Visible to the public Biblio

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2021-02-08
Arunpandian, S., Dhenakaran, S. S..  2020.  DNA based Computing Encryption Scheme Blending Color and Gray Images. 2020 International Conference on Communication and Signal Processing (ICCSP). :0966–0970.

In this paper, a novel DNA based computing method is proposed for encryption of biometric color(face)and gray fingerprint images. In many applications of present scenario, gray and color images are exhibited major role for authenticating identity of an individual. The values of aforementioned images have considered as two separate matrices. The key generation process two level mathematical operations have applied on fingerprint image for generating encryption key. For enhancing security to biometric image, DNA computing has done on the above matrices generating DNA sequence. Further, DNA sequences have scrambled to add complexity to biometric image. Results of blending images, image of DNA computing has shown in experimental section. It is observed that the proposed substitution DNA computing algorithm has shown good resistant against statistical and differential attacks.

Pramanik, S., Bandyopadhyay, S. K., Ghosh, R..  2020.  Signature Image Hiding in Color Image using Steganography and Cryptography based on Digital Signature Concepts. 2020 2nd International Conference on Innovative Mechanisms for Industry Applications (ICIMIA). :665–669.
Data Transmission in network security is one of the most vital issues in today's communication world. The outcome of the suggested method is outlined over here. Enhanced security can be achieved by this method. The vigorous growth in the field of information communication has made information transmission much easier. But this type of advancement has opened up many possibilities of information being snooped. So, day-by-day maintaining of information security is becoming an inseparable part of computing and communication. In this paper, the authors have explored techniques that blend cryptography & steganography together. In steganography, information is kept hidden behind a cover image. In this paper, approaches for information hiding using both cryptography & steganography is proposed keeping in mind two considerations - size of the encrypted object and degree of security. Here, signature image information is kept hidden into cover image using private key of sender & receiver, which extracts the information from stego image using a public key. This approach can be used for message authentication, message integrity & non-repudiation purpose.
2021-01-25
Abusukhon, A., AlZu’bi, S..  2020.  New Direction of Cryptography: A Review on Text-to-Image Encryption Algorithms Based on RGB Color Value. 2020 Seventh International Conference on Software Defined Systems (SDS). :235–239.
Data encryption techniques are important for answering the question: How secure is the Internet for sending sensitive data. Keeping data secure while they are sent through the global network is a difficult task. This is because many hackers are fishing these data in order to get some benefits. The researchers have developed various types of encryption algorithms to protect data from attackers. These algorithms are mainly classified into two categories namely symmetric and asymmetric encryption algorithms. This survey sheds light on the recent work carried out on encrypting a text into an image based on the RGB color value and held a comparison between them based on various factors evolved from the literature.
2021-01-18
Molek, V., Hurtik, P..  2020.  Training Neural Network Over Encrypted Data. 2020 IEEE Third International Conference on Data Stream Mining Processing (DSMP). :23–27.
We are answering the question whenever systems with convolutional neural network classifier trained over plain and encrypted data keep the ordering according to accuracy. Our motivation is need for designing convolutional neural network classifiers when data in their plain form are not accessible because of private company policy or sensitive data gathered by police. We propose to use a combination of fully connected autoencoder together with a convolutional neural network classifier. The autoencoder transforms the data info form that allows the convolutional classifier to be trained. We present three experiments that show the ordering of systems over plain and encrypted data. The results show that the systems indeed keep the ordering, and thus a NN designer can select appropriate architecture over encrypted data and later let data owner train or fine-tune the system/CNN classifier on the plain data.
2021-01-15
Akhtar, Z., Dasgupta, D..  2019.  A Comparative Evaluation of Local Feature Descriptors for DeepFakes Detection. 2019 IEEE International Symposium on Technologies for Homeland Security (HST). :1—5.
The global proliferation of affordable photographing devices and readily-available face image and video editing software has caused a remarkable rise in face manipulations, e.g., altering face skin color using FaceApp. Such synthetic manipulations are becoming a very perilous problem, as altered faces not only can fool human experts but also have detrimental consequences on automated face identification systems (AFIS). Thus, it is vital to formulate techniques to improve the robustness of AFIS against digital face manipulations. The most prominent countermeasure is face manipulation detection, which aims at discriminating genuine samples from manipulated ones. Over the years, analysis of microtextural features using local image descriptors has been successfully used in various applications owing to their flexibility, computational simplicity, and performances. Therefore, in this paper, we study the possibility of identifying manipulated faces via local feature descriptors. The comparative experimental investigation of ten local feature descriptors on a new and publicly available DeepfakeTIMIT database is reported.
Li, Y., Yang, X., Sun, P., Qi, H., Lyu, S..  2020.  Celeb-DF: A Large-Scale Challenging Dataset for DeepFake Forensics. 2020 IEEE/CVF Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR). :3204—3213.
AI-synthesized face-swapping videos, commonly known as DeepFakes, is an emerging problem threatening the trustworthiness of online information. The need to develop and evaluate DeepFake detection algorithms calls for datasets of DeepFake videos. However, current DeepFake datasets suffer from low visual quality and do not resemble DeepFake videos circulated on the Internet. We present a new large-scale challenging DeepFake video dataset, Celeb-DF, which contains 5,639 high-quality DeepFake videos of celebrities generated using improved synthesis process. We conduct a comprehensive evaluation of DeepFake detection methods and datasets to demonstrate the escalated level of challenges posed by Celeb-DF.
2020-12-11
Zhou, Z., Yang, Y., Cai, Z., Yang, Y., Lin, L..  2019.  Combined Layer GAN for Image Style Transfer*. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Computational Electromagnetics (ICCEM). :1—3.

