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Rivera, Abel O. Gomez, White, Evan M., Acosta, Jaime C., Tosh, Deepak.  2022.  Enabling Device Trustworthiness for SDN-Enabled Internet -of- Battlefield Things. 2022 IEEE Conference on Dependable and Secure Computing (DSC). :1—7.
Military networks consist of heterogeneous devices that provide soldiers with real-time terrain and mission intel-ligence. The development of next-generation Software Defined Networks (SDN)-enabled devices is enabling the modernization of traditional military networks. Commonly, traditional military networks take the trustworthiness of devices for granted. How-ever, the recent modernization of military networks introduces cyber attacks such as data and identity spoofing attacks. Hence, it is crucial to ensure the trustworthiness of network traffic to ensure the mission's outcome. This work proposes a Continuous Behavior-based Authentication (CBA) protocol that integrates network traffic analysis techniques to provide robust and efficient network management flow by separating data and control planes in SDN-enabled military networks. The evaluation of the CBA protocol aimed to measure the efficiency of the proposed protocol in realistic military networks. Furthermore, we analyze the overall network overhead of the CBA protocol and its accuracy to detect rogue network traffic data from field devices.
Tekiner, Ege, Acar, Abbas, Uluagac, A. Selcuk, Kirda, Engin, Selcuk, Ali Aydin.  2021.  SoK: Cryptojacking Malware. 2021 IEEE European Symposium on Security and Privacy (EuroS&P). :120—139.
Emerging blockchain and cryptocurrency-based technologies are redefining the way we conduct business in cyberspace. Today, a myriad of blockchain and cryp-tocurrency systems, applications, and technologies are widely available to companies, end-users, and even malicious actors who want to exploit the computational resources of regular users through cryptojacking malware. Especially with ready-to-use mining scripts easily provided by service providers (e.g., Coinhive) and untraceable cryptocurrencies (e.g., Monero), cryptojacking malware has become an indispensable tool for attackers. Indeed, the banking industry, major commercial websites, government and military servers (e.g., US Dept. of Defense), online video sharing platforms (e.g., Youtube), gaming platforms (e.g., Nintendo), critical infrastructure resources (e.g., routers), and even recently widely popular remote video conferencing/meeting programs (e.g., Zoom during the Covid-19 pandemic) have all been the victims of powerful cryptojacking malware campaigns. Nonetheless, existing detection methods such as browser extensions that protect users with blacklist methods or antivirus programs with different analysis methods can only provide a partial panacea to this emerging crypto-jacking issue as the attackers can easily bypass them by using obfuscation techniques or changing their domains or scripts frequently. Therefore, many studies in the literature proposed cryptojacking malware detection methods using various dynamic/behavioral features. However, the literature lacks a systemic study with a deep understanding of the emerging cryptojacking malware and a comprehensive review of studies in the literature. To fill this gap in the literature, in this SoK paper, we present a systematic overview of cryptojacking malware based on the information obtained from the combination of academic research papers, two large cryptojacking datasets of samples, and 45 major attack instances. Finally, we also present lessons learned and new research directions to help the research community in this emerging area.
Neumann, Niels M. P., van Heesch, Maran P. P., Phillipson, Frank, Smallegange, Antoine A. P..  2021.  Quantum Computing for Military Applications. 2021 International Conference on Military Communication and Information Systems (ICMCIS). :1–8.
Quantum computers have the potential to outshine classical alternatives in solving specific problems, under the assumption of mature enough hardware. A specific subset of these problems relate to military applications. In this paper we consider the state-of-the-art of quantum technologies and different applications of this technology. Additionally, four use-cases of quantum computing specific for military applications are presented. These use-cases are directly in line with the 2021 AI strategic agenda of the Netherlands Ministry of Defense.
Wang, Weidong, Zheng, Yufu, Bao, Yeling, Shui, Shengkun, Jiang, Tao.  2021.  Modulated Signal Recognition Based on Feature-Multiplexed Convolutional Neural Networks. 2021 IEEE 2nd International Conference on Information Technology, Big Data and Artificial Intelligence (ICIBA). 2:621–624.
