# Biblio

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2019-10-28
Huang, Jingwei.  2018.  2018 IEEE International Conference on Big Data (Big Data). :2197–2205.
This paper addresses the nature of data and knowledge, the relation between them, the variety of views as a characteristic of Big Data regarding that data may come from many different sources/views from different viewpoints, and the associated essential issues of data provenance, knowledge provenance, scientific computing integrity, and trust in the data science process. Towards the direction of data-intensive science and engineering, it is of paramount importance to ensure Scientific Computing Integrity (SCI). A failure of SCI may be caused by malicious attacks, natural environmental changes, faults of scientists, operations mistakes, faults of supporting systems, faults of processes, and errors in the data or theories on which a research relies. The complexity of scientific workflows and large provenance graphs as well as various causes for SCI failures make ensuring SCI extremely difficult. Provenance and trust play critical role in evaluating SCI. This paper reports our progress in building a model for provenance-based trust reasoning about SCI.
.  2018.  2018 IEEE International Conference "Quality Management, Transport and Information Security, Information Technologies" (IT QM IS). :815–819.
Feature of modern scientific information systems is their integration with computing applications, providing distributed computer simulation and intellectual processing of Big Data using high-efficiency computing. Often these software systems include legacy applications in different programming languages, with non-standardized interfaces. To solve the problem of applications integration, containerization systems are using that allow to configure environment in the shortest time to deploy software system. However, there are no such systems for computer simulation systems with large number of nodes. The article considers the actual task of combining containers into a cluster, integrating legacy applications to manage the distributed software system MD-SLAG-MELT v.14, which supports high-performance computing and visualization of the computer experiments results. Testing results of the container cluster including automatic load sharing module for MD-SLAG-MELT system v.14. are given.
2019-10-23
.  2018.  2018 Cyber Resilience Conference (CRC). :1-4.

Many governments organizations in Libya have started transferring traditional government services to e-government. These e-services will benefit a wide range of public. However, deployment of e-government bring many new security issues. Attackers would take advantages of vulnerabilities in these e-services and would conduct cyber attacks that would result in data loss, services interruptions, privacy loss, financial loss, and other significant loss. The number of vulnerabilities in e-services have increase due to the complexity of the e-services system, a lack of secure programming practices, miss-configuration of systems and web applications vulnerabilities, or not staying up-to-date with security patches. Unfortunately, there is a lack of study being done to assess the current security level of Libyan government websites. Therefore, this study aims to assess the current security of 16 Libyan government websites using penetration testing framework. In this assessment, no exploits were committed or tried on the websites. In penetration testing framework (pen test), there are four main phases: Reconnaissance, Scanning, Enumeration, Vulnerability Assessment and, SSL encryption evaluation. The aim of a security assessment is to discover vulnerabilities that could be exploited by attackers. We also conducted a Content Analysis phase for all websites. In this phase, we searched for security and privacy policies implementation information on the government websites. The aim is to determine whether the websites are aware of current accepted standard for security and privacy. From our security assessment results of 16 Libyan government websites, we compared the websites based on the number of vulnerabilities found and the level of security policies. We only found 9 websites with high and medium vulnerabilities. Many of these vulnerabilities are due to outdated software and systems, miss-configuration of systems and not applying the latest security patches. These vulnerabilities could be used by cyber hackers to attack the systems and caused damages to the systems. Also, we found 5 websites didn't implement any SSL encryption for data transactions. Lastly, only 2 websites have published security and privacy policies on their websites. This seems to indicate that these websites were not concerned with current standard in security and privacy. Finally, we classify the 16 websites into 4 safety categories: highly unsafe, unsafe, somewhat unsafe and safe. We found only 1 website with a highly unsafe ranking. Based on our finding, we concluded that the security level of the Libyan government websites are adequate, but can be further improved. However, immediate actions need to be taken to mitigate possible cyber attacks by fixing the vulnerabilities and implementing SSL encryption. Also, the websites need to publish their security and privacy policy so the users could trust their websites.

.  2018.  2018 IEEE International Conference on Data Mining Workshops (ICDMW). :71-80.