Image style transfer is an increasingly interesting topic in computer vision where the goal is to map images from one style to another. In this paper, we propose a new framework called Combined Layer GAN as a solution of dealing with image style transfer problem. Specifically, the edge-constraint and color-constraint are proposed and explored in the GAN based image translation method to improve the performance. The motivation of the work is that color and edge are fundamental vision factors for an image, while in the traditional deep network based approach, there is a lack of fine control of these factors in the process of translation and the performance is degraded consequently. Our experiments and evaluations show that our novel method with the edge and color constrains is more stable, and significantly improves the performance compared with the traditional methods.

Vasiliu, V., Sörös, G..  2019.  Coherent Rendering of Virtual Smile Previews with Fast Neural Style Transfer. 2019 IEEE International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality (ISMAR). :66—73.

Coherent rendering in augmented reality deals with synthesizing virtual content that seamlessly blends in with the real content. Unfortunately, capturing or modeling every real aspect in the virtual rendering process is often unfeasible or too expensive. We present a post-processing method that improves the look of rendered overlays in a dental virtual try-on application. We combine the original frame and the default rendered frame in an autoencoder neural network in order to obtain a more natural output, inspired by artistic style transfer research. Specifically, we apply the original frame as style on the rendered frame as content, repeating the process with each new pair of frames. Our method requires only a single forward pass, our shallow architecture ensures fast execution, and our internal feedback loop inherently enforces temporal consistency.

Friedrich, T., Menzel, S..  2019.  Standardization of Gram Matrix for Improved 3D Neural Style Transfer. 2019 IEEE Symposium Series on Computational Intelligence (SSCI). :1375—1382.

Neural Style Transfer based on convolutional neural networks has produced visually appealing results for image and video data in the recent years where e.g. the content of a photo and the style of a painting are merged to a novel piece of digital art. In practical engineering development, we utilize 3D objects as standard for optimizing digital shapes. Since these objects can be represented as binary 3D voxel representation, we propose to extend the Neural Style Transfer method to 3D geometries in analogy to 2D pixel representations. In a series of experiments, we first evaluate traditional Neural Style Transfer on 2D binary monochromatic images. We show that this method produces reasonable results on binary images lacking color information and even improve them by introducing a standardized Gram matrix based loss function for style. For an application of Neural Style Transfer on 3D voxel primitives, we trained several classifier networks demonstrating the importance of a meaningful convolutional network architecture. The standardization of the Gram matrix again strongly contributes to visually improved, less noisy results. We conclude that Neural Style Transfer extended by a standardization of the Gram matrix is a promising approach for generating novel 3D voxelized objects and expect future improvements with increasing graphics memory availability for finer object resolutions.