Modulated signal identification plays a crucial role in both military reconnaissance and civilian signal regulation. Traditionally, modulated signal identification is based on high-order statistics, but this approach has many drawbacks. With the development of deep learning, its advantages are fully exploited by combining it with modulated signals to avoid the complex process of computing a priori knowledge while having good fault tolerance. In this paper, ten digital modulated signals are classified and recognized, and improvements are made on the basis of convolutional neural networks, using feature reuse to increase the depth of the convolutional layer and extract signal features with better results. After experimental analysis, the recognition accuracy increases with the rise of the signal-to-noise ratio, and can reach 90% and above when the signal-to-noise ratio is 30dB.
Jenkins, Chris, Vugrin, Eric, Manickam, Indu, Troutman, Nicholas, Hazelbaker, Jacob, Krakowiak, Sarah, Maxwell, Josh, Brown, Richard.  2021.  Moving Target Defense for Space Systems. 2021 IEEE Space Computing Conference (SCC). :60—71.
Space systems provide many critical functions to the military, federal agencies, and infrastructure networks. Nation-state adversaries have shown the ability to disrupt critical infrastructure through cyber-attacks targeting systems of networked, embedded computers. Moving target defenses (MTDs) have been proposed as a means for defending various networks and systems against potential cyber-attacks. MTDs differ from many cyber resilience technologies in that they do not necessarily require detection of an attack to mitigate the threat. We devised a MTD algorithm and tested its application to a real-time network. We demonstrated MTD usage with a real-time protocol given constraints not typically found in best-effort networks. Second, we quantified the cyber resilience benefit of MTD given an exfiltration attack by an adversary. For our experiment, we employed MTD which resulted in a reduction of adversarial knowledge by 97%. Even when the adversary can detect when the address changes, there is still a reduction in adversarial knowledge when compared to static addressing schemes. Furthermore, we analyzed the core performance of the algorithm and characterized its unpredictability using nine different statistical metrics. The characterization highlighted the algorithm has good unpredictability characteristics with some opportunity for improvement to produce more randomness.
You, Guoping, Zhu, Yingli.  2020.  Structure and Key Technologies of Wireless Sensor Network. 2020 Cross Strait Radio Science Wireless Technology Conference (CSRSWTC). :1–2.
With the improvement of scientific and technological level in China, wireless sensor network technology has been widely promoted and applied, which has now been popularized to various fields of society from military defense. Wireless sensor network combines sensor technology, communication technology and computer technology together, and has the ability of information collection, transmission and processing. In this paper, the structure of wireless sensor network and node localization technology are briefly introduced, and the key technologies of wireless sensor network development are summarized from the four aspects of energy efficiency, node localization, data fusion and network security. As a detection system of perceiving the physical world, WSN is also facing challenges while developing rapidly.
Suciu, George, Hussain, Ijaz, Petrescu, Gabriel.  2020.  Role of Ubiquitous Computing and Mobile WSN Technologies and Implementation. 2020 International Conference on Electrical, Communication, and Computer Engineering (ICECCE). :1–6.
Computing capabilities such as real time data, unlimited connection, data from sensors, environmental analysis, automated decisions (machine learning) are demanded by many areas like industry for example decision making, machine learning, by research and military, for example GPS, sensor data collection. The possibility to make these features compatible with each domain that demands them is known as ubiquitous computing. Ubiquitous computing includes network topologies such as wireless sensor networks (WSN) which can help further improving the existing communication, for example the Internet. Also, ubiquitous computing is included in the Internet of Things (IoT) applications. In this article, it is discussed the mobility of WSN and its advantages and innovations, which make possible implementations for smart home and office. Knowing the growing number of mobile users, we place the mobile phone as the key factor of the future ubiquitous wireless networks. With secure computing, communicating, and storage capacities of mobile devices, they can be taken advantage of in terms of architecture in the sense of scalability, energy efficiency, packet delay, etc. Our work targets to present a structure from a ubiquitous computing point of view for researchers who have an interest in ubiquitous computing and want to research on the analysis, to implement a novel method structure for the ubiquitous computing system in military sectors. Also, this paper presents security and privacy issues in ubiquitous sensor networks (USN).
Clark, D. J., Turnbull, B..  2020.  Experiment Design for Complex Immersive Visualisation. 2020 Military Communications and Information Systems Conference (MilCIS). :1—5.

