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2021-03-29
DiMase, D., Collier, Z. A., Chandy, J., Cohen, B. S., D'Anna, G., Dunlap, H., Hallman, J., Mandelbaum, J., Ritchie, J., Vessels, L..  2020.  A Holistic Approach to Cyber Physical Systems Security and Resilience. 2020 IEEE Systems Security Symposium (SSS). :1—8.

A critical need exists for collaboration and action by government, industry, and academia to address cyber weaknesses or vulnerabilities inherent to embedded or cyber physical systems (CPS). These vulnerabilities are introduced as we leverage technologies, methods, products, and services from the global supply chain throughout a system's lifecycle. As adversaries are exploiting these weaknesses as access points for malicious purposes, solutions for system security and resilience become a priority call for action. The SAE G-32 Cyber Physical Systems Security Committee has been convened to address this complex challenge. The SAE G-32 will take a holistic systems engineering approach to integrate system security considerations to develop a Cyber Physical System Security Framework. This framework is intended to bring together multiple industries and develop a method and common language which will enable us to more effectively, efficiently, and consistently communicate a risk, cost, and performance trade space. The standard will allow System Integrators to make decisions utilizing a common framework and language to develop affordable, trustworthy, resilient, and secure systems.

2020-12-17
Basan, E., Gritsynin, A., Avdeenko, T..  2019.  Framework for Analyzing the Security of Robot Control Systems. 2019 International Conference on Information Systems and Computer Science (INCISCOS). :354—360.

The purpose of this work is to analyze the security model of a robotized system, to analyze the approaches to assessing the security of this system, and to develop our own framework. The solution to this problem involves the use of developed frameworks. The analysis will be conducted on a robotic system of robots. The prefix structures assume that the robotic system is divided into levels, and after that it is necessary to directly protect each level. Each level has its own characteristics and drawbacks that must be considered when developing a security system for a robotic system.

2020-11-20
Bhaharin, S. H., Mokhtar, U. A., Sulaiman, R., Yusof, M. M..  2019.  Issues and Trends in Information Security Policy Compliance. 2019 6th International Conference on Research and Innovation in Information Systems (ICRIIS). :1—6.
In the era of Industry 4.0 (IR 4.0), information leakage has become a critical issue for information security. The basic approach to addressing information leakage threats is to implement an information security policy (ISP) that defines the standards, boundaries, and responsibilities of users of information and technology of an organization. ISPs are one of the most commonly used methods for controlling internal user security behaviours, which include, but not limited to, computer usage ethics; organizational system usage policies; Internet and email usage policies; and the use of social media. Human error is the main security threat to information security, resulting from negligence, ignorance, and failure to adhere to organizational information security policies. Information security incidents are a problem related to human behaviour because technology is designed and operated by humans, presenting the opportunities and spaces for human error. In addition to the factor of human error as the main source of information leakage, this study aims to systematically analyse the fundamental issues of information security policy compliance. An analysis of these papers identifies and categories critical factor that effect an employee's attitude toward compliance with ISP. The human, process, technology element and information governance should be thought as a significant scope for more efficiency of information security policy compliance and in any further extensive studies to improve on information security policy compliance. Therefore, to ensure these are properly understood, further study is needed to identity the information governance that needs to be included in organizations and current best practices for developing an information security policy compliance within organizations.
2020-11-16
Belesioti, M., Makri, R., Fehling-Kaschek, M., Carli, M., Kostopoulos, A., Chochliouros, I. P., Neri, A., Frosali, F..  2019.  A New Security Approach in Telecom Infrastructures: The RESISTO Concept. 2019 15th International Conference on Distributed Computing in Sensor Systems (DCOSS). :212–218.
Communications play a fundamental role in the economic and social well-being of the citizens and on operations of most of the critical infrastructures (CIs). Extreme weather events, natural disasters and criminal attacks represent a challenge due to their increase in frequency and intensity requiring smarter resilience of the Communication CIs, which are extremely vulnerable due to the ever-increasing complexity of the architecture also in light of the evolution towards 5G, the extensive use of programmable platforms and exponential growth of connected devices. In this paper, we present the aim of RESISTO H2020 EU-funded project, which constitutes an innovative solution for Communication CIs holistic situation awareness and enhanced resilience.
2020-02-26
Bikov, T. D., Iliev, T. B., Mihaylov, Gr. Y., Stoyanov, I. S..  2019.  Phishing in Depth – Modern Methods of Detection and Risk Mitigation. 2019 42nd International Convention on Information and Communication Technology, Electronics and Microelectronics (MIPRO). :447–450.

