Visible to the public Biblio

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Hou, N., Zheng, Y..  2020.  CloakLoRa: A Covert Channel over LoRa PHY. 2020 IEEE 28th International Conference on Network Protocols (ICNP). :1—11.
This paper describes our design and implementation of a covert channel over LoRa physical layer (PHY). LoRa adopts a unique modulation scheme (chirp spread spectrum (CSS)) to enable long range communication at low-power consumption. CSS uses the initial frequencies of LoRa chirps to differentiate LoRa symbols, while simply ignoring other RF parameters (e.g., amplitude and phase). Our study reveals that the LoRa physical layer leaves sufficient room to build a covert channel by embedding covert information with a modulation scheme orthogonal to CSS. To demonstrate the feasibility of building a covert channel, we implement CloakLoRa. CloakLoRa embeds covert information into a regular LoRa packet by modulating the amplitudes of LoRa chirps while keeping the frequency intact. As amplitude modulation is orthogonal to CSS, a regular LoRa node receives the LoRa packet as if no secret information is embedded into the packet. Such an embedding method is transparent to all security mechanisms at upper layers in current LoRaWAN. As such, an attacker can create an amplitude modulated covert channel over LoRa without being detected by current LoRaWAN security mechanism. We conduct comprehensive evaluations with COTS LoRa nodes and receive-only software defined radios and experiment results show that CloakLoRa can send covert information over 250m.
Khatod, V., Manolova, A..  2020.  Effects of Man in the Middle (MITM) Attack on Bit Error Rate of Bluetooth System. 2020 Joint International Conference on Digital Arts, Media and Technology with ECTI Northern Section Conference on Electrical, Electronics, Computer and Telecommunications Engineering (ECTI DAMT NCON). :153—157.
The ad-hoc network formed by Bluetooth works on radio frequency links. The security aspect of Bluetooth has to be handled more carefully. The radio frequency waves have a characteristic that the waves can pierce the obstructions in the communication path, get rid of the requirement of line of sight between the communicating devices. We propose a software model of man-in-the-middle attack along with unauthorized and authorized transmitter and receiver. Advanced White Gaussian Noise channel is simulated in the designed architecture. The transmitter uses Gaussian Frequency Shift Keying (GFSK) modulation like in Bluetooth. The receiver uses GFSK demodulation. In order to validate the performance of the designed system, bit error rate (BER) measurements are taken with respect to different time intervals. We found that BER drops roughly 18% if hopping duration of 150 seconds is chosen. We propose that a Bluetooth system with hopping rate of 0.006 Hz is used instead of 10Hz.
Li, J., Liu, H., Wu, J., Zhu, J., Huifeng, Y., Rui, X..  2019.  Research on Nonlinear Frequency Hopping Communication Under Big Data. 2019 International Conference on Computer Network, Electronic and Automation (ICCNEA). :349—354.

Aiming at the problems of poor stability and low accuracy of current communication data informatization processing methods, this paper proposes a research on nonlinear frequency hopping communication data informatization under the framework of big data security evaluation. By adding a frequency hopping mediation module to the frequency hopping communication safety evaluation framework, the communication interference information is discretely processed, and the data parameters of the nonlinear frequency hopping communication data are corrected and converted by combining a fast clustering analysis algorithm, so that the informatization processing of the nonlinear frequency hopping communication data under the big data safety evaluation framework is completed. Finally, experiments prove that the research on data informatization of nonlinear frequency hopping communication under the framework of big data security evaluation could effectively improve the accuracy and stability.