Experimentation focused on assessing the value of complex visualisation approaches when compared with alternative methods for data analysis is challenging. The interaction between participant prior knowledge and experience, a diverse range of experimental or real-world data sets and a dynamic interaction with the display system presents challenges when seeking timely, affordable and statistically relevant experimentation results. This paper outlines a hybrid approach proposed for experimentation with complex interactive data analysis tools, specifically for computer network traffic analysis. The approach involves a structured survey completed after free engagement with the software platform by expert participants. The survey captures objective and subjective data points relating to the experience with the goal of making an assessment of software performance which is supported by statistically significant experimental results. This work is particularly applicable to field of network analysis for cyber security and also military cyber operations and intelligence data analysis.

Pham, L. H., Albanese, M., Chadha, R., Chiang, C.-Y. J., Venkatesan, S., Kamhoua, C., Leslie, N..  2020.  A Quantitative Framework to Model Reconnaissance by Stealthy Attackers and Support Deception-Based Defenses. :1—9.

In recent years, persistent cyber adversaries have developed increasingly sophisticated techniques to evade detection. Once adversaries have established a foothold within the target network, using seemingly-limited passive reconnaissance techniques, they can develop significant network reconnaissance capabilities. Cyber deception has been recognized as a critical capability to defend against such adversaries, but, without an accurate model of the adversary's reconnaissance behavior, current approaches are ineffective against advanced adversaries. To address this gap, we propose a novel model to capture how advanced, stealthy adversaries acquire knowledge about the target network and establish and expand their foothold within the system. This model quantifies the cost and reward, from the adversary's perspective, of compromising and maintaining control over target nodes. We evaluate our model through simulations in the CyberVAN testbed, and indicate how it can guide the development and deployment of future defensive capabilities, including high-interaction honeypots, so as to influence the behavior of adversaries and steer them away from critical resources.

Sandoval, S., Thulasiraman, P..  2019.  Cyber Security Assessment of the Robot Operating System 2 for Aerial Networks. 2019 IEEE International Systems Conference (SysCon). :1—8.

The Robot Operating System (ROS) is a widely adopted standard robotic middleware. However, its preliminary design is devoid of any network security features. Military grade unmanned systems must be guarded against network threats. ROS 2 is built upon the Data Distribution Service (DDS) standard and is designed to provide solutions to identified ROS 1 security vulnerabilities by incorporating authentication, encryption, and process profile features, which rely on public key infrastructure. The Department of Defense is looking to use ROS 2 for its military-centric robotics platform. This paper seeks to demonstrate that ROS 2 and its DDS security architecture can serve as a functional platform for use in military grade unmanned systems, particularly in unmanned Naval aerial swarms. In this paper, we focus on the viability of ROS 2 to safeguard communications between swarms and a ground control station (GCS). We test ROS 2's ability to mitigate and withstand certain cyber threats, specifically that of rogue nodes injecting unauthorized data and accessing services that will disable parts of the UAV swarm. We use the Gazebo robotics simulator to target individual UAVs to ascertain the effectiveness of our attack vectors under specific conditions. We demonstrate the effectiveness of ROS 2 in mitigating the chosen attack vectors but observed a measurable operational delay within our simulations.

Prakash, A., Walambe, R..  2018.  Military Surveillance Robot Implementation Using Robot Operating System. 2018 IEEE Punecon. :1—5.

Robots are becoming more and more prevalent in many real world scenarios. Housekeeping, medical aid, human assistance are a few common implementations of robots. Military and Security are also major areas where robotics is being researched and implemented. Robots with the purpose of surveillance in war zones and terrorist scenarios need specific functionalities to perform their tasks with precision and efficiency. In this paper, we present a model of Military Surveillance Robot developed using Robot Operating System. The map generation based on Kinect sensor is presented and some test case scenarios are discussed with results.