2020-12-07
Li, Y., Zhang, T., Han, X., Qi, Y..  2018.  Image Style Transfer in Deep Learning Networks. 2018 5th International Conference on Systems and Informatics (ICSAI). :660–664.

Since Gatys et al. proved that the convolution neural network (CNN) can be used to generate new images with artistic styles by separating and recombining the styles and contents of images. Neural Style Transfer has attracted wide attention of computer vision researchers. This paper aims to provide an overview of the style transfer application deep learning network development process, and introduces the classical style migration model, on the basis of the research on the migration of style of the deep learning network for collecting and organizing, and put forward related to gathered during the investigation of the problem solution, finally some classical model in the image style to display and compare the results of migration.

Jeong, T., Mandal, A..  2018.  Flexible Selecting of Style to Content Ratio in Neural Style Transfer. 2018 17th IEEE International Conference on Machine Learning and Applications (ICMLA). :264–269.

Humans have created many pioneers of art from the beginning of time. There are not many notable achievements by an artificial intelligence to create something visually captivating in the field of art. However, some breakthroughs were made in the past few years by learning the differences between the content and style of an image using convolution neural networks and texture synthesis. But most of the approaches have the limitations on either processing time, choosing a certain style image or altering the weight ratio of style image. Therefore, we are to address these restrictions and provide a system which allows any style image selection with a user defined style weight ratio in minimum time possible.

2020-10-29
Choi, Seok-Hwan, Shin, Jin-Myeong, Liu, Peng, Choi, Yoon-Ho.  2019.  Robustness Analysis of CNN-based Malware Family Classification Methods Against Various Adversarial Attacks. 2019 IEEE Conference on Communications and Network Security (CNS). :1—6.

As malware family classification methods, image-based classification methods have attracted much attention. Especially, due to the fast classification speed and the high classification accuracy, Convolutional Neural Network (CNN)-based malware family classification methods have been studied. However, previous studies on CNN-based classification methods focused only on improving the classification accuracy of malware families. That is, previous studies did not consider the cases that the accuracy of CNN-based malware classification methods can be decreased under the existence of adversarial attacks. In this paper, we analyze the robustness of various CNN-based malware family classification models under adversarial attacks. While adding imperceptible non-random perturbations to the input image, we measured how the accuracy of the CNN-based malware family classification model can be affected. Also, we showed the influence of three significant visualization parameters(i.e., the size of input image, dimension of input image, and conversion color of a special character)on the accuracy variation under adversarial attacks. From the evaluation results using the Microsoft malware dataset, we showed that even the accuracy over 98% of the CNN-based malware family classification method can be decreased to less than 7%.

2020-10-16
Ingale, Alpana A., Moon, Sunil K..  2018.  E-Government Documents Authentication and Security by Utilizing Video Crypto-Steganography. 2018 IEEE Global Conference on Wireless Computing and Networking (GCWCN). :141—145.

In our daily lives, the advances of new technology can be used to sustain the development of people across the globe. Particularly, e-government can be the dynamo of the development for the people. The development of technology and the rapid growth in the use of internet creates a big challenge in the administration in both the public and the private sector. E-government is a vital accomplishment, whereas the security is the main downside which occurs in each e-government process. E-government has to be secure as technology grows and the users have to follow the procedures to make their own transactions safe. This paper tackles the challenges and obstacles to enhance the security of information in e-government. Hence to achieve security data hiding techniques are found to be trustworthy. Reversible data hiding (RDH) is an emerging technique which helps in retaining the quality of the cover image. Hence it is preferred over the traditional data hiding techniques. Modification in the existing algorithm is performed for image encryption scheme and data hiding scheme in order to improve the results. To achieve this secret data is split into 20 parts and data concealing is performed on each part. The data hiding procedure includes embedding of data into least significant nibble of the cover image. The bits are further equally distributed in the cover image to obtain the key security parameters. Hence the obtained results validate that the proposed scheme is better than the existing schemes.