The security of web communication via the SSL/TLS protocols relies on safe distributions of public keys associated with web domains in the form of X.509 certificates. Certificate authorities (CAs) are trusted third parties that issue these certificates. However, the CA ecosystem is fragile and prone to compromises. Starting with Google's Certificate Transparency project, a number of research works have recently looked at adding transparency for better CA accountability, effectively through public logs of all certificates issued by certification authorities, to augment the current X.509 certificate validation process into SSL/TLS. In this paper, leveraging recent progress in blockchain technology, we propose a novel system, called CTB, that makes it impossible for a CA to issue a certificate for a domain without obtaining consent from the domain owner. We further make progress to equip CTB with certificate revocation mechanism. We implement CTB using IBM's Hyperledger Fabric blockchain platform. CTB's smart contract, written in Go, is provided for complete reference.

Szalachowski, Pawel.  2018.  2018 Crypto Valley Conference on Blockchain Technology (CVCBT). :101-104.

Bitcoin provides freshness properties by forming a blockchain where each block is associated with its timestamp and the previous block. Due to these properties, the Bitcoin protocol is being used as a decentralized, trusted, and secure timestamping service. Although Bitcoin participants which create new blocks cannot modify their order, they can manipulate timestamps almost undetected. This undermines the Bitcoin protocol as a reliable timestamping service. In particular, a newcomer that synchronizes the entire blockchain has a little guarantee about timestamps of all blocks. In this paper, we present a simple yet powerful mechanism that increases the reliability of Bitcoin timestamps. Our protocol can provide evidence that a block was created within a certain time range. The protocol is efficient, backward compatible, and surprisingly, currently deployed SSL/TLS servers can act as reference time sources. The protocol has many applications and can be used for detecting various attacks against the Bitcoin protocol.

.  2018.  IEEE INFOCOM 2018 - IEEE Conference on Computer Communications. :2060-2068.

In recent years, real-world attacks against PKI take place frequently. For example, malicious domains' certificates issued by compromised CAs are widespread, and revoked certificates are still trusted by clients. In spite of a lot of research to improve the security of SSL/TLS connections, there are still some problems unsolved. On one hand, although log-based schemes provided certificate audit service to quickly detect CAs' misbehavior, the security and data consistency of log servers are ignored. On the other hand, revoked certificates checking is neglected due to the incomplete, insecure and inefficient certificate revocation mechanisms. Further, existing revoked certificates checking schemes are centralized which would bring safety bottlenecks. In this paper, we propose a blockchain-based public and efficient audit scheme for TLS connections, which is called Certchain. Specially, we propose a dependability-rank based consensus protocol in our blockchain system and a new data structure to support certificate forward traceability. Furthermore, we present a method that utilizes dual counting bloom filter (DCBF) with eliminating false positives to achieve economic space and efficient query for certificate revocation checking. The security analysis and experimental results demonstrate that CertChain is suitable in practice with moderate overhead.

.  2018.  Proceedings of the 2018 ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security. :1441-1454.

Modern applications often involve processing of sensitive information. However, the lack of privilege separation within the user space leaves sensitive application secret such as cryptographic keys just as unprotected as a "hello world" string. Cutting-edge hardware-supported security features are being introduced. However, the features are often vendor-specific or lack compatibility with older generations of the processors. The situation leaves developers with no portable solution to incorporate protection for the sensitive application component. We propose LOTRx86, a fundamental and portable approach for user-space privilege separation. Our approach creates a more privileged user execution layer called PrivUser by harnessing the underused intermediate privilege levels on the x86 architecture. The PrivUser memory space, a set of pages within process address space that are inaccessible to user mode, is a safe place for application secrets and routines that access them. We implement the LOTRx86 ABI that exports the privcall interface to users to invoke secret handling routines in PrivUser. This way, sensitive application operations that involve the secrets are performed in a strictly controlled manner. The memory access control in our architecture is privilege-based, accessing the protected application secret only requires a change in the privilege, eliminating the need for costly remote procedure calls or change in address space. We evaluated our platform by developing a proof-of-concept LOTRx86-enabled web server that employs our architecture to securely access its private key during an SSL connection. We conducted a set of experiments including a performance measurement on the PoC on both Intel and AMD PCs, and confirmed that LOTRx86 incurs only a limited performance overhead.