Nowadays, everyone is living in a digital world with various of virtual experiences and realities, but all of them may eventually cause real threats in our real world. Some of these threats have been born together with the first electronic mail service. Some of them might be considered as really basic and simple, compared to others that were developed and advanced in time to adapt themselves for the security defense mechanisms of the modern digital world. On a daily basis, more than 238.4 billion emails are sent worldwide, which makes more than 2.7 million emails per second, and these statistics are only from the publicly visible networks. Having that information and considering around 60% and above of all emails as threatening or not legitimate, is more than concerning. Unfortunately, even the modern security measures and systems are not capable to identify and prevent all the fraudulent content that is created and distributed every day. In this paper we will cover the most common attack vectors, involving the already mass email infrastructures, the required contra measures to minimize the impact over the corporate environments and what else should be developed to mitigate the modern sophisticated email attacks.

2020-02-10
Rizvi, Syed, Imler, Jarrett, Ritchey, Luke, Tokar, Michael.  2019.  Securing PKES against Relay Attacks using Coordinate Tracing and Multi-Factor Authentication. 2019 53rd Annual Conference on Information Sciences and Systems (CISS). :1–6.

In most produced modern vehicles, Passive Keyless Entry and Start System (PKES), a newer form of an entry access system, is becoming more and more popular. The PKES system allows the consumer to enter within a certain range and have the vehicle's doors unlock automatically without pressing any buttons on the key. This technology increases the overall convenience to the consumer; however, it is vulnerable to attacks known as relay and amplified relay attacks. A relay attack consists of placing a device near the vehicle and a device near the key to relay the signal between the key and the vehicle. On the other hand, an amplified relay attack uses only a singular amplifier to increase the range of the vehicle sensors to reach the key. By exploiting these two different vulnerabilities within the PKES system, an attacker can gain unauthorized access to the vehicle, leading to damage or even stolen property. To minimize both vulnerabilities, we propose a coordinate tracing system with an additional Bluetooth communication channel. The coordinate tracing system, or PKES Forcefield, traces the authorized key's longitude and latitude in real time using two proposed algorithms, known as the Key Bearing algorithm and the Longitude and Latitude Key (LLK) algorithm. To further add security, a Bluetooth communication channel will be implemented. With an additional channel established, a second frequency can be traced within a secondary PKES Forcefield. The LLK Algorithm computes both locations of frequencies and analyzes the results to form a pattern. Furthermore, the PKES Forcefield movement-tracing allows a vehicle to understand when an attacker attempts to transmit an unauthenticated signal and blocks any signal from being amplified over a fixed range.

2019-07-01
Kebande, V. R., Kigwana, I., Venter, H. S., Karie, N. M., Wario, R. D..  2018.  CVSS Metric-Based Analysis, Classification and Assessment of Computer Network Threats and Vulnerabilities. 2018 International Conference on Advances in Big Data, Computing and Data Communication Systems (icABCD). :1–10.

This paper provides a Common Vulnerability Scoring System (CVSS) metric-based technique for classifying and analysing the prevailing Computer Network Security Vulnerabilities and Threats (CNSVT). The problem that is addressed in this paper, is that, at the time of writing this paper, there existed no effective approaches for analysing and classifying CNSVT for purposes of assessments based on CVSS metrics. The authors of this paper have achieved this by generating a CVSS metric-based dynamic Vulnerability Analysis Classification Countermeasure (VACC) criterion that is able to rank vulnerabilities. The CVSS metric-based VACC has allowed the computation of vulnerability Similarity Measure (VSM) using the Hamming and Euclidean distance metric functions. Nevertheless, the CVSS-metric based on VACC also enabled the random measuring of the VSM for a selected number of vulnerabilities based on the [Ma-Ma], [Ma-Mi], [Mi-Ci], [Ma-Ci] ranking score. This is a technique that is aimed at allowing security experts to be able to conduct proper vulnerability detection and assessments across computer-based networks based on the perceived occurrence by checking the probability that given threats will occur or not. The authors have also proposed high-level countermeasures of the vulnerabilities that have been listed. The authors have evaluated the CVSS-metric based VACC and the results are promising. Based on this technique, it is worth noting that these propositions can help in the development of stronger computer and network security tools.