Ma, X., Sun, X., Cheng, L., Guo, X., Liu, X., Wang, Z..  2019.  Parameter Setting of New Energy Sources Generator Rapid Frequency Response in Northwest Power Grid Based on Multi-Frequency Regulation Resources Coordinated Controlling. 2019 IEEE 8th International Conference on Advanced Power System Automation and Protection (APAP). :218—222.
Since 2016, the northwest power grid has organized new energy sources to participate in the rapid frequency regulation research and carried out pilot test work at the sending end large power grid. The experimental results show that new energy generator has the ability to participate in the grid's rapid frequency regulation, and its performance is better than that of conventional power supply units. This paper analyses the requirements for fast frequency control of the sending end large power grid in northwest China, and proposes the segmented participation indexes of photovoltaic and wind power in the frequency regulation of power grids. In accordance with the idea of "clear responsibilities, various types of unit coordination", the parameter setting of new energy sources rapid frequency regulation is completed based on the coordinated control based on multi-frequency regulation resources in northwest power grid. The new energy fast frequency regulation model was established, through the PSASP power grid stability simulation program and the large-scale power grid stability simulation analysis was completed. The simulation results show that the wind power and photovoltaic adopting differential rapid frequency regulation parameters can better utilize the rapid frequency regulation capability of various types of power sources, realize the coordinated rapid frequency regulation of all types of units, and effectively improve the frequency security prevention and control level of the sending end large power grid.
Benhani, E. M., Bossuet, L..  2018.  DVFS as a Security Failure of TrustZone-enabled Heterogeneous SoC. 2018 25th IEEE International Conference on Electronics, Circuits and Systems (ICECS). :489—492.
Today, most embedded systems use Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Scaling (DVFS) to minimize energy consumption and maximize performance. The DVFS technique works by regulating the important parameters that govern the amount of energy consumed in a system, voltage and frequency. For the implementation of this technique, the operating system (OS) includes software applications that dynamically control a voltage regulator or a frequency regulator or both. In this paper, we demonstrate for the first time a malicious use of the frequency regulator against a TrustZone-enabled System-on-Chip (SoC). We demonstrate a use of frequency scaling to create covert channel in a TrustZone-enabled heterogeneous SoC. We present four proofs of concept to transfer sensitive data from a secure entity in the SoC to a non-secure one. The first proof of concept is from a secure ARM core to outside of SoC. The second is from a secure ARM core to a non-secure one. The third is from a non-trusted third party IP embedded in the programmable logic part of the SoC to a non-secure ARM core. And the last proof of concept is from a secure third party IP to a non-secure ARM core.
Wu, Chuxin, Zhang, Peng, Liu, Hongwei, Liu, Yuhong.  2019.  Multi-keyword Ranked Searchable Encryption Supporting CP-ABE Test. 2019 Computing, Communications and IoT Applications (ComComAp). :220—225.

Internet of Things (IoT) and cloud computing are promising technologies that change the way people communicate and live. As the data collected through IoT devices often involve users' private information and the cloud is not completely trusted, users' private data are usually encrypted before being uploaded to cloud for security purposes. Searchable encryption, allowing users to search over the encrypted data, extends data flexibility on the premise of security. In this paper, to achieve the accurate and efficient ciphertext searching, we present an efficient multi-keyword ranked searchable encryption scheme supporting ciphertext-policy attribute-based encryption (CP-ABE) test (MRSET). For efficiency, numeric hierarchy supporting ranked search is introduced to reduce the dimensions of vectors and matrices. For practicality, CP-ABE is improved to support access right test, so that only documents that the user can decrypt are returned. The security analysis shows that our proposed scheme is secure, and the experimental result demonstrates that our scheme is efficient.

Ateş, Çağatay, Özdel, Süleyman, Yıldırım, Metehan, Anarım, Emin.  2019.  DDoS Attack Detection Using Greedy Algorithm and Frequency Modulation. 2019 27th Signal Processing and Communications Applications Conference (SIU). :1–4.
Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attack is one of the major threats to the network services. In this paper, we propose a DDoS attack detection algorithm based on the probability distributions of source IP addresses and destination IP addresses. According to the behavior of source and destination IP addresses during DDoS attack, the distance between these features is calculated and used.It is calculated with using the Greedy algorithm which eliminates some requirements associated with Kullback-Leibler divergence such as having the same rank of the probability distributions. Then frequency modulation is proposed in the detection phase to reduce false alarm rates and to avoid using static threshold. This algorithm is tested on the real data collected from Boğaziçi University network.
Huang, Bo-Yuan, Ray, Sayak, Gupta, Aarti, Fung, Jason M., Malik, Sharad.  2018.  Formal Security Verification of Concurrent Firmware in SoCs Using Instruction-Level Abstraction for Hardware*. 2018 55th ACM/ESDA/IEEE Design Automation Conference (DAC). :1-6.