2020-09-21
Farrag, Sara, Alexan, Wassim, Hussein, Hisham H..  2019.  Triple-Layer Image Security Using a Zigzag Embedding Pattern. 2019 International Conference on Advanced Communication Technologies and Networking (CommNet). :1–8.
This paper proposes a triple-layer, high capacity, message security scheme. The first two layers are of a cryptographic nature, whereas the third layer is of a steganographic nature. In the first layer, AES-128 encryption is performed on the secret message. In the second layer, a chaotic logistic map encryption is applied on the output of the first secure layer to increase the security of the scheme. In the third layer of security, a 2D image steganography technique is performed, where the least significant bit (LSB) -embedding is done according to a zigzag pattern in each of the three color planes of the cover image (i.e. RGB). The distinguishing feature of the proposed scheme is that the secret data is hidden in a zigzag manner that cannot be predicted by a third party. Moreover, our scheme achieves higher values of peak signal to noise ratio (PPSNR), mean square error (MSE), the structural similarity index metric (SSIM), normal cross correlation (NCC) and image fidelity (IF) compared to its counterparts form the literature. In addition, a histogram analysis as well as the high achieved capacity are magnificent indicators for a reliable and high capacity steganographic scheme.
2020-09-04
Pallavi, Sode, Narayanan, V Anantha.  2019.  An Overview of Practical Attacks on BLE Based IOT Devices and Their Security. 2019 5th International Conference on Advanced Computing Communication Systems (ICACCS). :694—698.
BLE is used to transmit and receive data between sensors and devices. Most of the IOT devices employ BLE for wireless communication because it suits their requirements such as less energy constraints. The major security vulnerabilities in BLE protocol can be used by attacker to perform MITM attacks and hence violating confidentiality and integrity of data. Although BLE 4.2 prevents most of the attacks by employing elliptic-curve diffie-Hellman to generate LTK and encrypt the data, still there are many devices in the market that are using BLE 4.0, 4.1 which are vulnerable to attacks. This paper shows the simple demonstration of possible attacks on BLE devices that use various existing tools to perform spoofing, MITM and firmware attacks. We also discussed the security, privacy and its importance in BLE devices.
Carpentier, Eleonore, Thomasset, Corentin, Briffaut, Jeremy.  2019.  Bridging The Gap: Data Exfiltration In Highly Secured Environments Using Bluetooth IoTs. 2019 IEEE 37th International Conference on Computer Design (ICCD). :297—300.
IoT devices introduce unprecedented threats into home and professional networks. As they fail to adhere to security best practices, they are broadly exploited by malicious actors to build botnets or steal sensitive information. Their adoption challenges established security standard as classic security measures are often inappropriate to secure them. This is even more problematic in sensitive environments where the presence of insecure IoTs can be exploited to bypass strict security policies. In this paper, we demonstrate an attack against a highly secured network using a Bluetooth smart bulb. This attack allows a malicious actor to take advantage of a smart bulb to exfiltrate data from an air gapped network.
2020-08-07
Carpentier, Eleonore, Thomasset, Corentin, Briffaut, Jeremy.  2019.  Bridging The Gap: Data Exfiltration In Highly Secured Environments Using Bluetooth IoTs.

IoT devices introduce unprecedented threats into home and professional networks. As they fail to adhere to security best practices, they are broadly exploited by malicious actors to build botnets or steal sensitive information. Their adoption challenges established security standard as classic security measures are often inappropriate to secure them. This is even more problematic in sensitive environments where the presence of insecure IoTs can be exploited to bypass strict security policies. In this paper, we demonstrate an attack against a highly secured network using a Bluetooth smart bulb. This attack allows a malicious actor to take advantage of a smart bulb to exfiltrate data from an air gapped network.

2020-06-12
Liu, Yujie, Su, Yixin, Ye, Xiaozhou, Qi, Yue.  2019.  Research on Extending Person Re-identification Datasets Based on Generative Adversarial Network. 2019 Chinese Automation Congress (CAC). :3280—3284.

Person re-identification(Person Re-ID) means that images of a pedestrian from cameras in a surveillance camera network can be automatically retrieved based on one of this pedestrian's image from another camera. The appearance change of pedestrians under different cameras poses a huge challenge to person re-identification. Person re-identification systems based on deep learning can effectively extract the appearance features of pedestrians. In this paper, the feature enhancement experiment is conducted, and the result showed that the current person reidentification datasets are relatively small and cannot fully meet the need of deep training. Therefore, this paper studied the method of using generative adversarial network to extend the person re-identification datasets and proposed a label smoothing regularization for outliers with weight (LSROW) algorithm to make full use of the generated data, effectively improved the accuracy of person re-identification.

