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2019-09-30
Liu, B., He, L., Zhang, H., Sfarra, S., Fernandes, H., Perilli, S., Ren, J..  2019.  Research on stress detection technology of long-distance pipeline applying non-magnetic saturation. IET Science, Measurement Technology. 13:168–174.

In order to study the stress detection method on long-distance oil and gas pipeline, the distribution characteristics of the surface remanence signals in the stress concentration regions must be known. They were studied by using the magnetic domain model in the non-magnetic saturation state. The finite element method was used herein with the aim to analyse the static and mechanical characteristics of a ferromagnetic specimen. The variation law of remanence signal in stress concentration regions was simulated. The results show that a residue signal in the stress concentration region exists. In addition, a one-to-one correspondence in the non-magnetic saturation environment is evident. In the case of magnetic saturation, the remanence signal of the stress concentration region is covered and the signal cannot be recognised.

Jiao, Y., Hohlfield, J., Victora, R. H..  2018.  Understanding Transition and Remanence Noise in HAMR. IEEE Transactions on Magnetics. 54:1–5.

Transition noise and remanence noise are the two most important types of media noise in heat-assisted magnetic recording. We examine two methods (spatial splitting and principal components analysis) to distinguish them: both techniques show similar trends with respect to applied field and grain pitch (GP). It was also found that PW50can be affected by GP and reader design, but is almost independent of write field and bit length (larger than 50 nm). Interestingly, our simulation shows a linear relationship between jitter and PW50NSRrem, which agrees qualitatively with experimental results.

