Visible to the public Biblio

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Lehrfeld, Michael R..  2020.  Preventing the Insider – Blocking USB Write Capabilities to Prevent IP Theft. 2020 SoutheastCon. 2:1–7.
The Edward Snowden data breach of 2013 clearly illustrates the damage that insiders can do to an organization. An insider's knowledge of an organization allows them legitimate access to the systems where valuable information is stored. Because they belong within an organizations security perimeter, an insider is inherently difficult to detect and prevent information leakage. To counter this, proactive measures must be deployed to limit the ability of an insider to steal information. Email monitoring at the edge is can easily be monitored for large file exaltation. However, USB drives are ideally suited for large-scale file extraction in a covert manner. This work discusses a process for disabling write-access to USB drives while allowing read-access. Allowing read-access for USB drives allows an organization to adapt to the changing security posture of the organization. People can still bring USB devices into the organization and read data from them, but exfiltration is more difficult.
Sunehra, Dhiraj, Sreshta, V. Sai, Shashank, V., Kumar Goud, B. Uday.  2020.  Raspberry Pi Based Smart Wearable Device for Women Safety using GPS and GSM Technology. 2020 IEEE International Conference for Innovation in Technology (INOCON). :1—5.
Security has become a major concern for women, children and even elders in every walk of their life. Women are getting assaulted and molested, children are getting kidnapped, elder citizens are also facing many problems like robbery, etc. In this paper, a smart security solution called smart wearable device system is implemented using the Raspberry Pi3 for enhancing the safety and security of women/children. It works as an alert as well as a security system. It provides a buzzer alert alert to the people who are nearby to the user (wearing the smart device). The system uses Global Positioning System (GPS) to locate the user, sends the location of the user through SMS to the emergency contact and police using the Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) / General Radio Packet Service (GPRS) technology. The device also captures the image of the assault and surroundings of the user or victim using USB Web Camera interfaced to the device and sends it as an E-mail alert to the emergency contact soon after the user presses the panic button present on Smart wearable device system.
Pimple, Nishant, Salunke, Tejashree, Pawar, Utkarsha, Sangoi, Janhavi.  2020.  Wireless Security — An Approach Towards Secured Wi-Fi Connectivity. 2020 6th International Conference on Advanced Computing and Communication Systems (ICACCS). :872–876.
In today's era, the probability of the wireless devices getting hacked has grown extensively. Due to the various WLAN vulnerabilities, hackers can break into the system. There is a lack of awareness among the people about security mechanisms. From the past experiences, the study reveals that router security encrypted protocol is often cracked using several ways like dictionary attack and brute force attack. The identified methods are costly, require extensive hardware, are not reliable and do not detect all the vulnerabilities of the system. This system aims to test all router protocols which are WEP, WPA, WPA2, WPS and detect the vulnerabilities of the system. Kali Linux version number 2.0 is being used over here and therefore the tools like airodump-ng, aircrack-ng are used to acquire access point pin which gives prevention methods for detected credulity and aims in testing various security protocols to make sure that there's no flaw which will be exploited.
Muslim, A. A., Budiono, A., Almaarif, A..  2020.  Implementation and Analysis of USB based Password Stealer using PowerShell in Google Chrome and Mozilla Firefox. 2020 3rd International Conference on Computer and Informatics Engineering (IC2IE). :421—426.

Along with the development of the Windows operating system, browser applications to surf the internet are also growing rapidly. The most widely used browsers today are Google Chrome and Mozilla Firefox. Both browsers have a username and password management feature that makes users login to a website easily, but saving usernames and passwords in the browser is quite dangerous because the stored data can be hacked using brute force attacks or read through a program. One way to get a username and password in the browser is to use a program that can read Google Chrome and Mozilla Firefox login data from the computer's internal storage and then show those data. In this study, an attack will be carried out by implementing Rubber Ducky using BadUSB to run the ChromePass and PasswordFox program and the PowerShell script using the Arduino Pro Micro Leonardo device as a USB Password Stealer. The results obtained from this study are the username and password on Google Chrome and Mozilla Firefox successfully obtained when the USB is connected to the target device, the average time of the attack is 14 seconds then sending it to the author's email.

