Zhang, L., Liu, X., Huang, Y., Zhang, M., Xing, L..  2020.  Research on Automatic Generation and Analysis Technology of Network Attack Graph. 2020 IEEE 6th Intl Conference on Big Data Security on Cloud (BigDataSecurity), IEEE Intl Conference on High Performance and Smart Computing, (HPSC) and IEEE Intl Conference on Intelligent Data and Security (IDS). :133–139.
In view of the problem that the overall security of the network is difficult to evaluate quantitatively, we propose the edge authority attack graph model, which aims to make up for the traditional dependence attack graph to describe the relationship between vulnerability behaviors. This paper proposed a network security metrics based on probability, and proposes a network vulnerability algorithm based on vulnerability exploit probability and attack target asset value. Finally, a network security reinforcement algorithm with network vulnerability index as the optimization target is proposed based on this metric algorithm.
Feng, Y., Sun, G., Liu, Z., Wu, C., Zhu, X., Wang, Z., Wang, B..  2020.  Attack Graph Generation and Visualization for Industrial Control Network. 2020 39th Chinese Control Conference (CCC). :7655–7660.
Attack graph is an effective way to analyze the vulnerabilities for industrial control networks. We develop a vulnerability correlation method and a practical visualization technology for industrial control network. First of all, we give a complete attack graph analysis for industrial control network, which focuses on network model and vulnerability context. Particularly, a practical attack graph algorithm is proposed, including preparing environments and vulnerability classification and correlation. Finally, we implement a three-dimensional interactive attack graph visualization tool. The experimental results show validation and verification of the proposed method.
Stan, O., Bitton, R., Ezrets, M., Dadon, M., Inokuchi, M., Yoshinobu, O., Tomohiko, Y., Elovici, Y., Shabtai, A..  2020.  Extending Attack Graphs to Represent Cyber-Attacks in Communication Protocols and Modern IT Networks. IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing. :1–1.
An attack graph is a method used to enumerate the possible paths that an attacker can take in the organizational network. MulVAL is a known open-source framework used to automatically generate attack graphs. MulVAL's default modeling has two main shortcomings. First, it lacks the ability to represent network protocol vulnerabilities, and thus it cannot be used to model common network attacks, such as ARP poisoning. Second, it does not support advanced types of communication, such as wireless and bus communication, and thus it cannot be used to model cyber-attacks on networks that include IoT devices or industrial components. In this paper, we present an extended network security model for MulVAL that: (1) considers the physical network topology, (2) supports short-range communication protocols, (3) models vulnerabilities in the design of network protocols, and (4) models specific industrial communication architectures. Using the proposed extensions, we were able to model multiple attack techniques including: spoofing, man-in-the-middle, and denial of service attacks, as well as attacks on advanced types of communication. We demonstrate the proposed model in a testbed which implements a simplified network architecture comprised of both IT and industrial components
Yoon, S., Cho, J.-H., Kim, D. S., Moore, T. J., Free-Nelson, F., Lim, H..  2020.  Attack Graph-Based Moving Target Defense in Software-Defined Networks. IEEE Transactions on Network and Service Management. 17:1653–1668.
Moving target defense (MTD) has emerged as a proactive defense mechanism aiming to thwart a potential attacker. The key underlying idea of MTD is to increase uncertainty and confusion for attackers by changing the attack surface (i.e., system or network configurations) that can invalidate the intelligence collected by the attackers and interrupt attack execution; ultimately leading to attack failure. Recently, the significant advance of software-defined networking (SDN) technology has enabled several complex system operations to be highly flexible and robust; particularly in terms of programmability and controllability with the help of SDN controllers. Accordingly, many security operations have utilized this capability to be optimally deployed in a complex network using the SDN functionalities. In this paper, by leveraging the advanced SDN technology, we developed an attack graph-based MTD technique that shuffles a host's network configurations (e.g., MAC/IP/port addresses) based on its criticality, which is highly exploitable by attackers when the host is on the attack path(s). To this end, we developed a hierarchical attack graph model that provides a network's vulnerability and network topology, which can be utilized for the MTD shuffling decisions in selecting highly exploitable hosts in a given network, and determining the frequency of shuffling the hosts' network configurations. The MTD shuffling with a high priority on more exploitable, critical hosts contributes to providing adaptive, proactive, and affordable defense services aiming to minimize attack success probability with minimum MTD cost. We validated the out performance of the proposed MTD in attack success probability and MTD cost via both simulation and real SDN testbed experiments.