Formal security verification of firmware interacting with hardware in modern Systems-on-Chip (SoCs) is a critical research problem. This faces the following challenges: (1) design complexity and heterogeneity, (2) semantics gaps between software and hardware, (3) concurrency between firmware/hardware and between Intellectual Property Blocks (IPs), and (4) expensive bit-precise reasoning. In this paper, we present a co-verification methodology to address these challenges. We model hardware using the Instruction-Level Abstraction (ILA), capturing firmware-visible behavior at the architecture level. This enables integrating hardware behavior with firmware in each IP into a single thread. The co-verification with multiple firmware across IPs is formulated as a multi-threaded program verification problem, for which we leverage software verification techniques. We also propose an optimization using abstraction to prevent expensive bit-precise reasoning. The evaluation of our methodology on an industry SoC Secure Boot design demonstrates its applicability in SoC security verification.

Fargo, F., Sury, S..  2018.  Autonomic Secure HPC Fabric Architecture. 2018 IEEE/ACS 15th International Conference on Computer Systems and Applications (AICCSA). :1-4.

Cloud computing is the major paradigm in today's IT world with the capabilities of security management, high performance, flexibility, scalability. Customers valuing these features can better benefit if they use a cloud environment built using HPC fabric architecture. However, security is still a major concern, not only on the software side but also on the hardware side. There are multiple studies showing that the malicious users can affect the regular customers through the hardware if they are co-located on the same physical system. Therefore, solving possible security concerns on the HPC fabric architecture will clearly make the fabric industries leader in this area. In this paper, we propose an autonomic HPC fabric architecture that leverages both resilient computing capabilities and adaptive anomaly analysis for further security.

Murray, B., Islam, M. A., Pinar, A. J., Havens, T. C., Anderson, D. T., Scott, G..  2018.  Explainable AI for Understanding Decisions and Data-Driven Optimization of the Choquet Integral. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Fuzzy Systems (FUZZ-IEEE). :1–8.

To date, numerous ways have been created to learn a fusion solution from data. However, a gap exists in terms of understanding the quality of what was learned and how trustworthy the fusion is for future-i.e., new-data. In part, the current paper is driven by the demand for so-called explainable AI (XAI). Herein, we discuss methods for XAI of the Choquet integral (ChI), a parametric nonlinear aggregation function. Specifically, we review existing indices, and we introduce new data-centric XAI tools. These various XAI-ChI methods are explored in the context of fusing a set of heterogeneous deep convolutional neural networks for remote sensing.