Zhao, Q., Du, P., Gerla, M., Brown, A. J., Kim, J. H..  2018.  Software Defined Multi-Path TCP Solution for Mobile Wireless Tactical Networks. MILCOM 2018 - 2018 IEEE Military Communications Conference (MILCOM). :1—9.
Naval Battlefield Network communications rely on wireless network technologies to transmit data between different naval entities, such as ships and shore nodes. Existing naval battle networks heavily depend on the satellite communication system using single-path TCP for reliable, non-interactive data. While satisfactory for traditional use cases, this communication model may be inadequate for outlier cases, such as those arising from satellite failure and wireless signal outage. To promote network stability and assurance in such scenarios, the addition of unmanned aerial vehicles to function as relay points can complement network connectivity and alleviate potential strains in adverse conditions. The inherent mobility of aerial vehicles coupled with existing source node movements, however, leads to frequent network handovers with non-negligible overhead and communication interruption, particularly in the present single-path model. In this paper, we propose a solution based on multi-path TCP and software-defined networking, which, when applied to mobile wireless heterogeneous networks, reduces the network handover delay and improves the total throughput for transmissions among various naval entities at sea and littoral. In case of single link failure, the presence of a connectable relay point maintains TCP connectivity and reduces the risk of service interruption. To validate feasibility and to evaluate performance of our solution, we constructed a Mininet- WiFi emulation testbed. Compared against single-path TCP communication methods, execution of the testbed when configured to use multi-path TCP and UAV relays yields demonstrably more stable network handovers with relatively low overhead, greater reliability of network connectivity, and higher overall end-to-end throughput. Because the SDN global controller dynamically adjusts allocations per user, the solution effectively eliminates link congestion and promotes more efficient bandwidth utilization.
Koo, J., Kim, Y., Lee, S..  2019.  Security Requirements for Cloud-based C4I Security Architecture. 2019 International Conference on Platform Technology and Service (PlatCon). :1—4.
With the development of cloud computing technology, developed countries including the U.S. are performing the efficiency of national defense and public sector, national innovation, and construction of the infrastructure for cloud computing environment through the policies that apply cloud computing. Korea Military is also considering that apply the cloud computing technology into its national defense command control system. However, only existing security requirements for national defense information system cannot solve the problem related security vulnerabilities of cloud computing. In order to solve this problem, it is necessary to design the secure security architecture of national defense command control system considering security requirements related to cloud computing. This study analyze the security requirements needed when the U.S. military apply the cloud computing system. It also analyze existing security requirements for Korea national defense information system and security requirements for cloud computing system and draw the security requirements needed to Korea national defense information system based on cloud computing.
Radha, P., Selvakumar, N., Sekar, J. Raja, Johnsonselva, J. V..  2018.  Enhancing Internet of Battle Things using Ultrasonic assisted Non-Destructive Testing (Technical solution). 2018 IEEE International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Computing Research (ICCIC). :1—4.

The subsystem of IoMT (Internet of Military of Things) called IoBT (Internet of Battle of Things) is the major resource of the military where the various stack holders of the battlefield and different categories of equipment are tightly integrated through the internet. The proposed architecture mentioned in this paper will be helpful to design IoBT effectively for warfare using irresistible technologies like information technology, embedded technology, and network technology. The role of Machine intelligence is essential in IoBT to create smart things and provide accurate solutions without human intervention. Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) is used in Industries to examine and analyze the invisible defects of equipment. Generally, the ultrasonic waves are used to examine and analyze the internal defects of materials. Hence the proposed architecture of IoBT is enhanced by ultrasonic based NDT to study the properties of the things of the battlefield without causing any damage.

Abuzainab, N., Saad, W..  2018.  Misinformation Control in the Internet of Battlefield Things: A Multiclass Mean-Field Game. 2018 IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM). :1—7.

In this paper, the problem of misinformation propagation is studied for an Internet of Battlefield Things (IoBT) system in which an attacker seeks to inject false information in the IoBT nodes in order to compromise the IoBT operations. In the considered model, each IoBT node seeks to counter the misinformation attack by finding the optimal probability of accepting a given information that minimizes its cost at each time instant. The cost is expressed in terms of the quality of information received as well as the infection cost. The problem is formulated as a mean-field game with multiclass agents which is suitable to model a massive heterogeneous IoBT system. For this game, the mean-field equilibrium is characterized, and an algorithm based on the forward backward sweep method is proposed. Then, the finite IoBT case is considered, and the conditions of convergence of the equilibria in the finite case to the mean-field equilibrium are presented. Numerical results show that the proposed scheme can achieve a two-fold increase in the quality of information (QoI) compared to the baseline when the nodes are always transmitting.