Chen, J., Lin, X., Shi, Z., Liu, Y..  2020.  Link Prediction Adversarial Attack Via Iterative Gradient Attack. IEEE Transactions on Computational Social Systems. 7:1081–1094.
Increasing deep neural networks are applied in solving graph evolved tasks, such as node classification and link prediction. However, the vulnerability of deep models can be revealed using carefully crafted adversarial examples generated by various adversarial attack methods. To explore this security problem, we define the link prediction adversarial attack problem and put forward a novel iterative gradient attack (IGA) strategy using the gradient information in the trained graph autoencoder (GAE) model. Not surprisingly, GAE can be fooled by an adversarial graph with a few links perturbed on the clean one. The results on comprehensive experiments of different real-world graphs indicate that most deep models and even the state-of-the-art link prediction algorithms cannot escape the adversarial attack, such as GAE. We can benefit the attack as an efficient privacy protection tool from the link prediction of unknown violations. On the other hand, the adversarial attack is a robust evaluation metric for current link prediction algorithms of their defensibility.
Mao, J., Li, X., Lin, Q., Guan, Z..  2020.  Deeply understanding graph-based Sybil detection techniques via empirical analysis on graph processing. China Communications. 17:82–96.
Sybil attacks are one of the most prominent security problems of trust mechanisms in a distributed network with a large number of highly dynamic and heterogeneous devices, which expose serious threat to edge computing based distributed systems. Graphbased Sybil detection approaches extract social structures from target distributed systems, refine the graph via preprocessing methods and capture Sybil nodes based on the specific properties of the refined graph structure. Graph preprocessing is a critical component in such Sybil detection methods, and intuitively, the processing methods will affect the detection performance. Thoroughly understanding the dependency on the graph-processing methods is very important to develop and deploy Sybil detection approaches. In this paper, we design experiments and conduct systematic analysis on graph-based Sybil detection with respect to different graph preprocessing methods on selected network environments. The experiment results disclose the sensitivity caused by different graph transformations on accuracy and robustness of Sybil detection methods.
Valocký, F., Puchalik, M., Orgon, M..  2020.  Implementing Asymmetric Cryptography in High-Speed Data Transmission over Power Line. 2020 11th IEEE Annual Ubiquitous Computing, Electronics Mobile Communication Conference (UEMCON). :0849–0854.
The article presents a proposal for implementing asymmetric cryptography, specifically the elliptic curves for the protection of high-speed data transmission in a corporate network created on the platform of PLC (Power Line Communications). The solution uses an open-source software library OpenSSL. As part of the design, an experimental workplace was set up, a DHCP and FTP server was established. The possibility of encryption with the selected own elliptic curve from the OpenSSL library was tested so that key pairs (public and private keys) were generated using a software tool. A shared secret was created between communication participants and subsequently, data encryption and decryption were performed.
Boas, Y. d S. V., Rocha, D. S., Barros, C. E. de, Martina, J. E..  2020.  SRVB cryptosystem: another attempt to revive Knapsack-based public-key encryption schemes. 2020 27th International Conference on Telecommunications (ICT). :1–6.
Public-key cryptography is a ubiquitous buildingblock of modern telecommunication technology. Among the most historically important, the knapsack-based encryption schemes, from the early years of public-key cryptography, performed particularly well in computational resources (time and memory), and mathematical and algorithmic simplicity. Although effective cryptanalyses readily curtailed their widespread adoption to several different attempts, the possibility of actual usage of knapsack-based asymmetric encryption schemes remains unsettled. This paper aims to present a novel construction that offers consistent security improvements on knapsack-based cryptography. We propose two improvements upon the original knapsack cryptosystem that address the most important types of attacks: the Diophantine approximationsbased attacks and the lattice problems oracle attacks. The proposed defences demonstrably preclude the types of attacks mentioned above, thus contributing to revive knapsack schemes or settle the matter negatively. Finally, we present the, a contest that is offering a prize for breaking our proposed cryptosystem.