Ferryansa, Budiono, A., Almaarif, A..  2020.  Analysis of USB Based Spying Method Using Arduino and Metasploit Framework in Windows Operating System. 2020 3rd International Conference on Computer and Informatics Engineering (IC2IE). :437—442.

The use of a very wide windows operating system is undeniably also followed by increasing attacks on the operating system. Universal Serial Bus (USB) is one of the mechanisms used by many people with plug and play functionality that is very easy to use, making data transfers fast and easy compared to other hardware. Some research shows that the Windows operating system has weaknesses so that it is often exploited by using various attacks and malware. There are various methods used to exploit the Windows operating system, one of them by using a USB device. By using a USB device, a criminal can plant a backdoor reverse shell to exploit the victim's computer just by connecting the USB device to the victim's computer without being noticed. This research was conducted by planting a reverse shell backdoor through a USB device to exploit the victim's device, especially the webcam and microphone device on the target computer. From 35 experiments that have been carried out, it was found that 83% of spying attacks using USB devices on the Windows operating system were successfully carried out.

Ramadhanty, A. D., Budiono, A., Almaarif, A..  2020.  Implementation and Analysis of Keyboard Injection Attack using USB Devices in Windows Operating System. 2020 3rd International Conference on Computer and Informatics Engineering (IC2IE). :449—454.

Windows is one of the popular operating systems in use today, while Universal Serial Bus (USB) is one of the mechanisms used by many people with practical plug and play functions. USB has long been used as a vector of attacks on computers. One method of attack is Keylogger. The Keylogger can take advantage of existing vulnerabilities in the Windows 10 operating system attacks carried out in the form of recording computer keystroke activity without the victim knowing. In this research, an attack will be carried out by running a Powershell Script using BadUSB to be able to activate the Keylogger program. The script is embedded in the Arduino Pro Micro device. The results obtained in the Keyboard Injection Attack research using Arduino Pro Micro were successfully carried out with an average time needed to run the keylogger is 7.474 seconds with a computer connected to the internet. The results of the keylogger will be sent to the attacker via email.

Naz, M. T., Zeki, A. M..  2020.  A Review of Various Attack Methods on Air-Gapped Systems. 2020 International Conference on Innovation and Intelligence for Informatics, Computing and Technologies (3ICT). :1—6.

In the past air-gapped systems that are isolated from networks have been considered to be very secure. Yet there have been reports of such systems being breached. These breaches have shown to use unconventional means for communication also known as covert channels such as Acoustic, Electromagnetic, Magnetic, Electric, Optical, and Thermal to transfer data. In this paper, a review of various attack methods that can compromise an air-gapped system is presented along with a summary of how efficient and dangerous a particular method could be. The capabilities of each covert channel are listed to better understand the threat it poses and also some countermeasures to safeguard against such attack methods are mentioned. These attack methods have already been proven to work and awareness of such covert channels for data exfiltration is crucial in various industries.

Gul, M. junaid, Rabia, Riaz, Jararweh, Yaser, Rathore, M. Mazhar, Paul, Anand.  2019.  Security Flaws of Operating System Against Live Device Attacks: A case study on live Linux distribution device. 2019 Sixth International Conference on Software Defined Systems (SDS). :154–159.
Live Linux distribution devices can hold Linux operating system for portability. Using such devices and distributions, one can access system or critical files, which otherwise cannot be accessed by guest or any unauthorized user. Events like file leakage before the official announcement. These announcements can vary from mobile companies to software industries. Damages caused by such vulnerabilities can be data theft, data tampering, or permanent deletion of certain records. This study uncovers the security flaws of operating system against live device attacks. For this study, we used live devices with different Linux distributions. Target operating systems are exposed to live device attacks and their behavior is recorded against different Linux distribution. This study also compares the robustness level of different operating system against such attacks.
Tian, Dave Jing, Hernandez, Grant, Choi, Joseph I., Frost, Vanessa, Johnson, Peter C., Butler, Kevin R. B..  2019.  LBM: A Security Framework for Peripherals within the Linux Kernel. 2019 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy (SP). :967—984.