2019-09-26
Liu, Y., Zhang, J., Gao, Q..  2018.  A Blockchain-Based Secure Cloud Files Sharing Scheme with Fine-Grained Access Control. 2018 International Conference on Networking and Network Applications (NaNA). :277-283.
As cloud services greatly facilitate file sharing online, there's been a growing awareness of the security challenges brought by outsourcing data to a third party. Traditionally, the centralized management of cloud service provider brings about safety issues because the third party is only semi-trusted by clients. Besides, it causes trouble for sharing online data conveniently. In this paper, the blockchain technology is utilized for decentralized safety administration and provide more user-friendly service. Apart from that, Ciphertext-Policy Attribute Based Encryption is introduced as an effective tool to realize fine-grained data access control of the stored files. Meanwhile, the security analysis proves the confidentiality and integrity of the data stored in the cloud server. Finally, we evaluate the performance of computation overhead of our system.
Mishra, B., Jena, D..  2018.  CCA Secure Proxy Re-Encryption Scheme for Secure Sharing of Files through Cloud Storage. 2018 Fifth International Conference on Emerging Applications of Information Technology (EAIT). :1-6.
Cloud Storage Service(CSS) provides unbounded, robust file storage capability and facilitates for pay-per-use and collaborative work to end users. But due to security issues like lack of confidentiality, malicious insiders, it has not gained wide spread acceptance to store sensitive information. Researchers have proposed proxy re-encryption schemes for secure data sharing through cloud. Due to advancement of computing technologies and advent of quantum computing algorithms, security of existing schemes can be compromised within seconds. Hence there is a need for designing security schemes which can be quantum computing resistant. In this paper, a secure file sharing scheme through cloud storage using proxy re-encryption technique has been proposed. The proposed scheme is proven to be chosen ciphertext secure(CCA) under hardness of ring-LWE, Search problem using random oracle model. The proposed scheme outperforms the existing CCA secure schemes in-terms of re-encryption time and decryption time for encrypted files which results in an efficient file sharing scheme through cloud storage.
Pant, S., Kumar, V..  2018.  BitTrusty: A BitCoin Incentivized Peer-to-Peer File Sharing System. 2018 IEEE 3rd International Conference on Computing, Communication and Security (ICCCS). :148-155.
Among the various challenges faced by the P2P file sharing systems like BitTorrent, the most common attack on the basic foundation of such systems is: Free-riding. Generally, free-riders are the users in the file sharing network who avoid contributing any resources but tend to consume the resources unethically from the P2P network whereas white-washers are more specific category of free-riders that voluntarily leave the system in a frequent fashion and appearing again and again with different identities to escape from the penal actions imposed by the network. BitTorrent being a collaborative distributed platform requires techniques for discouraging and punishing such user behavior. In this paper, we propose that ``Instead of punishing, we may focus more on rewarding the honest peers''. This approach could be presented as an alternative to other mechanisms of rewarding the peers like tit-for-tat [10], reciprocity based etc., built for the BitTorrent platform. The prime objective of BitTrusty is: providing incentives to the cooperative peers by rewarding in terms of cryptocoins based on blockchain. We have anticipated three ways of achieving the above defined objective. We are further investigating on how to integrate these two technologies of distributed systems viz. P2P file sharing systems and blockchain, and with this new paradigm, interesting research areas can be further developed, both in the field of P2P cryptocurrency networks and also when these networks are combined with other distributed scenarios.
Nelmiawati, Arifandi, W..  2018.  A Seamless Secret Sharing Scheme Implementation for Securing Data in Public Cloud Storage Service. 2018 International Conference on Applied Engineering (ICAE). :1-5.
Public cloud data storage services were considered as a potential alternative to store low-cost digital data in the short term. They are offered by different providers on the Internet. Some providers offer limited free plans for the users who are starting the service. However, data security concern arises when data stored are considered as a valuable asset. This study explores the usage of secret sharing scheme: Rabin's IDA and Shamir's SSA to implement a tool called dCloud for file protection stored in public cloud storage in a seamless way. It addresses data security by hiding its complexities when targeting ordinary non-technical users. The secret key is automatically generated by dCloud in a secure random way on Rabin's IDA. Shamir's SSA completes the process through dispersing the key into each of Rabin's IDA output files. Moreover, the Hash value of the original file is added to each of those output files to confirm the integrity of the file during reconstruction. Besides, the authentication key is used to communicate with all of the defined service providers during storage and reconstruction as well. It is stored into local secure key-store. By having a key to access the key-store, an ordinary non-technical user will be able to use dCloud to store and retrieve targeted file within defined public cloud storage services securely.
Torkura, K. A., Sukmana, M. I. H., Meinig, M., Cheng, F., Meinel, C., Graupner, H..  2018.  A Threat Modeling Approach for Cloud Storage Brokerage and File Sharing Systems. NOMS 2018 - 2018 IEEE/IFIP Network Operations and Management Symposium. :1-5.
Cloud storage brokerage systems abstract cloud storage complexities by mediating technical and business relationships between cloud stakeholders, while providing value-added services. This however raises security challenges pertaining to the integration of disparate components with sometimes conflicting security policies and architectural complexities. Assessing the security risks of these challenges is therefore important for Cloud Storage Brokers (CSBs). In this paper, we present a threat modeling schema to analyze and identify threats and risks in cloud brokerage brokerage systems. Our threat modeling schema works by generating attack trees, attack graphs, and data flow diagrams that represent the interconnections between identified security risks. Our proof-of-concept implementation employs the Common Configuration Scoring System (CCSS) to support the threat modeling schema, since current schemes lack sufficient security metrics which are imperatives for comprehensive risk assessments. We demonstrate the efficiency of our proposal by devising CCSS base scores for two attacks commonly launched against cloud storage systems: Cloud sStorage Enumeration Attack and Cloud Storage Exploitation Attack. These metrics are then combined with CVSS based metrics to assign probabilities in an Attack Tree. Thus, we show the possibility combining CVSS and CCSS for comprehensive threat modeling, and also show that our schemas can be used to improve cloud security.
Wang, Fei, Kwon, Yonghwi, Ma, Shiqing, Zhang, Xiangyu, Xu, Dongyan.  2018.  Lprov: Practical Library-Aware Provenance Tracing. Proceedings of the 34th Annual Computer Security Applications Conference. :605-617.