2019-02-25
Vyamajala, S., Mohd, T. K., Javaid, A..  2018.  A Real-World Implementation of SQL Injection Attack Using Open Source Tools for Enhanced Cybersecurity Learning. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Electro/Information Technology (EIT). :0198–0202.

SQL injection is well known a method of executing SQL queries and retrieving sensitive information from a website connected database. This process poses a threat to those applications which are poorly coded in the today's world. SQL is considered as one of the top 10 vulnerabilities even in 2018. To keep a track of the vulnerabilities that each of the websites are facing, we employ a tool called Acunetix which allows us to find the vulnerabilities of a specific website. This tool also suggests measures on how to ensure preventive measures. Using this implementation, we discover vulnerabilities in an actual website. Such a real-world implementation would be useful for instructional use in a foundational cybersecurity course.

2018-09-12
Jillepalli, A. A., Sheldon, F. T., Leon, D. C. de, Haney, M., Abercrombie, R. K..  2017.  Security management of cyber physical control systems using NIST SP 800-82r2. 2017 13th International Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing Conference (IWCMC). :1864–1870.

Cyber-attacks and intrusions in cyber-physical control systems are, currently, difficult to reliably prevent. Knowing a system's vulnerabilities and implementing static mitigations is not enough, since threats are advancing faster than the pace at which static cyber solutions can counteract. Accordingly, the practice of cybersecurity needs to ensure that intrusion and compromise do not result in system or environment damage or loss. In a previous paper [2], we described the Cyberspace Security Econometrics System (CSES), which is a stakeholder-aware and economics-based risk assessment method for cybersecurity. CSES allows an analyst to assess a system in terms of estimated loss resulting from security breakdowns. In this paper, we describe two new related contributions: 1) We map the Cyberspace Security Econometrics System (CSES) method to the evaluation and mitigation steps described by the NIST Guide to Industrial Control Systems (ICS) Security, Special Publication 800-82r2. Hence, presenting an economics-based and stakeholder-aware risk evaluation method for the implementation of the NIST-SP-800-82 guide; and 2) We describe the application of this tailored method through the use of a fictitious example of a critical infrastructure system of an electric and gas utility.

2018-06-20
Waraich, P. S., Batra, N..  2017.  Prevention of denial of service attack over vehicle ad hoc networks using quick response table. 2017 4th International Conference on Signal Processing, Computing and Control (ISPCC). :586–591.

Secure routing over VANET is a major issue due to its high mobility environment. Due to dynamic topology, routes are frequently updated and also suffers from link breaks due to the obstacles i.e. buildings, tunnels and bridges etc. Frequent link breaks can cause packet drop and thus result in degradation of network performance. In case of VANETs, it becomes very difficult to identify the reason of the packet drop as it can also occur due to the presence of a security threat. VANET is a type of wireless adhoc network and suffer from common attacks which exist for mobile adhoc network (MANET) i.e. Denial of Services (DoS), Black hole, Gray hole and Sybil attack etc. Researchers have already developed various security mechanisms for secure routing over MANET but these solutions are not fully compatible with unique attributes of VANET i.e. vehicles can communicate with each other (V2V) as well as communication can be initiated with infrastructure based network (V2I). In order to secure the routing for both types of communication, there is need to develop a solution. In this paper, a method for secure routing is introduced which can identify as well as eliminate the existing security threat.

2018-05-09
Vargas, C., Langfinger, M., Vogel-Heuser, B..  2017.  A Tiered Security Analysis of Industrial Control System Devices. 2017 IEEE 15th International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN). :399–404.