Cui, Yongcheng, Wang, Wenyong.  2019.  Colorless Video Rendering System via Generative Adversarial Networks. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Computer Applications (ICAICA). :464—467.

In today's society, even though the technology is so developed, the coloring of computer images has remained at the manual stage. As a carrier of human culture and art, film has existed in our history for hundred years. With the development of science and technology, movies have developed from the simple black-and-white film era to the current digital age. There is a very complicated process for coloring old movies. Aside from the traditional hand-painting techniques, the most common method is to use post-processing software for coloring movie frames. This kind of operation requires extraordinary skills, patience and aesthetics, which is a great test for the operator. In recent years, the extensive use of machine learning and neural networks has made it possible for computers to intelligently process images. Since 2016, various types of generative adversarial networks models have been proposed to make deep learning shine in the fields of image style transfer, image coloring, and image style change. In this case, the experiment uses the generative adversarial networks principle to process pictures and videos to realize the automatic rendering of old documentary movies.

2020-02-10
Rashid, Rasber Dh., Majeed, Taban F..  2019.  Edge Based Image Steganography: Problems and Solution. 2019 International Conference on Communications, Signal Processing, and Their Applications (ICCSPA). :1–5.

Steganography means hiding secrete message in cover object in a way that no suspicious from the attackers, the most popular steganography schemes is image steganography. A very common questions that asked in the field are: 1- what is the embedding scheme used?, 2- where is (location) the secrete messages are embedded?, and 3- how the sender will tell the receiver about the locations of the secrete message?. Here in this paper we are deal with and aimed to answer questions number 2 and 3. We used the popular scheme in image steganography which is least significant bits for embedding in edges positions in color images. After we separate the color images into its components Red, Green, and Blue, then we used one of the components as an index to find the edges, while other one or two components used for embedding purpose. Using this technique we will guarantee the same number and positions of edges before and after embedding scheme, therefore we are guaranteed extracting the secrete message as it's without any loss of secrete messages bits.

2019-09-26
Khatchadourian, R., Tang, Y., Bagherzadeh, M., Ahmed, S..  2019.  Safe Automated Refactoring for Intelligent Parallelization of Java 8 Streams. 2019 IEEE/ACM 41st International Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE). :619-630.

Streaming APIs are becoming more pervasive in mainstream Object-Oriented programming languages. For example, the Stream API introduced in Java 8 allows for functional-like, MapReduce-style operations in processing both finite and infinite data structures. However, using this API efficiently involves subtle considerations like determining when it is best for stream operations to run in parallel, when running operations in parallel can be less efficient, and when it is safe to run in parallel due to possible lambda expression side-effects. In this paper, we present an automated refactoring approach that assists developers in writing efficient stream code in a semantics-preserving fashion. The approach, based on a novel data ordering and typestate analysis, consists of preconditions for automatically determining when it is safe and possibly advantageous to convert sequential streams to parallel and unorder or de-parallelize already parallel streams. The approach was implemented as a plug-in to the Eclipse IDE, uses the WALA and SAFE analysis frameworks, and was evaluated on 11 Java projects consisting of ?642K lines of code. We found that 57 of 157 candidate streams (36.31%) were refactorable, and an average speedup of 3.49 on performance tests was observed. The results indicate that the approach is useful in optimizing stream code to their full potential.

2019-09-23
Tan, L., Liu, K., Yan, X., Wan, S., Chen, J., Chang, C..  2018.  Visual Secret Sharing Scheme for Color QR Code. 2018 IEEE 3rd International Conference on Image, Vision and Computing (ICIVC). :961–965.

In this paper, we propose a novel visual secret sharing (VSS) scheme for color QR code (VSSCQR) with (n, n) threshold based on high capacity, admirable visual effects and popularity of color QR code. By splitting and encoding a secret image into QR codes and then fusing QR codes to generate color QR code shares, the scheme can share the secret among a certain number of participants. However, less than n participants cannot reveal any information about the secret. The embedding amount and position of the secret image bits generated by VSS are in the range of the error correction ability of the QR code. Each color share is readable, which can be decoded and thus may not come into notice. On one hand, the secret image can be reconstructed by first decomposing three QR codes from each color QR code share and then stacking the corresponding QR codes based on only human visual system without computational devices. On the other hand, by decomposing three QR codes from each color QR code share and then XORing the three QR codes respectively, we can reconstruct the secret image losslessly. The experiment results display the effect of our scheme.