.  2019.  2019 International Conference on Networked Systems (NetSys). :1-3.

Several operational and economic factors impact the patching decisions of critical infrastructures. The constraints imposed by such factors could prevent organizations from fully remedying all of the vulnerabilities that expose their (critical) assets to risk. Therefore, an involved decision maker (e.g. security officer) has to strategically decide on the allocation of possible remediation efforts towards minimizing the inherent security risk. This, however, involves the use of comparative judgments to prioritize risks and remediation actions. Throughout this work, the security risk is quantified using the security metric Time-To-Compromise (TTC). Our main contribution is to provide a generic TTC estimator to comparatively assess the security posture of computer networks taking into account interdependencies between the network components, different adversary skill levels, and characteristics of (known and zero-day) vulnerabilities. The presented estimator relies on a stochastic TTC model and Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) techniques to account for the input data variability and inherent prediction uncertainties.

Isaeva, N. A..  2018.  2018 Eleventh International Conference "Management of Large-Scale System Development" (MLSD. :1-4.

The method of choice the control parameters of a complex system based on estimates of the risks is proposed. The procedure of calculating the estimates of risks intended for a choice of rational managing directors of influences by an allocation of the group of the operating factors for the set criteria factor is considered. The purpose of choice of control parameters of the complex system is the minimization of an estimate of the risk of the functioning of the system by mean of a solution of a problem of search of an extremum of the function of many variables. The example of a choice of the operating factors in the sphere of intangible assets is given.

.  2018.  2018 11th International Conference on IT Security Incident Management IT Forensics (IMF). :115-133.

To manage cybersecurity risks in practice, a simple yet effective method to assess suchs risks for individual systems is needed. With time-to-compromise (TTC), McQueen et al. (2005) introduced such a metric that measures the expected time that a system remains uncompromised given a specific threat landscape. Unlike other approaches that require complex system modeling to proceed, TTC combines simplicity with expressiveness and therefore has evolved into one of the most successful cybersecurity metrics in practice. We revisit TTC and identify several mathematical and methodological shortcomings which we address by embedding all aspects of the metric into the continuous domain and the possibility to incorporate information about vulnerability characteristics and other cyber threat intelligence into the model. We propose $\beta$-TTC, a formal extension of TTC which includes information from CVSS vectors as well as a continuous attacker skill based on a $\beta$-distribution. We show that our new metric (1) remains simple enough for practical use and (2) gives more realistic predictions than the original TTC by using data from a modern and productively used vulnerability database of a national CERT.

.  2018.  Proceedings of the 26th ACM International Conference on Multimedia. :1984-1992.

.  2018.  Proceedings of the 2018 ACM Conference on Economics and Computation. :215-232.

Accurately modeling human decision-making in security is critical to thinking about when, why, and how to recommend that users adopt certain secure behaviors. In this work, we conduct behavioral economics experiments to model the rationality of end-user security decision-making in a realistic online experimental system simulating a bank account. We ask participants to make a financially impactful security choice, in the face of transparent risks of account compromise and benefits offered by an optional security behavior (two-factor authentication). We measure the cost and utility of adopting the security behavior via measurements of time spent executing the behavior and estimates of the participant's wage. We find that more than 50% of our participants made rational (e.g., utility optimal) decisions, and we find that participants are more likely to behave rationally in the face of higher risk. Additionally, we find that users' decisions can be modeled well as a function of past behavior (anchoring effects), knowledge of costs, and to a lesser extent, users' awareness of risks and context (R2=0.61). We also find evidence of endowment effects, as seen in other areas of economic and psychological decision-science literature, in our digital-security setting. Finally, using our data, we show theoretically that a "one-size-fits-all" emphasis on security can lead to market losses, but that adoption by a subset of users with higher risks or lower costs can lead to market gains.

.  2018.  Proceedings of the International Conference on Computer-Aided Design. :92:1-92:6.