With the continuing evolution of sophisticated APT attacks, provenance tracking is becoming an important technique for efficient attack investigation in enterprise networks. Most of existing provenance techniques are operating on system event auditing that discloses dependence relationships by scrutinizing syscall traces. Unfortunately, such auditing-based provenance is not able to track the causality of another important dimension in provenance, the shared libraries. Different from other data-only system entities like files and sockets, dynamic libraries are linked at runtime and may get executed, which poses new challenges in provenance tracking. For example, library provenance cannot be tracked by syscalls and mapping; whether a library function is called and how it is called within an execution context is invisible at syscall level; linking a library does not promise their execution at runtime. Addressing these challenges is critical to tracking sophisticated attacks leveraging libraries. In this paper, to facilitate fine-grained investigation inside the execution of library binaries, we develop Lprov, a novel provenance tracking system which combines library tracing and syscall tracing. Upon a syscall, Lprov identifies the library calls together with the stack which induces it so that the library execution provenance can be accurately revealed. Our evaluation shows that Lprov can precisely identify attack provenance involving libraries, including malicious library attack and library vulnerability exploitation, while syscall-based provenance tools fail to identify. It only incurs 7.0% (in geometric mean) runtime overhead and consumes 3 times less storage space of a state-of-the-art provenance tool.
Khan, Mohammad Taha, Hyun, Maria, Kanich, Chris, Ur, Blase.  2018.  Forgotten But Not Gone: Identifying the Need for Longitudinal Data Management in Cloud Storage. Proceedings of the 2018 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. :543:1-543:12.
Users have accumulated years of personal data in cloud storage, creating potential privacy and security risks. This agglomeration includes files retained or shared with others simply out of momentum, rather than intention. We presented 100 online-survey participants with a stratified sample of 10 files currently stored in their own Dropbox or Google Drive accounts. We asked about the origin of each file, whether the participant remembered that file was stored there, and, when applicable, about that file's sharing status. We also recorded participants' preferences moving forward for keeping, deleting, or encrypting those files, as well as adjusting sharing settings. Participants had forgotten that half of the files they saw were in the cloud. Overall, 83% of participants wanted to delete at least one file they saw, while 13% wanted to unshare at least one file. Our combined results suggest directions for retrospective cloud data management.
Dziembowski, Stefan, Eckey, Lisa, Faust, Sebastian.  2018.  FairSwap: How To Fairly Exchange Digital Goods. Proceedings of the 2018 ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security. :967-984.
We introduce FairSwap – an efficient protocol for fair exchange of digital goods using smart contracts. A fair exchange protocol allows a sender S to sell a digital commodity x for a fixed price p to a receiver R. The protocol is said to be secure if R only pays if he receives the correct x. Our solution guarantees fairness by relying on smart contracts executed over decentralized cryptocurrencies, where the contract takes the role of an external judge that completes the exchange in case of disagreement. While in the past there have been several proposals for building fair exchange protocols over cryptocurrencies, our solution has two distinctive features that makes it particular attractive when users deal with large commodities. These advantages are: (1) minimizing the cost for running the smart contract on the blockchain, and (2) avoiding expensive cryptographic tools such as zero-knowledge proofs. In addition to our new protocols, we provide formal security definitions for smart contract based fair exchange, and prove security of our construction. Finally, we illustrate several applications of our basic protocol and evaluate practicality of our approach via a prototype implementation for fairly selling large files over the cryptocurrency Ethereum. This article is summarized in: the morning paper an interesting/influential/important paper from the world of CS every weekday morning, as selected by Adrian Colyer
Ghareh Chamani, Javad, Papadopoulos, Dimitrios, Papamanthou, Charalampos, Jalili, Rasool.  2018.  New Constructions for Forward and Backward Private Symmetric Searchable Encryption. Proceedings of the 2018 ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security. :1038-1055.
We study the problem of dynamic symmetric searchable encryption. In that setting, it is crucial to minimize the information revealed to the server as a result of update operations (insertions and deletions). Two relevant privacy properties have been defined in that context: forward and backward privacy. The first makes it hard for the server to link an update operation with previous queries and has been extensively studied in the literature. The second limits what the server can learn about entries that were deleted from the database, from queries that happen after the deletion. Backward privacy was formally studied only recently (Bost et al., CCS 2017) in a work that introduced a formal definition with three variable types of leakage (Type-I to Type-III ordered from most to least secure), as well as the only existing schemes that satisfy this property. In this work, we introduce three novel constructions that improve previous results in multiple ways. The first scheme achieves Type-II backward privacy and our experimental evaluation shows it has 145-253X faster search computation times than previous constructions with the same leakage. Surprisingly, it is faster even than schemes with Type-III leakage which makes it the most efficient implementation of a forward and backward private scheme so far. The second one has search time that is asymptotically within a polylogarithmic multiplicative factor of the theoretical optimal (i.e., the result size of a search), and it achieves the strongest level of backward privacy (Type-I). All previous Type-I constructions require time that is at least linear in the total number of updates for the requested keywords, even the (arbitrarily many) previously deleted ones. Our final scheme improves upon the second one by reducing the number of roundtrips for a search at the cost of extra leakage (Type-III).
Blömer, Johannes, Löken, Nils.  2018.  Cloud Architectures for Searchable Encryption. Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security. :25:1-25:10.
Blömer et al. have presented a cloud architecture for enabling fine-grained cryptographic access control to data in the cloud. The architecture is intended to provide this service to large-scale orgnaizations. We revisit the cloud architecture, and enrich it with searchable encryption. In the process, we identify some shortcomings of Blömer et al.'s architecture, that prevent many cryptographic primitives from being implemented within the framework of the architecture. Subsequently, we propose fixes to these issues. As a result, we are able to propose a concrete instantiation of searchable encryption, in the form of Bost's $Σ$o$\phi$o$ς$ scheme, in Blömer et al.'s architecture. Moreover, with our fixes, other primitives can be adapted to the architecture as well.
Kodera, Y., Kuribayashi, M., Kusaka, T., Nogami, Y..  2018.  Advanced Searchable Encryption: Keyword Search for Matrix-Type Storage. 2018 Sixth International Symposium on Computing and Networking Workshops (CANDARW). :292-297.