Modern computer peripherals are diverse in their capabilities and functionality, ranging from keyboards and printers to smartphones and external GPUs. In recent years, peripherals increasingly connect over a small number of standardized communication protocols, including USB, Bluetooth, and NFC. The host operating system is responsible for managing these devices; however, malicious peripherals can request additional functionality from the OS resulting in system compromise, or can craft data packets to exploit vulnerabilities within OS software stacks. Defenses against malicious peripherals to date only partially cover the peripheral attack surface and are limited to specific protocols (e.g., USB). In this paper, we propose Linux (e)BPF Modules (LBM), a general security framework that provides a unified API for enforcing protection against malicious peripherals within the Linux kernel. LBM leverages the eBPF packet filtering mechanism for performance and extensibility and we provide a high-level language to facilitate the development of powerful filtering functionality. We demonstrate how LBM can provide host protection against malicious USB, Bluetooth, and NFC devices; we also instantiate and unify existing defenses under the LBM framework. Our evaluation shows that the overhead introduced by LBM is within 1 μs per packet in most cases, application and system overhead is negligible, and LBM outperforms other state-of-the-art solutions. To our knowledge, LBM is the first security framework designed to provide comprehensive protection against malicious peripherals within the Linux kernel.

Guri, Mordechai, Zadov, Boris, Bykhovsky, Dima, Elovici, Yuval.  2019.  CTRL-ALT-LED: Leaking Data from Air-Gapped Computers Via Keyboard LEDs. 2019 IEEE 43rd Annual Computer Software and Applications Conference (COMPSAC). 1:801—810.
Using the keyboard LEDs to send data optically was proposed in 2002 by Loughry and Umphress [1] (Appendix A). In this paper we extensively explore this threat in the context of a modern cyber-attack with current hardware and optical equipment. In this type of attack, an advanced persistent threat (APT) uses the keyboard LEDs (Caps-Lock, Num-Lock and Scroll-Lock) to encode information and exfiltrate data from airgapped computers optically. Notably, this exfiltration channel is not monitored by existing data leakage prevention (DLP) systems. We examine this attack and its boundaries for today's keyboards with USB controllers and sensitive optical sensors. We also introduce smartphone and smartwatch cameras as components of malicious insider and 'evil maid' attacks. We provide the necessary scientific background on optical communication and the characteristics of modern USB keyboards at the hardware and software level, and present a transmission protocol and modulation schemes. We implement the exfiltration malware, discuss its design and implementation issues, and evaluate it with different types of keyboards. We also test various receivers, including light sensors, remote cameras, 'extreme' cameras, security cameras, and smartphone cameras. Our experiment shows that data can be leaked from air-gapped computers via the keyboard LEDs at a maximum bit rate of 3000 bit/sec per LED given a light sensor as a receiver, and more than 120 bit/sec if smartphones are used. The attack doesn't require any modification of the keyboard at hardware or firmware levels.
Mahboubi, A., Camtepe, S., Morarji, H..  2018.  Reducing USB Attack Surface: A Lightweight Authentication and Delegation Protocol. 2018 International Conference on Smart Computing and Electronic Enterprise (ICSCEE). :1–7.

A privately owned smart device connected to a corporate network using a USB connection creates a potential channel for malware infection and its subsequent spread. For example, air-gapped (a.k.a. isolated) systems are considered to be the most secure and safest places for storing critical datasets. However, unlike network communications, USB connection streams have no authentication and filtering. Consequently, intentional or unintentional piggybacking of a malware infected USB storage or a mobile device through the air-gap is sufficient to spread infection into such systems. Our findings show that the contact rate has an exceptional impact on malware spread and destabilizing free malware equilibrium. This work proposes a USB authentication and delegation protocol based on radiofrequency identification (RFID) in order to stabilize the free malware equilibrium in air-gapped networks. The proposed protocol is modelled using Coloured Petri nets (CPN) and the model is verified and validated through CPN tools.