Automotive systems have always been designed with safety in mind. In this regard, the functional safety standard, ISO 26262, was drafted with the intention of minimizing risk due to random hardware faults or systematic failure in design of electrical and electronic components of an automobile. However, growing complexity of a modern car has added another potential point of failure in the form of cyber or sensor attacks. Recently, researchers have demonstrated that vulnerability in vehicle's software or sensing units could enable them to remotely alter the intended operation of the vehicle. As such, in addition to safety, security should be considered as an important design goal. However, designing security solutions without the consideration of safety objectives could result in potential hazards. Consequently, in this paper we propose the notion of security for safety and show that by integrating safety conditions with our system-level security solution, which comprises of a modified Kalman filter and a Chi-squared detector, we can prevent potential hazards that could occur due to violation of safety objectives during an attack. Furthermore, with the help of a car-following case study, where the follower car is equipped with an adaptive-cruise control unit, we show that our proposed system-level security solution preserves the safety constraints and prevent collision between vehicle while under sensor attack.

.  2018.  Proceedings of the 2018 Workshop on Privacy in the Electronic Society. :121-132.

The promise of big data relies on the release and aggregation of data sets. When these data sets contain sensitive information about individuals, it has been scalable and convenient to protect the privacy of these individuals by de-identification. However, studies show that the combination of de-identified data sets with other data sets risks re-identification of some records. Some studies have shown how to measure this risk in specific contexts where certain types of public data sets (such as voter roles) are assumed to be available to attackers. To the extent that it can be accomplished, such analyses enable the threat of compromises to be balanced against the benefits of sharing data. For example, a study that might save lives by enabling medical research may be enabled in light of a sufficiently low probability of compromise from sharing de-identified data. In this paper, we introduce a general probabilistic re-identification framework that can be instantiated in specific contexts to estimate the probability of compromises based on explicit assumptions. We further propose a baseline of such assumptions that enable a first-cut estimate of risk for practical case studies. We refer to the framework with these assumptions as the Naive Re-identification Framework (NRF). As a case study, we show how we can apply NRF to analyze and quantify the risk of re-identification arising from releasing de-identified medical data in the context of publicly-available social media data. The results of this case study show that NRF can be used to obtain meaningful quantification of the re-identification risk, compare the risk of different social media, and assess risks of combinations of various demographic attributes and medical conditions that individuals may voluntarily disclose on social media.

.  2018.  Proceedings of the 23Nd ACM on Symposium on Access Control Models and Technologies. :205-207.

In context-aware applications, user's access privileges rely on both user's identity and context. Access control rules are usually statically defined while contexts and the system state can change dynamically. Changes in contexts can result in service disruptions. To address this issue, this poster proposes a reactive access control system that associates contingency plans with access control rules. Risk scores are also associated with actions part of the contingency plans. Such risks are estimated by using fuzzy inference. Our approach is cast into the XACML reference architecture.

.  2018.  Proceedings of the 22Nd Pan-Hellenic Conference on Informatics. :46-51.

The adoption of the HTTPS - i.e. HTTP over TLS - protocol by the Hellenic websites is studied in this work. Since this protocol constitutes a de-facto standard for secure communications in the web, our aim is to identify whether the underlying TLS protocol in popular websites in Greece is properly configured, so as to avoid known vulnerabilities. To this end, a systematic approach utilizing two well-known TLS scanner tools is adopted to evaluate 241 sites of high popularity. The results illustrate that only about half of the sites seem to be at a satisfactory level and, thus, there is still much room for improvement, mainly due to the fact that obsolete ciphers and/or protocol versions are still supported; there is also a small portion - i.e. about 3% of the sites - that do not implement the HTTPS at all, thus posing very high security risks for their users who provide their credentials via a totally insecure channel. We also examined, using an appropriate online questionnaire, whether the users are actually aware of what the HTTPS means and how they check the security of the websites. The outcome of this research shows that much work needs to be done to increase the knowledge and the security awareness of an average Internet user.

.  2018.  Proceedings of the 5th Annual Symposium and Bootcamp on Hot Topics in the Science of Security. :7:1-7:10.