The discussion of threats and vulnerabilities in Industrial Control Systems has gained popularity during the last decade due to the increase in interest and growing concern to secure these systems. In order to provide an overview of the complete landscape of these threats and vulnerabilities this contribution provides a tiered security analysis of the assets that constitute Industrial Control Systems. The identification of assets is obtained from a generalization of the system's architecture. Additionally, the security analysis is complemented by discussing security countermeasures and solutions that can be used to counteract the vulnerabilities and increase the security of control systems.

2018-02-15
Patel, P., Kannoorpatti, K., Shanmugam, B., Azam, S., Yeo, K. C..  2017.  A theoretical review of social media usage by cyber-criminals. 2017 International Conference on Computer Communication and Informatics (ICCCI). :1–6.

Social media plays an integral part in individual's everyday lives as well as for companies. Social media brings numerous benefits in people's lives such as to keep in touch with close ones and specially with relatives who are overseas, to make new friends, buy products, share information and much more. Unfortunately, several threats also accompany the countless advantages of social media. The rapid growth of the online social networking sites provides more scope for criminals and cyber-criminals to carry out their illegal activities. Hackers have found different ways of exploiting these platform for their malicious gains. This research englobes some of the common threats on social media such as spam, malware, Trojan horse, cross-site scripting, industry espionage, cyber-bullying, cyber-stalking, social engineering attacks. The main purpose of the study to elaborates on phishing, malware and click-jacking attacks. The main purpose of the research, there is no particular research available on the forensic investigation for Facebook. There is no particular forensic investigation methodology and forensic tools available which can follow on the Facebook. There are several tools available to extract digital data but it's not properly tested for Facebook. Forensics investigation tool is used to extract evidence to determine what, when, where, who is responsible. This information is required to ensure that the sufficient evidence to take legal action against criminals.

2018-02-06
Bhattacharya, S., Kumar, C. R. S..  2017.  Ransomware: The CryptoVirus Subverting Cloud Security. 2017 International Conference on Algorithms, Methodology, Models and Applications in Emerging Technologies (ICAMMAET). :1–6.

Cloud computing presents unlimited prospects for Information Technology (IT) industry and business enterprises alike. Rapid advancement brings a dark underbelly of new vulnerabilities and challenges unfolding with alarming regularity. Although cloud technology provides a ubiquitous environment facilitating business enterprises to conduct business across disparate locations, security effectiveness of this platform interspersed with threats which can bring everything that subscribes to the cloud, to a halt raises questions. However advantages of cloud platforms far outweighs drawbacks and study of new challenges helps overcome drawbacks of this technology. One such emerging security threat is of ransomware attack on the cloud which threatens to hold systems and data on cloud network to ransom with widespread damaging implications. This provides huge scope for IT security specialists to sharpen their skillset to overcome this new challenge. This paper covers the broad cloud architecture, current inherent cloud threat mechanisms, ransomware vulnerabilities posed and suggested methods to mitigate it.

2017-11-20
Costin, Andrei.  2016.  Security of CCTV and Video Surveillance Systems: Threats, Vulnerabilities, Attacks, and Mitigations. Proceedings of the 6th International Workshop on Trustworthy Embedded Devices. :45–54.

Video surveillance, closed-circuit TV and IP-camera systems became virtually omnipresent and indispensable for many organizations, businesses, and users. Their main purpose is to provide physical security, increase safety, and prevent crime. They also became increasingly complex, comprising many communication means, embedded hardware and non-trivial firmware. However, most research to date focused mainly on the privacy aspects of such systems, and did not fully address their issues related to cyber-security in general, and visual layer (i.e., imagery semantics) attacks in particular. In this paper, we conduct a systematic review of existing and novel threats in video surveillance, closed-circuit TV and IP-camera systems based on publicly available data. The insights can then be used to better understand and identify the security and the privacy risks associated with the development, deployment and use of these systems. We study existing and novel threats, along with their existing or possible countermeasures, and summarize this knowledge into a comprehensive table that can be used in a practical way as a security checklist when assessing cyber-security level of existing or new CCTV designs and deployments. We also provide a set of recommendations and mitigations that can help improve the security and privacy levels provided by the hardware, the firmware, the network communications and the operation of video surveillance systems. We hope the findings in this paper will provide a valuable knowledge of the threat landscape that such systems are exposed to, as well as promote further research and widen the scope of this field beyond its current boundaries.

