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Noel, M. D., Waziri, O. V., Abdulhamid, M. S., Ojeniyi, A. J., Okoro, M. U..  2020.  Comparative Analysis of Classical and Post-quantum Digital Signature Algorithms used in Bitcoin Transactions. 2020 2nd International Conference on Computer and Information Sciences (ICCIS). :1–6.

The use of public key cryptosystems ranges from securely encrypting bitcoin transactions and creating digital signatures for non-repudiation. The cryptographic systems security of public key depends on the complexity in solving mathematical problems. Quantum computers pose a threat to the current day algorithms used. This research presents analysis of two Hash-based Signature Schemes (MSS and W-OTS) and provides a comparative analysis of them. The comparisons are based on their efficiency as regards to their key generation, signature generation and verification time. These algorithms are compared with two classical algorithms (RSA and ECDSA) used in bitcoin transaction security. The results as shown in table II indicates that RSA key generation takes 0.2012s, signature generation takes 0.0778s and signature verification is 0.0040s. ECDSA key generation is 0.1378s, signature generation takes 0.0187s, and verification time for the signature is 0.0164s. The W-OTS key generation is 0.002s. To generate a signature in W-OTS, it takes 0.001s and verification time for the signature is 0.0002s. Lastly MSS Key generation, signature generation and verification has high values which are 16.290s, 17.474s, and 13.494s respectively. Based on the results, W-OTS is recommended for bitcoin transaction security because of its efficiency and ability to resist quantum computer attacks on the bitcoin network.

Kanemura, Kota, Toyoda, Kentaroh, Ohtsuki, Tomoaki.  2019.  Identification of Darknet Markets’ Bitcoin Addresses by Voting Per-address Classification Results. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Blockchain and Cryptocurrency (ICBC). :154—158.
Bitcoin is a decentralized digital currency whose transactions are recorded in a common ledger, so called blockchain. Due to the anonymity and lack of law enforcement, Bitcoin has been misused in darknet markets which deal with illegal products, such as drugs and weapons. Therefore from the security forensics aspect, it is demanded to establish an approach to identify newly emerged darknet markets' transactions and addresses. In this paper, we thoroughly analyze Bitcoin transactions and addresses related to darknet markets and propose a novel identification method of darknet markets' addresses. To improve the identification performance, we propose a voting based method which decides the labels of multiple addresses controlled by the same user based on the number of the majority label. Through the computer simulation with more than 200K Bitcoin addresses, it was shown that our voting based method outperforms the nonvoting based one in terms of precision, recal, and F1 score. We also found that DNM's addresses pay higher fees than others, which significantly improves the classification.
Wu, Yan, Luo, Anthony, Xu, Dianxiang.  2019.  Forensic Analysis of Bitcoin Transactions. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Intelligence and Security Informatics (ISI). :167—169.
Bitcoin [1] as a popular digital currency has been a target of theft and other illegal activities. Key to the forensic investigation is to identify bitcoin addresses involved in bitcoin transfers. This paper presents a framework, FABT, for forensic analysis of bitcoin transactions by identifying suspicious bitcoin addresses. It formalizes the clues of a given case as transaction patterns defined over a comprehensive set of features. FABT converts the bitcoin transaction data into a formal model, called Bitcoin Transaction Net (BTN). The traverse of all bitcoin transactions in the order of their occurrences is captured by the firing sequence of all transitions in the BTN. We have applied FABT to identify suspicious addresses in the Mt.Gox case. A subgroup of the suspicious addresses has been found to share many characteristics about the received/transferred amount, number of transactions, and time intervals.
Yin, H. Sun, Vatrapu, R..  2017.  A First Estimation of the Proportion of Cybercriminal Entities in the Bitcoin Ecosystem Using Supervised Machine Learning. 2017 IEEE International Conference on Big Data (Big Data). :3690–3699.

Bitcoin, a peer-to-peer payment system and digital currency, is often involved in illicit activities such as scamming, ransomware attacks, illegal goods trading, and thievery. At the time of writing, the Bitcoin ecosystem has not yet been mapped and as such there is no estimate of the share of illicit activities. This paper provides the first estimation of the portion of cyber-criminal entities in the Bitcoin ecosystem. Our dataset consists of 854 observations categorised into 12 classes (out of which 5 are cybercrime-related) and a total of 100,000 uncategorised observations. The dataset was obtained from the data provider who applied three types of clustering of Bitcoin transactions to categorise entities: co-spend, intelligence-based, and behaviour-based. Thirteen supervised learning classifiers were then tested, of which four prevailed with a cross-validation accuracy of 77.38%, 76.47%, 78.46%, 80.76% respectively. From the top four classifiers, Bagging and Gradient Boosting classifiers were selected based on their weighted average and per class precision on the cybercrime-related categories. Both models were used to classify 100,000 uncategorised entities, showing that the share of cybercrime-related is 29.81% according to Bagging, and 10.95% according to Gradient Boosting with number of entities as the metric. With regard to the number of addresses and current coins held by this type of entities, the results are: 5.79% and 10.02% according to Bagging; and 3.16% and 1.45% according to Gradient Boosting.