Abuzainab, N., Saad, W..  2018.  A Multiclass Mean-Field Game for Thwarting Misinformation Spread in the Internet of Battlefield Things. IEEE Transactions on Communications. 66:6643—6658.

In this paper, the problem of misinformation propagation is studied for an Internet of Battlefield Things (IoBT) system, in which an attacker seeks to inject false information in the IoBT nodes in order to compromise the IoBT operations. In the considered model, each IoBT node seeks to counter the misinformation attack by finding the optimal probability of accepting given information that minimizes its cost at each time instant. The cost is expressed in terms of the quality of information received as well as the infection cost. The problem is formulated as a mean-field game with multiclass agents, which is suitable to model a massive heterogeneous IoBT system. For this game, the mean-field equilibrium is characterized, and an algorithm based on the forward backward sweep method is proposed to find the mean-field equilibrium. Then, the finite-IoBT case is considered, and the conditions of convergence of the equilibria in the finite case to the mean-field equilibrium are presented. Numerical results show that the proposed scheme can achieve a 1.2-fold increase in the quality of information compared with a baseline scheme, in which the IoBT nodes are always transmitting. The results also show that the proposed scheme can reduce the proportion of infected nodes by 99% compared with the baseline.

Tosh, D. K., Shetty, S., Foytik, P., Njilla, L., Kamhoua, C. A..  2018.  Blockchain-Empowered Secure Internet -of- Battlefield Things (IoBT) Architecture. MILCOM 2018 - 2018 IEEE Military Communications Conference (MILCOM). :593—598.

Internet of Things (IoT) technology is emerging to advance the modern defense and warfare applications because the battlefield things, such as combat equipment, warfighters, and vehicles, can sense and disseminate information from the battlefield to enable real-time decision making on military operations and enhance autonomy in the battlefield. Since this Internet-of-Battlefield Things (IoBT) environment is highly heterogeneous in terms of devices, network standards, platforms, connectivity, and so on, it introduces trust, security, and privacy challenges when battlefield entities exchange information with each other. To address these issues, we propose a Blockchain-empowered auditable platform for IoBT and describe its architectural components, such as battlefield-sensing layer, network layer, and consensus and service layer, in depth. In addition to the proposed layered architecture, this paper also presents several open research challenges involved in each layer to realize the Blockchain-enabled IoBT platform.

Russell, S., Abdelzaher, T., Suri, N..  2019.  Multi-Domain Effects and the Internet of Battlefield Things. MILCOM 2019 - 2019 IEEE Military Communications Conference (MILCOM). :724—730.

This paper reviews the definitions and characteristics of military effects, the Internet of Battlefield Things (IoBT), and their impact on decision processes in a Multi-Domain Operating environment (MDO). The aspects of contemporary military decision-processes are illustrated and an MDO Effect Loop decision process is introduced. We examine the concept of IoBT effects and their implications in MDO. These implications suggest that when considering the concept of MDO, as a doctrine, the technological advances of IoBTs empower enhancements in decision frameworks and increase the viability of novel operational approaches and options for military effects.

Zhou, Z., Qian, L., Xu, H..  2019.  Intelligent Decentralized Dynamic Power Allocation in MANET at Tactical Edge based on Mean-Field Game Theory. MILCOM 2019 - 2019 IEEE Military Communications Conference (MILCOM). :604—609.