Despite more than a decade of heightened focus on cybersecurity, cyber threats remain an ongoing and growing concern [1]-[3]. Stakeholders often perform cyber risk assessments in order to understand potential mission impacts due to cyber threats. One common approach to cyber risk assessment is event-based analysis which usually considers adverse events, effects, and paths through a system, then estimates the effort/likelihood and mission impact of such attacks. When conducted manually, this type of approach is labor-intensive, subjective, and does not scale well to complex systems. As an alternative, we present an automated capability-based risk assessment approach, compare it to manual event-based analysis approaches, describe its application to a notional space system ground segment, and discuss the results.

2019-10-15
.  2018.  2018 21st Saudi Computer Society National Computer Conference (NCC). :1–3.
The use of technology is increasing nowadays. On the other hand, most governments and legal offices still do not use technology to implement simple things such as signing a document because they still rely on face-to-face to ensure the authenticity of the signatory. Several challenges may come while signing documents online such as, how to authenticate the signing parties and how to ensure that signing parties will not deny their signatures in future? These challenges are addressed by SecureSign system that attach the signatories' identity with their fingerprints. SecureSign was implemented in C\# and Microsoft SQL Server Management Studio, with integrating fingerprint reader and electronic signature tablet. The SecureSign system achieves the main security goals which are confidentiality, authentication, non-repudiation and integrity. It will have an impact on society and business environments positively as it will reduce fraud and forgery, and help in controlling the process of signing either in contracts or confidential papers. SecureSign have Successfully achieved confidentiality by encrypting data using AES algorithm, authentication by using user fingerprint, nonrepudiation by associating the user ID with his fingerprint, and integrity by embedding QR barcode within the document and hashing its content.
.  2018.  2018 International Conference on Communication and Signal Processing (ICCSP). :0411–0415.
Data's security being important aspect of the today's internet is gaining more importance day by day. With the increase in online data exchange, transactions and payments; secure payment and secure data transfers have become an area of concern. Cryptography makes the data transmission over the internet secure by various methods, algorithms. Cryptography helps in avoiding the unauthorized people accessing the data by authentication, confidentiality, integrity and non-repudiation. In order to securely transmit the data many cryptographic algorithms are present, but the algorithm to be used should be robust, efficient, cost effective, high performance and easily deployable. Choosing an algorithm which suits the customer's requirement is an utmost important task. The proposed work discusses different symmetric key cryptographic algorithms like DES, 3DES, AES and Blowfish by considering encryption time, decryption time, entropy, memory usage, throughput, avalanche effect and energy consumption by practical implementation using java. Practical implementation of algorithms has been highlighted in proposed work considering tradeoff performance in terms of cost of various parameters rather than mere theoretical concepts. Battery consumption and avalanche effect of algorithms has been discussed. It reveals that AES performs very well in overall performance analysis among considered algorithms.
.  2018.  Proceedings of the Thirteenth EuroSys Conference. :24:1–24:15.
Users of online services such as messaging, code hosting and collaborative document editing expect the services to uphold the integrity of their data. Despite providers' best efforts, data corruption still occurs, but at present service integrity violations are excluded from SLAs. For providers to include such violations as part of SLAs, the competing requirements of clients and providers must be satisfied. Clients need the ability to independently identify and prove service integrity violations to claim compensation. At the same time, providers must be able to refute spurious claims. We describe LibSEAL, a SEcure Audit Library for Internet services that creates a non-repudiable audit log of service operations and checks invariants to discover violations of service integrity. LibSEAL is a drop-in replacement for TLS libraries used by services, and thus observes and logs all service requests and responses. It runs inside a trusted execution environment, such as Intel SGX, to protect the integrity of the audit log. Logs are stored using an embedded relational database, permitting service invariant violations to be discovered using simple SQL queries. We evaluate LibSEAL with three popular online services (Git, ownCloud and Dropbox) and demonstrate that it is effective in discovering integrity violations, while reducing throughput by at most 14%.
.  2018.  Proceedings of the 2018 International Conference on Information Science and System. :234–238.
Fog computing has emerged due to the problem that it becomes difficult to store every data to the cloud system as the number of Internet of Things increases. In this fog computing, a vast amount of data generated from the Internet of Things is transmitted to the cloud system located at a remote place, and is processed by a fog computer such as a sensor or a router located nearby, so that only the necessary data is transmitted to the cloud system. However, the above-mentioned fog computer has some drawbacks like being shut down due to an attack by a malicious user in advance, and a method of processing when a fog computer is down or restored. In this paper we describe a fog computing with blockchain that enables fog computers to share transaction generated by processing transaction information of a device controlled by a blockchain method to a security and device control method of a fog computer utilizing the technology. Furthemore by using security properties of blockchain such as authentication, non-repudiation and data integrity, fog computing using blockchain has advantage of security comparing to previous Cloud and fog computing system using centralized database or P2P networks.
.  2018.  Proceedings of the 2018 ACM International Joint Conference and 2018 International Symposium on Pervasive and Ubiquitous Computing and Wearable Computers. :630–635.
In most crowdsensing systems, the quality of the collected data is varied and difficult to evaluate while the existing crowdsensing quality control methods are mostly based on a central platform, which is not completely trusted in reality and results in fraud and other problems. To solve these questions, a novel crowdsensing quality control model is proposed in this paper. First, the idea of blockchain is introduced into this model. The credit-based verifier selection mechanism and twice consensuses are proposed to realize the non-repudiation and non-tampering of information in crowdsensing. Then, the quality grading evaluation (QGE) is put forward, in which the method of truth discovery and the idea of fuzzy theories are combined to evaluate the quality of sensing data, and the garbled circuit is used to ensure that evaluation criteria can not be leaked. Finally, the Experiments show that our model is feasible in time and effective in quality evaluation.
.  2018.  2018 International Conference on Frontiers of Information Technology (FIT). :135–140.
Live VM migration is the most vulnerable process in cloud federations for DDOS attacks, loss of data integrity, confidentiality, unauthorized access and injection of malicious viruses on VM disk images. We have scrutinized following set of crucial security features which are; authorization, confidentiality, replay protection (accountability), integrity, mutual authentication and source non-repudiation (availability) to cater different threats and vulnerabilities during live VM migration. The investigated threats and vulnerabilities are catered and implemented in a proposed solution, presented in this paper. Six security features-authorization, confidentiality, replay protection, integrity, mutual authentication and source non-repudiation are focused and modular implementation has been done. Solution is validated in AVISPA tool in modules for threats for all the notorious security requirements and no outbreak were seen.
.  2018.  2018 2nd International Conference on 2018 2nd International Conference on I-SMAC (IoT in Social, Mobile, Analytics and Cloud) (I-SMAC)I-SMAC (IoT in Social, Mobile, Analytics and Cloud) (I-SMAC). :253–257.