Liao, J., Vallobra, P., Petit, D., Vemulkar, T., O'Brien, L., Malinowski, G., Hehn, M., Mangin, S., Cowburn, R..  2017.  All-optical switching behaviours in synthetic ferrimagnetic heterostructures with different ferromagnetic-layer Curie temperatures. 2017 IEEE International Magnetics Conference (INTERMAG). :1–1.
Summary form only given. All-optical switching (AOS) has been observed in ferromagnetic (FM) layers and synthetic ferrimagnetic heterostructures [1-4]. In this work, we use anomalous Hall effect (AHE) measurements to demonstrate controlled helicity-dependent switching in synthetic ferrimagnetic heterostructures. The two FM layers are engineered to have different Curie temperatures Tc1 (fixed) and Tc2 (variable). We show that irrespective of whether Tc2 is higher or lower than Tc1, the final magnetic configuration of the heterostructure is controlled by using the laser polarization to set the magnetic state of the FM layer with the highest Tc. All samples were grown on glass substrates at room temperature by DC magnetron sputtering. Two sets of samples were prepared. The first set are single FM layers with layer composition Ta (3 nm)/Pt (4 nm)/FM1(2)/Pt capping (4 nm), where FM1 = Co (0.6 nm) is a Co layer and FM2 = CoFeB (tCoFeB)/Pt(0.4 nm)/ CoFeB (tCoFeB) (0.2 ≤ tCoFeB ≤ 0.6 nm) is a composite CoFeB layer where both CoFeB layers are ferromagnetically coupled and act as a single layer. FM1 and FM2 were used to produce the second set of synthetic ferrimagnetic samples with layer structure Ta (3 nm)/Pt (4 nm)/FM1/Pt (0.4 nm)/Ru (0.9 nm)/Pt (0.4 nm)/FM2/Pt capping (4 nm). The Ru layer provides the antiferromagnetic RKKY interlayer exchange coupling between the adjacent FM1 and FM2 layers while the Pt layers on either side of the Ru layer can tune the strength of the coupling and stabilize their perpendicular anisotropy [5]. To study the AOS, we use a Ti: sapphire fs-laser with a wavelength of 800 nm and a pulse duration of 43 fs. A quarter-wave plate is used to create a circularly polarized [right(σ+) and left-handed (σ-)] beam. We first measured the magnetic properties of the FM1 and FM2 layers using vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). All FM samples show full remanence in perpendicular hyst- resis loops at room temperature (not shown). The temperature-dependent magnetization scans (not shown) give a Curie temperature Tc1 of 524 K for FM1. For FM2, increasing tCoFeB increases its Curie temperatureTc2. At tCoFeB = 0.5 nm, Tc2 - Tc1. Hall crosses are patterned by optical lithography and ion milling. The width of the current carrying wire is - 5 um, giving a DC current density of - 6 x 109 A/m2 during the measurement. Figure 1(a) shows the resulting perpendicular Hall hysteresis loop of the synthetic ferrimagnetic sample with tCoFeB = 0.2 nm. At remanence, the stable magnetic configurations are the two antiparallel orientations of FM1 and FM2 [State I and II in Fig. 1(a)]. To study the AOS, we swept the laser beam with a power of 0.45 mW and a speed of 1 μm/sec across the Hall cross, and the corresponding Hall voltage was constantly monitored. In Fig. 1(b), we show the normalized Hall voltage, VHall, as a function of the laser beam position x for both beam polarizations σ+ and σ-. The initial magnetic configuration was State I. When the beam is at the center of the cross (position B), both beam polarizations give VHall - 0. As the beam leaves the cross (position C), the σbeam changes the magnetic configurations from State I to State II (FM1 magnetization pointing down), while the system reverts to State I using the σ+ beam. Changing the initial configuration from State I to State II results in the same final magnetic configurations, determined by the laser beam polarizations (not shown). Similar results (not shown) were obtained for samples with tCoFeB ≤ 0.4 nm. However, at tCoFeB = 0.6 nm, the σbeam results in the final magnetic configurations with FM2 magnetization pointing down (State I) and the σ+ beam results in the State II configuration, suggesting that the final state is determined by the beam polar
Chang, L., Kao, M., Tsai, L., Liang, J., Lee, S..  2017.  Frequency modulation spin waves generator via oscillating vortex core in NiFe disk array. 2017 IEEE International Magnetics Conference (INTERMAG). :1–1.

The study of spin waves (SW) excitation in magnetic devices is one of the most important topics in modern magnetism due to the applications of the information carrier and the signal processing. We experimentally realize a spin-wave generator, capable of frequency modulation, in a magnonic waveguide. The emission of spin waves was produced by the reversal or oscillation of nanoscale magnetic vortex cores in a NiFe disk array. The vortex cores in the disk array were excited by an out of plane radio frequency (rf) magnetic field. The dynamic behaviors of the magnetization of NiFe were studied using a micro-focused Brillouin light scattering spectroscopy (BLS) setup.

Lin, J., Li, Q., Yang, J..  2017.  Frequency diverse array beamforming for physical-layer security with directionally-aligned legitimate user and eavesdropper. 2017 25th European Signal Processing Conference (EUSIPCO). :2166–2170.
The conventional physical-layer (PHY) security approaches, e.g., transmit beamforming and artificial noise (AN)-based design, may fail when the channels of legitimate user (LU) and eavesdropper (Eve) are close correlated. Due to the highly directional transmission feature of millimeter-wave (mmWave), this may occur in mmWave transmissions as the transmitter, Eve and LU are aligned in the same direction exactly. To handle the PHY security problem with directionally-aligned LU and Eve, we propose a novel frequency diverse array (FDA) beamforming approach to differentiating the LU and Eve. By intentionally introducing some frequency offsets across the antennas, the FDA beamforming generates an angle-range dependent beampattern. As a consequence, it can degrade the Eve's reception and thus achieve PHY security. In this paper, we maximize the secrecy rate by jointly optimizing the frequency offsets and the beamformer. This secrecy rate maximization (SRM) problem is hard to solve due to the tightly coupled variables. Nevertheless, we show that it can be reformulated into a form depending only on the frequency offsets. Building upon this reformulation, we identify some cases where the SRM problem can be optimally solved in closed form. Numerical results demonstrate the efficacy of FDA beamforming in achieving PHY security, even for aligned LU and Eve.
Almoualem, F., Satam, P., Ki, J. G., Hariri, S..  2017.  SDR-Based Resilient Wireless Communications. 2017 International Conference on Cloud and Autonomic Computing (ICCAC). :114–119.