In this paper, decentralized dynamic power allocation problem has been investigated for mobile ad hoc network (MANET) at tactical edge. Due to the mobility and self-organizing features in MANET and environmental uncertainties in the battlefield, many existing optimal power allocation algorithms are neither efficient nor practical. Furthermore, the continuously increasing large scale of the wireless connection population in emerging Internet of Battlefield Things (IoBT) introduces additional challenges for optimal power allocation due to the “Curse of Dimensionality”. In order to address these challenges, a novel Actor-Critic-Mass algorithm is proposed by integrating the emerging Mean Field game theory with online reinforcement learning. The proposed approach is able to not only learn the optimal power allocation for IoBT in a decentralized manner, but also effectively handle uncertainties from harsh environment at tactical edge. In the developed scheme, each agent in IoBT has three neural networks (NN), i.e., 1) Critic NN learns the optimal cost function that minimizes the Signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR), 2) Actor NN estimates the optimal transmitter power adjustment rate, and 3) Mass NN learns the probability density function of all agents' transmitting power in IoBT. The three NNs are tuned based on the Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov (FPK) and Hamiltonian-Jacobian-Bellman (HJB) equation given in the Mean Field game theory. An IoBT wireless network has been simulated to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. The results demonstrate that the actor-critic-mass algorithm can effectively approximate the probability distribution of all agents' transmission power and converge to the target SINR. Moreover, the optimal decentralized power allocation is obtained through integrated mean-field game theory with reinforcement learning.

Agadakos, I., Ciocarlie, G. F., Copos, B., George, J., Leslie, N., Michaelis, J..  2019.  Security for Resilient IoBT Systems: Emerging Research Directions. IEEE INFOCOM 2019 - IEEE Conference on Computer Communications Workshops (INFOCOM WKSHPS). :1—6.

Continued advances in IoT technology have prompted new investigation into its usage for military operations, both to augment and complement existing military sensing assets and support next-generation artificial intelligence and machine learning systems. Under the emerging Internet of Battlefield Things (IoBT) paradigm, a multitude of operational conditions (e.g., diverse asset ownership, degraded networking infrastructure, adversary activities) necessitate the development of novel security techniques, centered on establishment of trust for individual assets and supporting resilience of broader systems. To advance current IoBT efforts, a set of research directions are proposed that aim to fundamentally address the issues of trust and trustworthiness in contested battlefield environments, building on prior research in the cybersecurity domain. These research directions focus on two themes: (1) Supporting trust assessment for known/unknown IoT assets; (2) Ensuring continued trust of known IoBT assets and systems.

Buenrostro, E. D., Rivera, A. O. G., Tosh, D., Acosta, J. C., Njilla, L..  2019.  Evaluating Usability of Permissioned Blockchain for Internet-of-Battlefield Things Security. MILCOM 2019 - 2019 IEEE Military Communications Conference (MILCOM). :841—846.

Military technology is ever-evolving to increase the safety and security of soldiers on the field while integrating Internet-of-Things solutions to improve operational efficiency in mission oriented tasks in the battlefield. Centralized communication technology is the traditional network model used for battlefields and is vulnerable to denial of service attacks, therefore suffers performance hazards. They also lead to a central point of failure, due to which, a flexible model that is mobile, resilient, and effective for different scenarios must be proposed. Blockchain offers a distributed platform that allows multiple nodes to update a distributed ledger in a tamper-resistant manner. The decentralized nature of this system suggests that it can be an effective tool for battlefields in securing data communication among Internet-of-Battlefield Things (IoBT). In this paper, we integrate a permissioned blockchain, namely Hyperledger Sawtooth, in IoBT context and evaluate its performance with the goal of determining whether it has the potential to serve the performance needs of IoBT environment. Using different testing parameters, the metric data would help in suggesting the best parameter set, network configuration and blockchain usability views in IoBT context. We show that a blockchain-integrated IoBT platform has heavy dependency on the characteristics of the underlying network such as topology, link bandwidth, jitter, and other communication configurations, that can be tuned up to achieve optimal performance.

Khakurel, U., Rawat, D., Njilla, L..  2019.  2019 IEEE International Conference on Industrial Internet (ICII). 2019 IEEE International Conference on Industrial Internet (ICII). :241—247.