Abbas, M. S., Mahdi, S. S., Hussien, S. A..  2020.  Security Improvement of Cloud Data Using Hybrid Cryptography and Steganography. 2020 International Conference on Computer Science and Software Engineering (CSASE). :123–127.
One of the significant advancements in information technology is Cloud computing, but the security issue of data storage is a big problem in the cloud environment. That is why a system is proposed in this paper for improving the security of cloud data using encryption, information concealment, and hashing functions. In the data encryption phase, we implemented hybrid encryption using the algorithm of AES symmetric encryption and the algorithm of RSA asymmetric encryption. Next, the encrypted data will be hidden in an image using LSB algorithm. In the data validation phase, we use the SHA hashing algorithm. Also, in our suggestion, we compress the data using the LZW algorithm before hiding it in the image. Thus, it allows hiding as much data as possible. By using information concealment technology and mixed encryption, we can achieve strong data security. In this paper, PSNR and SSIM values were calculated in addition to the graph to evaluate the image masking performance before and after applying the compression process. The results showed that PSNR values of stego-image are better for compressed data compared to data before compression.
Kabir, N., Kamal, S..  2020.  Secure Mobile Sensor Data Transfer using Asymmetric Cryptography Algorithms. 2020 International Conference on Cyber Warfare and Security (ICCWS). :1–6.
Mobile sensors are playing a vital role in various applications of a normal day life. Key size in securing data is an important issue to highlight in mobile sensor data transfer between a smart device and a data storage component. Such key size may affect memory storage and processing power of a mobile device. Therefore, we proposed a secure mobile sensor data transfer protocol called secure sensor protocol (SSP). SSP is based on Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC), which generates small size key in contrast to conventional asymmetric algorithms like RSA and Diffie Hellman. SSP receive values from light sensor and magnetic flux meter of a smart device. SSP encrypts mobile sensor data using ECC and afterwards it stores cipher information in MySQL database to receive remote data access. We compared the performance of the ECC with other existing asymmetric cryptography algorithms in terms of secure mobile sensor data transfer based on data encryption and decryption time, key size and encoded data size. In-addition, SSP shows better results than other cryptography algorithms in terms of secure mobile sensor data transfer.
Thinn, A. A., Thwin, M. M. S..  2020.  A Hybrid Solution for Confidential Data Transfer Using PKI, Modified AES Algorithm and Image as a Secret Key. 2020 IEEE Conference on Computer Applications(ICCA). :1–4.
Nowadays the provision of online services by government or business organizations has become a standard and necessary operation. Transferring data including the confidential or sensitive information via Internet or insecure network and exchange of them is also increased day by day. As a result, confidential information leakage and cyber threats are also heightened. Confidential information trading became one of the most profitable businesses. Encrypting the data is a solution to secure the data from being exposed. In this paper, we would like to propose a solution for the secure transfer of data using symmetric encryption, asymmetric encryption technologies and Key Generation Server as a mixed hybrid solution. A Symmetric encryption, modified AES algorithm, is used to encrypt data. Digital certificate is used both for data encryption and digital signing to assure data integrity. Key generation server is used to generate the second secret key from the publicly recognized information of a person and this key is used as a second secret key in the modified AES. The proposed hybrid solution can be utilized in any applications that require high confidentiality, integrity of data and non-repudiation.
ManJiang, D., Kai, C., ZengXi, W., LiPeng, Z..  2020.  Design of a Cloud Storage Security Encryption Algorithm for Power Bidding System. 2020 IEEE 4th Information Technology, Networking, Electronic and Automation Control Conference (ITNEC). 1:1875–1879.
To solve the problem of poor security and performance caused by traditional encryption algorithm in the cloud data storage of power bidding system, we proposes a hybrid encryption method based on symmetric encryption and asymmetric encryption. In this method, firstly, the plaintext upload file is divided into several blocks according to the proportion, then the large file block is encrypted by symmetrical encryption algorithm AES to ensure the encryption performance, and then the small file block and AES key are encrypted by asymmetric encryption algorithm ECC to ensure the file encryption strength and the security of key transmission. Finally, the ciphertext file is generated and stored in the cloud storage environment to prevent sensitive files Pieces from being stolen and destroyed. The experimental results show that the hybrid encryption method can improve the anti-attack ability of cloud storage files, ensure the security of file storage, and have high efficiency of file upload and download.