Nicho, M., Oluwasegun, A., Kamoun, F..  2018.  Identifying Vulnerabilities in APT Attacks: A Simulated Approach. 2018 9th IFIP International Conference on New Technologies, Mobility and Security (NTMS). :1–4.

This research aims to identify some vulnerabilities of advanced persistent threat (APT) attacks using multiple simulated attacks in a virtualized environment. Our experimental study shows that while updating the antivirus software and the operating system with the latest patches may help in mitigating APTs, APT threat vectors could still infiltrate the strongest defenses. Accordingly, we highlight some critical areas of security concern that need to be addressed.

Zhao, J., Kong, K., Hei, X., Tu, Y., Du, X..  2018.  A Visible Light Channel Based Access Control Scheme for Wireless Insulin Pump Systems. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC). :1–6.
Smart personal insulin pumps have been widely adopted by type 1 diabetes. However, many wireless insulin pump systems lack security mechanisms to protect them from malicious attacks. In previous works, the read-write attacks over RF channels can be launched stealthily and could jeopardize patients' lives. Protecting patients from such attacks is urgent. To address this issue, we propose a novel visible light channel based access control scheme for wireless infusion insulin pumps. This scheme employs an infrared photodiode sensor as a receiver in an insulin pump, and an infrared LED as an emitter in a doctor's reader (USB) to transmit a PIN/shared key to authenticate the doctor's USB. The evaluation results demonstrate that our scheme can reliably pass the authentication process with a low false accept rate (0.05% at a distance of 5cm).
Farulla, G. A., Pane, A. J., Prinetto, P., Varriale, A..  2017.  An object-oriented open software architecture for security applications. 2017 IEEE East-West Design Test Symposium (EWDTS). :1–6.

This paper introduces a newly developed Object-Oriented Open Software Architecture designed for supporting security applications, while leveraging on the capabilities offered by dedicated Open Hardware devices. Specifically, we target the SEcube™ platform, an Open Hardware security platform based on a 3D SiP (System on Package) designed and produced by Blu5 Group. The platform integrates three components employed for security in a single package: a Cortex-M4 CPU, a FPGA and an EAL5+ certified Smart Card. The Open Software Architecture targets both the host machine and the security device, together with the secure communication among them. To maximize its usability, this architecture is organized in several abstraction layers, ranging from hardware interfaces to device drivers, from security APIs to advanced applications, like secure messaging and data protection. We aim at releasing a multi-platform Open Source security framework, where software and hardware cooperate to hide to both the developer and the final users classical security concepts like cryptographic algorithms and keys, focusing, instead, on common operational security concepts like groups and policies.

Hong, J. B., Kim, D. S..  2017.  Discovering and Mitigating New Attack Paths Using Graphical Security Models. 2017 47th Annual IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks Workshops (DSN-W). :45–52.

To provide a comprehensive security analysis of modern networked systems, we need to take into account the combined effects of existing vulnerabilities and zero-day vulnerabilities. In addition to them, it is important to incorporate new vulnerabilities emerging from threats such as BYOD, USB file sharing. Consequently, there may be new dependencies between system components that could also create new attack paths, but previous work did not take into account those new attack paths in their security analysis (i.e., not all attack paths are taken into account). Thus, countermeasures may not be effective, especially against attacks exploiting the new attack paths. In this paper, we propose a Unified Vulnerability Risk Analysis Module (UV-RAM) to address the aforementioned problems by taking into account the combined effects of those vulnerabilities and capturing the new attack paths. The three main functionalities of UV-RAM are: (i) to discover new dependencies and new attack paths, (ii) to incorporate new vulnerabilities introduced and zero-day vulnerabilities into security analysis, and (iii) to formulate mitigation strategies for hardening the networked system. Our experimental results demonstrate and validate the effectiveness of UV-RAM.