As the use of wireless technologies increases significantly due to ease of deployment, cost-effectiveness and the increase in bandwidth, there is a critical need to make the wireless communications secure, and resilient to attacks or faults (malicious or natural). Wireless communications are inherently prone to cyberattacks due to the open access to the medium. While current wireless protocols have addressed the privacy issues, they have failed to provide effective solutions against denial of service attacks, session hijacking and jamming attacks. In this paper, we present a resilient wireless communication architecture based on Moving Target Defense, and Software Defined Radios (SDRs). The approach achieves its resilient operations by randomly changing the runtime characteristics of the wireless communications channels between different wireless nodes to make it extremely difficult to succeed in launching attacks. The runtime characteristics that can be changed include packet size, network address, modulation type, and the operating frequency of the channel. In addition, the lifespan for each configuration will be random. To reduce the overhead in switching between two consecutive configurations, we use two radio channels that are selected at random from a finite set of potential channels, one will be designated as an active channel while the second acts as a standby channel. This will harden the wireless communications attacks because the attackers have no clue on what channels are currently being used to exploit existing vulnerability and launch an attack. The experimental results and evaluation show that our approach can tolerate a wide range of attacks (Jamming, DOS and session attacks) against wireless networks.

Kesiman, M. W. A., Prum, S., Sunarya, I. M. G., Burie, J. C., Ogier, J. M..  2015.  An analysis of ground truth binarized image variability of palm leaf manuscripts. 2015 International Conference on Image Processing Theory, Tools and Applications (IPTA). :229–233.

As a very valuable cultural heritage, palm leaf manuscripts offer a new challenge in document analysis system due to the specific characteristics on physical support of the manuscript. With the aim of finding an optimal binarization method for palm leaf manuscript images, creating a new ground truth binarized image is a necessary step in document analysis of palm leaf manuscript. But, regarding to the human intervention in ground truthing process, an important remark about the subjectivity effect on the construction of ground truth binarized image has been analysed and reported. In this paper, we present an experiment in a real condition to analyse the existance of human subjectivity on the construction of ground truth binarized image of palm leaf manuscript images and to measure quantitatively the ground truth variability with several binarization evaluation metrics.

Na, L., Yunwei, D., Tianwei, C., Chao, W., Yang, G..  2015.  The Legitimacy Detection for Multilevel Hybrid Cloud Algorithm Based Data Access. Reliability and Security - Companion 2015 IEEE International Conference on Software Quality. :169–172.

In this paper a joint algorithm was designed to detect a variety of unauthorized access risks in multilevel hybrid cloud. First of all, the access history is recorded among different virtual machines in multilevel hybrid cloud using the global flow diagram. Then, the global flow graph is taken as auxiliary decision-making basis to design legitimacy detection algorithm based data access and is represented by formal representation, Finally the implement process was specified, and the algorithm can effectively detect operating against regulations such as simple unauthorized level across, beyond indirect unauthorized and other irregularities.

R. Lee, L. Mullen, P. Pal, D. Illig.  2015.  "Time of flight measurements for optically illuminated underwater targets using Compressive Sampling and Sparse reconstruction". OCEANS 2015 - MTS/IEEE Washington. :1-6.

Compressive Sampling and Sparse reconstruction theory is applied to a linearly frequency modulated continuous wave hybrid lidar/radar system. The goal is to show that high resolution time of flight measurements to underwater targets can be obtained utilizing far fewer samples than dictated by Nyquist sampling theorems. Traditional mixing/down-conversion and matched filter signal processing methods are reviewed and compared to the Compressive Sampling and Sparse Reconstruction methods. Simulated evidence is provided to show the possible sampling rate reductions, and experiments are used to observe the effects that turbid underwater environments have on recovery. Results show that by using compressive sensing theory and sparse reconstruction, it is possible to achieve significant sample rate reduction while maintaining centimeter range resolution.

Zhao Yijiu, Long Ling, Zhuang Xiaoyan, Dai Zhijian.  2015.  "Model calibration for compressive sampling system with non-ideal lowpass filter". 2015 12th IEEE International Conference on Electronic Measurement Instruments (ICEMI). 02:808-812.