Mazlisham, M. H., Adnan, S. F. Syed, Isa, M. A. Mat, Mahad, Z., Asbullah, M. A..  2020.  Analysis of Rabin-P and RSA-OAEP Encryption Scheme on Microprocessor Platform. 2020 IEEE 10th Symposium on Computer Applications Industrial Electronics (ISCAIE). :292–296.
This paper presents an analysis of Rabin-P encryption scheme on microprocessor platform in term of runtime and energy consumption. A microprocessor is one of the devices utilized in the Internet of Things (IoT) structure. Therefore, in this work, the microprocessor selected is the Raspberry Pi that is powered with a smaller version of the Linux operating system for embedded devices, the Raspbian OS. A comparative analysis is then conducted for Rabin-p and RSA-OAEP cryptosystem in the Raspberry Pi setup. A conclusion can be made that Rabin-p performs faster in comparison to the RSA-OAEP cryptosystem in the microprocessor platform. Rabin-p can improve decryption efficiency by using only one modular exponentiation while produces a unique message after the decryption process.
Abusukhon, A., AlZu’bi, S..  2020.  New Direction of Cryptography: A Review on Text-to-Image Encryption Algorithms Based on RGB Color Value. 2020 Seventh International Conference on Software Defined Systems (SDS). :235–239.
Data encryption techniques are important for answering the question: How secure is the Internet for sending sensitive data. Keeping data secure while they are sent through the global network is a difficult task. This is because many hackers are fishing these data in order to get some benefits. The researchers have developed various types of encryption algorithms to protect data from attackers. These algorithms are mainly classified into two categories namely symmetric and asymmetric encryption algorithms. This survey sheds light on the recent work carried out on encrypting a text into an image based on the RGB color value and held a comparison between them based on various factors evolved from the literature.
Kumar, S., Singh, B. K., Akshita, Pundir, S., Batra, S., Joshi, R..  2020.  A survey on Symmetric and Asymmetric Key based Image Encryption. 2nd International Conference on Data, Engineering and Applications (IDEA). :1–5.
Image Encryption is a technique where an algorithm along with a set of characters called key encrypts the data into cipher text. The cipher text can be converted back into plaintext by decryption. This technique is employed for the security of data such that confidentiality, integrity and authenticity of data is maintained. In today's era security of information has become a crucial task, unauthorized access and use of data has become a noticeable issue. To provide the security required, there are several algorithms to suit the purposes. While the use and transferring of images has become easy and faster due to technological advancements especially wireless sensor network, image destruction and illegitimate use has become a potential threat. Different transfer mediums and various uses of images require different and appropriately suiting encryption approaches. Hence, in this paper we discuss the types of image encryption techniques. We have also discussed several encryption algorithms, their advantages and suitability.
Swetha, K., Kalyan, S. P., Pavan, V., Roshini, A..  2020.  A Modified Tiny Asymmetric Encryption for Secure Ftp to Network. 2020 6th International Conference on Advanced Computing and Communication Systems (ICACCS). :1176–1180.
The target of this venture is to give the protected correspondence among the associated frameworks in the system. It gives the vital validation to the record moving in the system transmission. It comprises of 3 modules in particular encryption and unscrambling module, secret key verification to the information that needs to transmit through system. In this system, File Transfer Protocol can be used to execute Server-client innovation and the document can be scrambled and unscrambled by sending the end client through attachment programming of the end client.
Issa, H., Tar, J. K..  2020.  Tackling Actuator Saturation in Fixed Point Iteration-based Adaptive Control. 2020 IEEE 14th International Symposium on Applied Computational Intelligence and Informatics (SACI). :000221–000226.
The limited output of various drives means a challenge in controller design whenever the acceleration need of the "nominal trajectory to be tracked" temporarily exceeds the abilities of the saturated control system. The prevailing control design methods can tackle this problem either in a single theoretical step or in two consecutive steps. In this latter case in the first step the design happens without taking into account the actuator constraints, then apply a saturation compensator if the phenomenon of windup is observed. In the Fixed Point Iteration- based Adaptive Control (FPIAC) that has been developed as an alternative of the Lyapunov function-based approach the actuator saturation causes problems in its both elementary levels: in the kinematic/kinetic level where the desired acceleration is calculated, and in the iterative process that compensates the effects of modeling errors of the dynamic system under control and that of the external disturbances. The here presented approach tackles this problem in both levels by relatively simple considerations. To illustrate the method's efficiency simulation investigations were done in the FPIAC control of a modification of the van der Pol oscillator to which an additional strongly nonlinear term was added.