The recent development of IoT technologies and cloud storages, many types of information including private information have been gradually outsourced. For such a situation, new convenient functionalities such as arithmetic and keyword search on ciphertexts are required to allow users to retrieve information without leaking any information. Especially, searchable encryptions have been paid much attention to realize a keyword search on an encrypted domain. In addition, an architecture of searchable symmetric encryption (SSE) is a suitable and efficient solution for data outsourcing. In this paper, we focus on an SSE scheme which employs a secure index for searching a keyword with optimal search time. In the conventional studies, it has been widely considered that the scheme searches whether a queried keyword is contained in encrypted documents. On the other hand, we additionally take into account the location of a queried keyword in documents by targeting a matrix-type data format. It enables a manager to search personal information listed per line or column in CSV-like format data.
Xu, J., Ying, C., Tan, S., Sun, Z., Wang, P., Sun, Z..  2018.  An Attribute-Based Searchable Encryption Scheme Supporting Trapdoor Updating. 2018 IEEE 16th Intl Conf on Dependable, Autonomic and Secure Computing, 16th Intl Conf on Pervasive Intelligence and Computing, 4th Intl Conf on Big Data Intelligence and Computing and Cyber Science and Technology Congress(DASC/PiCom/DataCom/CyberSciTech). :7-14.
In the cloud computing environment, a growing number of users share their own data files through cloud storage. However, there will be some security and privacy problems due to the reason that the cloud is not completely trusted, so it needs to be resolved by access control. Attribute-based encryption (ABE) and searchable encryption (SE) can solve fine-grained access control. At present, researchers combine the two to propose an attribute-based searchable encryption scheme and achieved remarkable results. Nevertheless, most of existing attribute-based searchable encryption schemes cannot resist online/offline keyword guessing attack. To solve the problem, we present an attribute-based (CP-ABE) searchable encryption scheme that supports trapdoor updating (CSES-TU). In this scheme, the data owner can formulate an access strategy for the encrypted data. Only the attributes of the data user are matched with the strategy can the effective trapdoor be generated and the ciphertext be searched, and that this scheme will update trapdoors at the same time. Even if the keywords are the same, new trapdoors will be generated every time when the keyword is searched, thus minimizing the damage caused by online/offline keyword guessing attack. Finally, the performance of the scheme is analyzed, and the proof of correctness and security are given at the same time.
Li, S., Wang, F., Shi, T., Kuang, J..  2019.  Probably Secure Multi-User Multi-Keyword Searchable Encryption Scheme in Cloud Storage. 2019 IEEE 3rd Information Technology, Networking, Electronic and Automation Control Conference (ITNEC). :1368-1372.
Searchable encryption server protects privacal data of data owner from leaks. This paper analyzes the security of a multi-user searchable encryption scheme and points out that this scheme does not satisfy the invisibility of trapdoors. In order to improve the security of the original scheme, this paper proposes a probably secure multi-user multi-keyword searchable encryption scheme. New secheme not only ensures the confidentiality of the cipher text keyword, but also does not increase the encryption workload of the data owner when the new data user joins. In the random oracle model, based on the hard problem of decisional Diffie-Hellman, it is proved that the scheme has trapdoor indistinguishability. In the end, obtained by the simulation program to achieve a new computationally efficient communication at low cost.
Kim, H., Hahn, C., Hur, J..  2019.  Analysis of Forward Private Searchable Encryption and Its Application to Multi-Client Settings. 2019 Eleventh International Conference on Ubiquitous and Future Networks (ICUFN). :529-531.
Searchable encryption (SE) supports privacy-preserving searches over encrypted data. Recent studies on SE have focused on improving efficiency of the schemes. However, it was shown that most of the previous SE schemes could reveal the client's queries even if they are encrypted, thereby leading to privacy violation. In order to solve the problem, several forward private SE schemes have been proposed in a single client environment. However, the previous forward private SE schemes have never been analyzed in multi-client settings. In this paper, we briefly review the previous forward private SE schemes. Then, we conduct a comparative analysis of them in terms of performance and forward privacy. Our analysis demonstrates the previous forward secure SE schemes highly depend on the file-counter. Lastly, we show that they are not scalable in multi-client settings due to the performance and security issue from the file-counter.
Yoshikawa, M., Ikezaki, Y., Nozaki, Y..  2018.  Implementation of Searchable Encryption System with Dedicated Hardware and Its Evaluation. 2018 9th IEEE Annual Ubiquitous Computing, Electronics Mobile Communication Conference (UEMCON). :218-221.
Recently, big data and artificial intelligence (AI) have been introduced into medical services. When personal information is stored in a shared database, that data must be encrypted, which, in turn, makes it difficult to extract only the necessary information. Searchable encryption has now been proposed to extract, or search, encrypted data without decrypting it. However, all previous studies regarding searchable encryption are software-based. This paper proposes a searchable encryption system embedded in dedicated hardware and evaluates its circuit size.
Chung, S., Shieh, M., Chiueh, T..  2018.  A Security Proxy to Cloud Storage Backends Based on an Efficient Wildcard Searchable Encryption. 2018 IEEE 8th International Symposium on Cloud and Service Computing (SC2). :127-130.
Cloud storage backends such as Amazon S3 are a potential storage solution to enterprises. However, to couple enterprises with these backends, at least two problems must be solved: first, how to make these semi-trusted backends as secure as on-premises storage; and second, how to selectively retrieve files as easy as on-premises storage. A security proxy can address both the problems by building a local index from keywords in files before encrypting and uploading files to these backends. But, if the local index is built in plaintext, file content is still vulnerable to local malicious staff. Searchable Encryption (SE) can get rid of this vulnerability by making index into ciphertext; however, its known constructions often require modifications to index database, and, to support wildcard queries, they are not efficient at all. In this paper, we present a security proxy that, based on our wildcard SE construction, can securely and efficiently couple enterprises with these backends. In particular, since our SE construction can work directly with existing database systems, it incurs only a little overhead, and when needed, permits the security proxy to run with constantly small storage footprint by readily out-sourcing all built indices to existing cloud databases.
Miletić, M., Vuku\v sić, M., Mau\v sa, G., Grbac, T. G..  2018.  Cross-Release Code Churn Impact on Effort-Aware Software Defect Prediction. 2018 41st International Convention on Information and Communication Technology, Electronics and Microelectronics (MIPRO). :1460-1466.