2017-10-25
Ferdous, Md Sadek, Chowdhury, Soumyadeb, Jose, Joemon M.  2016.  Privacy Threat Model in Lifelogging. Proceedings of the 2016 ACM International Joint Conference on Pervasive and Ubiquitous Computing: Adjunct. :576–581.

The lifelogging activity enables a user, the lifelogger, to passively capture multimodal records from a first-person perspective and ultimately create a visual diary encompassing every possible aspect of her life with unprecedented details. In recent years it has gained popularity among different groups of users. However, the possibility of ubiquitous presence of lifelogging devices especially in private spheres has raised serious concerns with respect to personal privacy. Different practitioners and active researchers in the field of lifelogging have analysed the issue of privacy in lifelogging and proposed different mitigation strategies. However, none of the existing works has considered a well-defined privacy threat model in the domain of lifelogging. Without a proper threat model, any analysis and discussion of privacy threats in lifelogging remains incomplete. In this paper we aim to fill in this gap by introducing a first-ever privacy threat model identifying several threats with respect to lifelogging. We believe that the introduced threat model will be an essential tool and will act as the basis for any further research within this domain.

2017-03-07
Benjamin, V., Li, W., Holt, T., Chen, H..  2015.  Exploring threats and vulnerabilities in hacker web: Forums, IRC and carding shops. 2015 IEEE International Conference on Intelligence and Security Informatics (ISI). :85–90.

Cybersecurity is a problem of growing relevance that impacts all facets of society. As a result, many researchers have become interested in studying cybercriminals and online hacker communities in order to develop more effective cyber defenses. In particular, analysis of hacker community contents may reveal existing and emerging threats that pose great risk to individuals, businesses, and government. Thus, we are interested in developing an automated methodology for identifying tangible and verifiable evidence of potential threats within hacker forums, IRC channels, and carding shops. To identify threats, we couple machine learning methodology with information retrieval techniques. Our approach allows us to distill potential threats from the entirety of collected hacker contents. We present several examples of identified threats found through our analysis techniques. Results suggest that hacker communities can be analyzed to aid in cyber threat detection, thus providing promising direction for future work.

2015-05-05
Mahmood, A., Akbar, A.H..  2014.  Threats in end to end commercial deployments of Wireless Sensor Networks and their cross layer solution. Information Assurance and Cyber Security (CIACS), 2014 Conference on. :15-22.

Commercial Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) can be accessed through sensor web portals. However, associated security implications and threats to the 1) users/subscribers 2) investors and 3) third party operators regarding sensor web portals are not seen in completeness, rather the contemporary work handles them in parts. In this paper, we discuss different kind of security attacks and vulnerabilities at different layers to the users, investors including Wireless Sensor Network Service Providers (WSNSPs) and WSN itself in relation with the two well-known documents i.e., “Department of Homeland Security” (DHS) and “Department of Defense (DOD)”, as these are standard security documents till date. Further we propose a comprehensive cross layer security solution in the light of guidelines given in the aforementioned documents that is minimalist in implementation and achieves the purported security goals.
 

2015-04-30
Algarni, A., Yue Xu, Chan, T..  2014.  Social Engineering in Social Networking Sites: The Art of Impersonation. Services Computing (SCC), 2014 IEEE International Conference on. :797-804.

Social networking sites (SNSs), with their large number of users and large information base, seem to be the perfect breeding ground for exploiting the vulnerabilities of people, who are considered the weakest link in security. Deceiving, persuading, or influencing people to provide information or to perform an action that will benefit the attacker is known as "social engineering." Fraudulent and deceptive people use social engineering traps and tactics through SNSs to trick users into obeying them, accepting threats, and falling victim to various crimes such as phishing, sexual abuse, financial abuse, identity theft, and physical crime. Although organizations, researchers, and practitioners recognize the serious risks of social engineering, there is a severe lack of understanding and control of such threats. This may be partly due to the complexity of human behaviors in approaching, accepting, and failing to recognize social engineering tricks. This research aims to investigate the impact of source characteristics on users' susceptibility to social engineering victimization in SNSs, particularly Facebook. Using grounded theory method, we develop a model that explains what and how source characteristics influence Facebook users to judge the attacker as credible.