This paper presents a model calibration algorithm for the modulated wideband converter (MWC) with non-ideal analog lowpass filter (LPF). The presented technique uses a test signal to estimate the finite impulse response (FIR) of the practical non-ideal LPF, and then a digital compensation filter is designed to calibrate the approximated FIR filter in the digital domain. At the cost of a moderate oversampling rate, the calibrated filter performs as an ideal LPF. The calibrated model uses the MWC system with non-ideal LPF to capture the samples of underlying signal, and then the samples are filtered by the digital compensation filter. Experimental results indicate that, without making any changes to the architecture of MWC, the proposed algorithm can obtain the samples as that of standard MWC with ideal LPF, and the signal can be reconstructed with overwhelming probability.

K. F. Hong, C. C. Chen, Y. T. Chiu, K. S. Chou.  2015.  "Scalable command and control detection in log data through UF-ICF analysis". 2015 International Carnahan Conference on Security Technology (ICCST). :293-298.

During an advanced persistent threat (APT), an attacker group usually establish more than one C&C server and these C&C servers will change their domain names and corresponding IP addresses over time to be unseen by anti-virus software or intrusion prevention systems. For this reason, discovering and catching C&C sites becomes a big challenge in information security. Based on our observations and deductions, a malware tends to contain a fixed user agent string, and the connection behaviors generated by a malware is different from that by a benign service or a normal user. This paper proposed a new method comprising filtering and clustering methods to detect C&C servers with a relatively higher coverage rate. The experiments revealed that the proposed method can successfully detect C&C Servers, and the can provide an important clue for detecting APT.

Ravindran, K., Rabby, M., Adiththan, A..  2014.  Model-based control of device replication for trusted data collection. Modeling and Simulation of Cyber-Physical Energy Systems (MSCPES), 2014 Workshop on. :1-6.

Voting among replicated data collection devices is a means to achieve dependable data delivery to the end-user in a hostile environment. Failures may occur during the data collection process: such as data corruptions by malicious devices and security/bandwidth attacks on data paths. For a voting system, how often a correct data is delivered to the user in a timely manner and with low overhead depicts the QoS. Prior works have focused on algorithm correctness issues and performance engineering of the voting protocol mechanisms. In this paper, we study the methods for autonomic management of device replication in the voting system to deal with situations where the available network bandwidth fluctuates, the fault parameters change unpredictably, and the devices have battery energy constraints. We treat the voting system as a `black-box' with programmable I/O behaviors. A management module exercises a macroscopic control of the voting box with situational inputs: such as application priorities, network resources, battery energy, and external threat levels.

Andŕe, N.S., Louchet, H., Habel, K., Richter, A..  2014.  Analytical Formulation for SNR Prediction in DMDD OFDM-Based Access Systems. Photonics Technology Letters, IEEE. 26:1255-1258.

In multicarrier direct modulation direct detection systems, interaction between laser chirp and fiber group velocity dispersion induces subcarrier-to-subcarrier intermixing interferences (SSII) after detection. Such SSII become a major impairment in orthogonal frequency division multiplexing-based access systems, where a high modulation index, leading to large chirp, is required to maximize the system power budget. In this letter, we present and experimentally verify an analytical formulation to predict the level of signal and SSII and estimate the signal to noise ratio of each subcarrier, enabling improved bit-and-power loading and subcarrier attribution. The reported model is compact, and only requires the knowledge of basic link characteristics and laser parameters that can easily be measured.

Ravindran, K., Rabby, M., Adiththan, A..  2014.  Model-based control of device replication for trusted data collection. Modeling and Simulation of Cyber-Physical Energy Systems (MSCPES), 2014 Workshop on. :1-6.

Voting among replicated data collection devices is a means to achieve dependable data delivery to the end-user in a hostile environment. Failures may occur during the data collection process: such as data corruptions by malicious devices and security/bandwidth attacks on data paths. For a voting system, how often a correct data is delivered to the user in a timely manner and with low overhead depicts the QoS. Prior works have focused on algorithm correctness issues and performance engineering of the voting protocol mechanisms. In this paper, we study the methods for autonomic management of device replication in the voting system to deal with situations where the available network bandwidth fluctuates, the fault parameters change unpredictably, and the devices have battery energy constraints. We treat the voting system as a `black-box' with programmable I/O behaviors. A management module exercises a macroscopic control of the voting box with situational inputs: such as application priorities, network resources, battery energy, and external threat levels.