Code churn has been successfully used to identify defect inducing changes in software development. Our recent analysis of the cross-release code churn showed that several design metrics exhibit moderate correlation with the number of defects in complex systems. The goal of this paper is to explore whether cross-release code churn can be used to identify critical design change and contribute to prediction of defects for software in evolution. In our case study, we used two types of data from consecutive releases of open-source projects, with and without cross-release code churn, to build standard prediction models. The prediction models were trained on earlier releases and tested on the following ones, evaluating the performance in terms of AUC, GM and effort aware measure Pop. The comparison of their performance was used to answer our research question. The obtained results showed that the prediction model performs better when cross-release code churn is included. Practical implication of this research is to use cross-release code churn to aid in safe planning of next release in software development.

Jackson, K. A., Bennett, B. T..  2018.  Locating SQL Injection Vulnerabilities in Java Byte Code Using Natural Language Techniques. SoutheastCon 2018. :1-5.

With so much our daily lives relying on digital devices like personal computers and cell phones, there is a growing demand for code that not only functions properly, but is secure and keeps user data safe. However, ensuring this is not such an easy task, and many developers do not have the required skills or resources to ensure their code is secure. Many code analysis tools have been written to find vulnerabilities in newly developed code, but this technology tends to produce many false positives, and is still not able to identify all of the problems. Other methods of finding software vulnerabilities automatically are required. This proof-of-concept study applied natural language processing on Java byte code to locate SQL injection vulnerabilities in a Java program. Preliminary findings show that, due to the high number of terms in the dataset, using singular decision trees will not produce a suitable model for locating SQL injection vulnerabilities, while random forest structures proved more promising. Still, further work is needed to determine the best classification tool.