Zhang, Z., Zhang, Q., Liu, T., Pang, Z., Cui, B., Jin, S., Liu, K..  2020.  Data-driven Stealthy Actuator Attack against Cyber-Physical Systems. 2020 39th Chinese Control Conference (CCC). :4395–4399.
This paper studies the data-driven stealthy actuator attack against cyber-physical systems. The objective of the attacker is to add a certain bias to the output while keeping the detection rate of the χ2 detector less than a certain value. With the historical input and output data, the parameters of the system are estimated and the attack signal is the solution of a convex optimization problem constructed with the estimated parameters. The extension to the case of arbitrary detectors is also discussed. A numerical example is given to verify the effectiveness of the attack.
Merouane, E. M., Escudero, C., Sicard, F., Zamai, E..  2020.  Aging Attacks against Electro-Mechanical Actuators from Control Signal Manipulation. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology (ICIT). :133–138.
The progress made in terms of controller technologies with the introduction of remotely-accessibility capacity in the digital controllers has opened the door to new cybersecurity threats on the Industrial Control Systems (ICSs). Among them, some aim at damaging the ICS's physical system. In this paper, a corrupted controller emitting a non-legitimate Pulse Width Modulation control signal to an Electro-Mechanical Actuator (EMA) is considered. The attacker's capabilities for accelerating the EMA's aging by inducing Partial Discharges (PDs) are investigated. A simplified model is considered for highlighting the influence of the carrier frequency of the control signal over the amplitude and the repetition of the PDs involved in the EMA's aging.
Niu, L., Ramasubramanian, B., Clark, A., Bushnell, L., Poovendran, R..  2020.  Control Synthesis for Cyber-Physical Systems to Satisfy Metric Interval Temporal Logic Objectives under Timing and Actuator Attacks*. 2020 ACM/IEEE 11th International Conference on Cyber-Physical Systems (ICCPS). :162–173.
This paper studies the synthesis of controllers for cyber-physical systems (CPSs) that are required to carry out complex tasks that are time-sensitive, in the presence of an adversary. The task is specified as a formula in metric interval temporal logic (MITL). The adversary is assumed to have the ability to tamper with the control input to the CPS and also manipulate timing information perceived by the CPS. In order to model the interaction between the CPS and the adversary, and also the effect of these two classes of attacks, we define an entity called a durational stochastic game (DSG). DSGs probabilistically capture transitions between states in the environment, and also the time taken for these transitions. With the policy of the defender represented as a finite state controller (FSC), we present a value-iteration based algorithm that computes an FSC that maximizes the probability of satisfying the MITL specification under the two classes of attacks. A numerical case-study on a signalized traffic network is presented to illustrate our results.
Giraldo, J., Kafash, S. H., Ruths, J., Cárdenas, A. A..  2020.  DARIA: Designing Actuators to Resist Arbitrary Attacks Against Cyber-Physical Systems. 2020 IEEE European Symposium on Security and Privacy (EuroS P). :339–353.
In the past decade we have seen an active research community proposing attacks and defenses to Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS). Most of these attacks and defenses have been heuristic in nature, limiting the attacker to a set of predefined operations, and proposing defenses with unclear security guarantees. In this paper, we propose a generic adversary model that can capture any type of attack (our attacker is not constrained to follow specific attacks such as replay, delay, or bias) and use it to design security mechanisms with provable security guarantees. In particular, we propose a new secure design paradigm we call DARIA: Designing Actuators to Resist arbItrary Attacks. The main idea behind DARIA is the design of physical limits to actuators in order to prevent attackers from arbitrarily manipulating the system, irrespective of their point of attack (sensors or actuators) or the specific attack algorithm (bias, replay, delays, etc.). As far as we are aware, we are the first research team to propose the design of physical limits to actuators in a control loop in order to keep the system secure against attacks. We demonstrate the generality of our proposal on simulations of vehicular platooning and industrial processes.