FastChain is a simulator built in NS-3 which simulates the networked battlefield scenario with military applications, connecting tankers, soldiers and drones to form Internet-of-Battlefield-Things (IoBT). Computing, storage and communication resources in IoBT are limited during certain situations in IoBT. Under these circumstances, these resources should be carefully combined to handle the task to accomplish the mission. FastChain simulator uses Sharding approach to provide an efficient solution to combine resources of IoBT devices by identifying the correct and the best set of IoBT devices for a given scenario. Then, the set of IoBT devices for a given scenario collaborate together for sharding enabled Blockchain technology. Interested researchers, policy makers and developers can download and use the FastChain simulator to design, develop and evaluate blockchain enabled IoBT scenarios that helps make robust and trustworthy informed decisions in mission-critical IoBT environment.

Agadakos, I., Ciocarlie, G. F., Copos, B., Emmi, M., George, J., Leslie, N., Michaelis, J..  2019.  Application of Trust Assessment Techniques to IoBT Systems. MILCOM 2019 - 2019 IEEE Military Communications Conference (MILCOM). :833—840.

Continued advances in IoT technology have prompted new investigation into its usage for military operations, both to augment and complement existing military sensing assets and support next-generation artificial intelligence and machine learning systems. Under the emerging Internet of Battlefield Things (IoBT) paradigm, current operational conditions necessitate the development of novel security techniques, centered on establishment of trust for individual assets and supporting resilience of broader systems. To advance current IoBT efforts, a collection of prior-developed cybersecurity techniques is reviewed for applicability to conditions presented by IoBT operational environments (e.g., diverse asset ownership, degraded networking infrastructure, adversary activities) through use of supporting case study examples. The research techniques covered focus on two themes: (1) Supporting trust assessment for known/unknown IoT assets; (2) ensuring continued trust of known IoT assets and IoBT systems.

Ferguson-Walter, Kimberly, Major, Maxine, Van Bruggen, Dirk, Fugate, Sunny, Gutzwiller, Robert.  2019.  The World (of CTF) is Not Enough Data: Lessons Learned from a Cyber Deception Experiment. 2019 IEEE 5th International Conference on Collaboration and Internet Computing (CIC). :346–353.
The human side of cyber is fundamentally important to understanding and improving cyber operations. With the exception of Capture the Flag (CTF) exercises, cyber testing and experimentation tends to ignore the human attacker. While traditional CTF events include a deeply rooted human component, they rarely aim to measure human performance, cognition, or psychology. We argue that CTF is not sufficient for measuring these aspects of the human; instead, we examine the value in performing red team behavioral and cognitive testing in a large-scale, controlled human-subject experiment. In this paper we describe the pros and cons of performing this type of experimentation and provide detailed exposition of the data collection and experimental controls used during a recent cyber deception experiment-the Tularosa Study. Finally, we will discuss lessons learned and how our experiences can inform best practices in future cyber operations studies of human behavior and cognition.
Ibrahim, Romani Farid.  2019.  Mobile Transaction Processing for a Distributed War Environment. 2019 14th International Conference on Computer Science Education (ICCSE). :856—862.

The battlefield environment differs from the natural environment in terms of irregular communications and the possibility of destroying communication and medical units by enemy forces. Information that can be collected in a war environment by soldiers is important information and must reach top-level commanders in time for timely decisions making. Also, ambulance staff in the battlefield need to enter the data of injured soldiers after the first aid, so that the information is available for the field hospital staff to prepare the needs for incoming injured soldiers.In this research, we propose two transaction techniques to handle these issues and use different concurrency control protocols, depending on the nature of the transaction and not a one concurrency control protocol for all types of transactions. Message transaction technique is used to collect valuable data from the battlefield by soldiers and allows top-level commanders to view it according to their permissions by logging into the system, to help them make timely decisions. In addition, use the capabilities of DBMS tools to organize data and generate reports, as well as for future analysis. Medical service unit transactional workflow technique is used to provides medical information to the medical authorities about the injured soldiers and their status, which helps them to prepare the required needs before the wounded soldiers arrive at the hospitals. Both techniques handle the disconnection problem during transaction processing.In our approach, the transaction consists of four phases, reading, editing, validation, and writing phases, and its processing is based on the optimistic concurrency control protocol, and the rules of actionability that describe how a transaction behaves if a value-change is occurred on one or more of its attributes during its processing time by other transactions.