Arora, M., kumar, C., Verma, A. K..  2018.  Increase Capacity of QR Code Using Compression Technique. 2018 3rd International Conference and Workshops on Recent Advances and Innovations in Engineering (ICRAIE). :1–5.

The main objective of this research work is to enhance the data storage capacity of the QR codes. By achieving the research aim, we can visualize rapid increase in application domains of QR Codes, mostly for smart cities where one needs to store bulk amount of data. Nowadays India is experiencing demonetization step taken by Prime Minister of the country and QR codes can play major role for this step. They are also helpful for cashless society as many vendors have registered themselves with different e-wallet companies like paytm, freecharge etc. These e-wallet companies have installed QR codes at cash counter of such vendors. Any time when a customer wants to pay his bills, he only needs to scan that particular QR code. Afterwards the QR code decoder application start working by taking necessary action like opening payment gateway etc. So, objective of this research study focuses on solving this issue by applying proposed methodology.

Wang, Y., Sun, C., Kuan, P., Lu, C., Wang, H..  2018.  Secured graphic QR code with infrared watermark. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Applied System Invention (ICASI). :690–693.

The barcode is an important link between real life and the virtual world nowadays. One of the most common barcodes is QR code, which its appearance, black and white modules, is not visually pleasing. The QR code is applied to product packaging and campaign promotion in the market. There are more and more stores using QR code for transaction payment. If the QR code is altered or illegally duplicated, it will endanger the information security of users. Therefore, the study uses infrared watermarking to embed the infrared QR code information into the explicit QR code to strengthen the anti-counterfeiting features. The explicit graphic QR code is produced by data hiding with error diffusion in this study. With the optical characteristics of K, one of the four printed ink colors CMYK (Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, Black), only K can be rendered in infrared. Hence, we use the infrared watermarking to embed the implicit QR code information into the explicit graphic QR code. General QR code reader may be used to interpret explicit graphic QR code information. As for implicit QR code, it needs the infrared detector to extract its implicit QR code information. If the QR code is illegally copied, it will not show the hidden second QR code under infrared detection. In this study, infrared watermark hidden in the graphic QR code can enhance not only the aesthetics of QR code, but also the anti-counterfeiting feature. It can also be applied to printing related fields, such as security documents, banknotes, etc. in the future.

2019-03-04
Gugelmann, D., Sommer, D., Lenders, V., Happe, M., Vanbever, L..  2018.  Screen watermarking for data theft investigation and attribution. 2018 10th International Conference on Cyber Conflict (CyCon). :391–408.
Organizations not only need to defend their IT systems against external cyber attackers, but also from malicious insiders, that is, agents who have infiltrated an organization or malicious members stealing information for their own profit. In particular, malicious insiders can leak a document by simply opening it and taking pictures of the document displayed on the computer screen with a digital camera. Using a digital camera allows a perpetrator to easily avoid a log trail that results from using traditional communication channels, such as sending the document via email. This makes it difficult to identify and prove the identity of the perpetrator. Even a policy prohibiting the use of any device containing a camera cannot eliminate this threat since tiny cameras can be hidden almost everywhere. To address this leakage vector, we propose a novel screen watermarking technique that embeds hidden information on computer screens displaying text documents. The watermark is imperceptible during regular use, but can be extracted from pictures of documents shown on the screen, which allows an organization to reconstruct the place and time of the data leak from recovered leaked pictures. Our approach takes advantage of the fact that the human eye is less sensitive to small luminance changes than digital cameras. We devise a symbol shape that is invisible to the human eye, but still robust to the image artifacts introduced when taking pictures. We complement this symbol shape with an error correction coding scheme that can handle very high bit error rates and retrieve watermarks from cropped and compressed pictures. We show in an experimental user study that our screen watermarks are not perceivable by humans and analyze the robustness of our watermarks against image modifications.