Digital signatures are replacing paper-based work to make life easier for customers and employees in various industries. We rigorously use RSA and Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) for public key cryptographic algorithms. Nowadays ECDSA (Elliptical Curve Digital Signature Algorithm) gaining more popularity than the RSA algorithm because of the better performance of ECDSA over RSA. The main advantage of ECC over RSA is ECC provides the same level of security with less key size and overhead than RSA. This paper focuses on a brief review of the performance of ECDSA and RSA in various aspects like time, security and power. This review tells us about why ECC has become the latest trend in the present cryptographic scenario.

.  2018.  2018 International Conference on Innovation and Intelligence for Informatics, Computing, and Technologies (3ICT). :1–6.
Access to information and data is becoming an essential part of nearly every aspect of modern business operation. Unfortunately, accessing information systems comes with increased chances of intrusion and unauthorized access. Acquiring and maintaining evidence from a computer or networks in the current high-tech world is essential in any comprehensive forensic investigation. Software and hardware tools are used to easily manage the evidence and view all relevant files. In an effort to enhance computer access security, keystroke authentication, is one of the biometric solutions that were proposed as a solution for enhancing users' identification. This research proposes using user's keystroke errors to determine guilt during forensics investigations, where it was found that individuals keystroke patters are repeatable and variant from those of others, and that keystroke patterns are impossible to steal or imitate. So, in this paper, we investigate the effectiveness of relying on user's mistakes'' as another behavioral biometric keystroke dynamic.