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Yoon, S., Cho, J.-H., Kim, D. S., Moore, T. J., Free-Nelson, F., Lim, H..  2020.  Attack Graph-Based Moving Target Defense in Software-Defined Networks. IEEE Transactions on Network and Service Management. 17:1653–1668.
Moving target defense (MTD) has emerged as a proactive defense mechanism aiming to thwart a potential attacker. The key underlying idea of MTD is to increase uncertainty and confusion for attackers by changing the attack surface (i.e., system or network configurations) that can invalidate the intelligence collected by the attackers and interrupt attack execution; ultimately leading to attack failure. Recently, the significant advance of software-defined networking (SDN) technology has enabled several complex system operations to be highly flexible and robust; particularly in terms of programmability and controllability with the help of SDN controllers. Accordingly, many security operations have utilized this capability to be optimally deployed in a complex network using the SDN functionalities. In this paper, by leveraging the advanced SDN technology, we developed an attack graph-based MTD technique that shuffles a host's network configurations (e.g., MAC/IP/port addresses) based on its criticality, which is highly exploitable by attackers when the host is on the attack path(s). To this end, we developed a hierarchical attack graph model that provides a network's vulnerability and network topology, which can be utilized for the MTD shuffling decisions in selecting highly exploitable hosts in a given network, and determining the frequency of shuffling the hosts' network configurations. The MTD shuffling with a high priority on more exploitable, critical hosts contributes to providing adaptive, proactive, and affordable defense services aiming to minimize attack success probability with minimum MTD cost. We validated the out performance of the proposed MTD in attack success probability and MTD cost via both simulation and real SDN testbed experiments.
Hong, Jin Bum, Yusuf, Simon Enoch, Kim, Dong Seong, Khan, Khaled MD.  2018.  Stateless Security Risk Assessment for Dynamic Networks. 2018 48th Annual IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks Workshops (DSN-W). :65–66.
Emerging networking technologies, such as cloud and Software Defined Networking, provide flexibility, elasticity and functionalities to change the network configurations over time. However, changes also impose unpredictable security postures at different times, creating difficulties to the security assessment of the network. To address this issue, we propose a stateless security risk assessment, which combines the security posture of network states at different times to provide an overall security overview. This paper describes the methodologies of the stateless security risk assessment. Our approach is applicable to any emerging networking technologies with dynamic changes.
Starke, Allen, Nie, Zixiang, Hodges, Morgan, Baker, Corey, McNair, Janise.  2019.  Denial of Service Detection Mitigation Scheme using Responsive Autonomic Virtual Networks (RAvN). MILCOM 2019 - 2019 IEEE Military Communications Conference (MILCOM). :1–6.
In this paper we propose a responsive autonomic and data-driven adaptive virtual networking framework (RAvN) that integrates the adaptive reconfigurable features of a popular SDN platform called open networking operating system (ONOS), the network performance statistics provided by traffic monitoring tools such as T-shark or sflow-RT and analytics and decision making skills provided from new and current machine learning techniques to detect and mitigate anomalous behavior. For this paper we focus on the development of novel detection schemes using a developed Centroid-based clustering technique and the Intragroup variance of data features within network traffic (C. Intra), with a multivariate gaussian distribution model fitted to the constant changes in the IP addresses of the network to accurately assist in the detection of low rate and high rate denial of service (DoS) attacks. We briefly discuss our ideas on the development of the decision-making and execution component using the concept of generating adaptive policy updates (i.e. anomalous mitigation solutions) on-the-fly to the ONOS SDN controller for updating network configurations and flows. In addition we provide the analysis on anomaly detection schemes used for detecting low rate and high rate DoS attacks versus a commonly used unsupervised machine learning technique Kmeans. The proposed schemes outperformed Kmeans significantly. The multivariate clustering method and the intragroup variance recorded 80.54% and 96.13% accuracy respectively while Kmeans recorded 72.38% accuracy.
Dishington, Cole, Sharma, Dilli P., Kim, Dong Seong, Cho, Jin-Hee, Moore, Terrence J., Nelson, Frederica F..  2019.  Security and Performance Assessment of IP Multiplexing Moving Target Defence in Software Defined Networks. 2019 18th IEEE International Conference On Trust, Security And Privacy In Computing And Communications/13th IEEE International Conference On Big Data Science And Engineering (TrustCom/BigDataSE). :288–295.

With the interconnection of services and customers, network attacks are capable of large amounts of damage. Flexible Random Virtual IP Multiplexing (FRVM) is a Moving Target Defence (MTD) technique that protects against reconnaissance and access with address mutation and multiplexing. Security techniques must be trusted, however, FRVM, along with past MTD techniques, have gaps in realistic evaluation and thorough analysis of security and performance. FRVM, and two comparison techniques, were deployed on a virtualised network to demonstrate FRVM's security and performance trade-offs. The key results include the security and performance trade-offs of address multiplexing and address mutation. The security benefit of IP address multiplexing is much greater than its performance overhead, deployed on top of address mutation. Frequent address mutation significantly increases an attackers' network scan durations as well as effectively obfuscating and hiding network configurations.

Hussein, A., Salman, O., Chehab, A., Elhajj, I., Kayssi, A..  2019.  Machine Learning for Network Resiliency and Consistency. 2019 Sixth International Conference on Software Defined Systems (SDS). :146–153.

Being able to describe a specific network as consistent is a large step towards resiliency. Next to the importance of security lies the necessity of consistency verification. Attackers are currently focusing on targeting small and crutial goals such as network configurations or flow tables. These types of attacks would defy the whole purpose of a security system when built on top of an inconsistent network. Advances in Artificial Intelligence (AI) are playing a key role in ensuring a fast responce to the large number of evolving threats. Software Defined Networking (SDN), being centralized by design, offers a global overview of the network. Robustness and adaptability are part of a package offered by programmable networking, which drove us to consider the integration between both AI and SDN. The general goal of our series is to achieve an Artificial Intelligence Resiliency System (ARS). The aim of this paper is to propose a new AI-based consistency verification system, which will be part of ARS in our future work. The comparison of different deep learning architectures shows that Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) give the best results with an accuracy of 99.39% on our dataset and 96% on our consistency test scenario.

Yousefi, M., Mtetwa, N., Zhang, Y., Tianfield, H..  2017.  A Novel Approach for Analysis of Attack Graph. 2017 IEEE International Conference on Intelligence and Security Informatics (ISI). :7–12.

Attack graph technique is a common tool for the evaluation of network security. However, attack graphs are generally too large and complex to be understood and interpreted by security administrators. This paper proposes an analysis framework for security attack graphs for a given IT infrastructure system. First, in order to facilitate the discovery of interconnectivities among vulnerabilities in a network, multi-host multi-stage vulnerability analysis (MulVAL) is employed to generate an attack graph for a given network topology. Then a novel algorithm is applied to refine the attack graph and generate a simplified graph called a transition graph. Next, a Markov model is used to project the future security posture of the system. Finally, the framework is evaluated by applying it on a typical IT network scenario with specific services, network configurations, and vulnerabilities.