Elliott, A. S., Ruef, A., Hicks, M., Tarditi, D..  2018.  Checked C: Making C Safe by Extension. 2018 IEEE Cybersecurity Development (SecDev). :53-60.

This paper presents Checked C, an extension to C designed to support spatial safety, implemented in Clang and LLVM. Checked C's design is distinguished by its focus on backward-compatibility, incremental conversion, developer control, and enabling highly performant code. Like past approaches to a safer C, Checked C employs a form of checked pointer whose accesses can be statically or dynamically verified. Performance evaluation on a set of standard benchmark programs shows overheads to be relatively low. More interestingly, Checked C introduces the notions of a checked region and bounds-safe interfaces.

Pfeffer, T., Herber, P., Druschke, L., Glesner, S..  2018.  Efficient and Safe Control Flow Recovery Using a Restricted Intermediate Language. 2018 IEEE 27th International Conference on Enabling Technologies: Infrastructure for Collaborative Enterprises (WETICE). :235-240.

Approaches for the automatic analysis of security policies on source code level cannot trivially be applied to binaries. This is due to the lacking high-level semantics of low-level object code, and the fundamental problem that control-flow recovery from binaries is difficult. We present a novel approach to recover the control-flow of binaries that is both safe and efficient. The key idea of our approach is to use the information contained in security mechanisms to approximate the targets of computed branches. To achieve this, we first define a restricted control transition intermediate language (RCTIL), which restricts the number of possible targets for each branch to a finite number of given targets. Based on this intermediate language, we demonstrate how a safe model of the control flow can be recovered without data-flow analyses. Our evaluation shows that that makes our solution more efficient than existing solutions.

Khatchadourian, R., Tang, Y., Bagherzadeh, M., Ahmed, S..  2019.  Safe Automated Refactoring for Intelligent Parallelization of Java 8 Streams. 2019 IEEE/ACM 41st International Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE). :619-630.

Streaming APIs are becoming more pervasive in mainstream Object-Oriented programming languages. For example, the Stream API introduced in Java 8 allows for functional-like, MapReduce-style operations in processing both finite and infinite data structures. However, using this API efficiently involves subtle considerations like determining when it is best for stream operations to run in parallel, when running operations in parallel can be less efficient, and when it is safe to run in parallel due to possible lambda expression side-effects. In this paper, we present an automated refactoring approach that assists developers in writing efficient stream code in a semantics-preserving fashion. The approach, based on a novel data ordering and typestate analysis, consists of preconditions for automatically determining when it is safe and possibly advantageous to convert sequential streams to parallel and unorder or de-parallelize already parallel streams. The approach was implemented as a plug-in to the Eclipse IDE, uses the WALA and SAFE analysis frameworks, and was evaluated on 11 Java projects consisting of ?642K lines of code. We found that 57 of 157 candidate streams (36.31%) were refactorable, and an average speedup of 3.49 on performance tests was observed. The results indicate that the approach is useful in optimizing stream code to their full potential.

Reijers, Niels, Shih, Chi-Sheng.  2018.  CapeVM: A Safe and Fast Virtual Machine for Resource-Constrained Internet-of-Things Devices. Proceedings of the 16th ACM Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems. :250-263.

This paper presents CapeVM, a sensor node virtual machine aimed at delivering both high performance and a sandboxed execution environment that ensures malicious code cannot corrupt the VM's internal state or perform actions not allowed by the VM. CapeVM uses Ahead-of-Time compilation and introduces a range of optimisations to eliminate most of the overhead present in previous work on sensor node AOT compilers. A sandboxed execution environment is guaranteed by a set of checks. The structured nature of the VM's instruction set allows the VM to perform most checks at load time, reducing the need for expensive run-time checks compared to native code approaches. While some overhead from using a VM and adding sandbox checks cannot be avoided, CapeVM's optimisations reduce this overhead dramatically. We evaluate CapeVM using a set of IoT applications and show this results in a performance just 2.1x slower than unsandboxed native code. Thus, CapeVM combines the desirable properties ofexisting work on both sandboxed execution and virtual machines for sensor nodes, with significantly improved performance.