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Khan, Ausaf Umar, Chawhan, Manish Devendra, Mushrif, Milind Madhukar, Neole, Bhumika.  2021.  Performance Analysis of Adhoc On-demand Distance Vector Protocol under the influence of Black-Hole, Gray-Hole and Worm-Hole Attacks in Mobile Adhoc Network. 2021 5th International Conference on Intelligent Computing and Control Systems (ICICCS). :238–243.
Adhoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV) is the well-known reactive routing protocol of Mobile Adhoc Network (MANET). Absence of security mechanism in AODV disturbs the routing because of misbehavior of attack and hence, degrades MANET's performance. Secure and efficient routing is a need of various commercial and non-commercial applications of MANET including military and war, disaster and earthquake, and riot control. This paper presents a design of important network layer attacks include black-hole (BH), gray-hole (GH) and worm-hole (WH) attacks. The performance analysis of AODV protocol is carried out under the influence of each designed attack by using the network simulator, NetSim. Simulation results show that, the network layer attacks affect packet delivery ability of AODV protocol with low energy consumption and in short time. Design of attacks helps to understand attack's behavior and hence, to develop security mechanism in AODV.
Baccari, Sihem, Touati, Haifa, Hadded, Mohamed, Muhlethaler, Paul.  2020.  Performance Impact Analysis of Security Attacks on Cross-Layer Routing Protocols in Vehicular Ad hoc Networks. 2020 International Conference on Software, Telecommunications and Computer Networks (SoftCOM). :1—6.

Recently, several cross-layer protocols have been designed for vehicular networks to optimize data dissemination by ensuring internal communications between routing and MAC layers. In this context, a cross-layer protocol, called TDMA-aware Routing Protocol for Multi-hop communications (TRPM), was proposed in order to efficiently select a relay node based on time slot scheduling information obtained from the MAC layer. However, due to the constant evolution of cyber-attacks on the routing and MAC layers, data dissemination in vehicular networks is vulnerable to several types of attack. In this paper, we identify the different attack models that can disrupt the cross-layer operation of the TRPM protocol and assess their impact on performance through simulation. Several new vulnerabilities related to the MAC slot scheduling process are identified. Exploiting of these vulnerabilities would lead to severe channel capacity wastage where up to half of the free slots could not be reserved.

Naveena, S., Senthilkumar, C., Manikandan, T..  2020.  Analysis and Countermeasures of Black-Hole Attack in MANET by Employing Trust-Based Routing. 2020 6th International Conference on Advanced Computing and Communication Systems (ICACCS). :1222–1227.
A self-governing system consisting of mobile nodes that exchange information within a cellular area and is known as a mobile ad hoc network (MANET). Due to its dynamic nature, it is vulnerable to attacks and there is no fixed infrastructure. To transfer a data packet Ad-hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) is used and it's another form of a reactive protocol. The black-hole attack is a major attack that drastically decreases the packet delivery ratio during a data transaction in a routing environment. In this attack, the attacker's node acts as the shortest path to the target node itself. If the attacker node receives the data packet from the source node, all obtained data packets are excluded from a routing network. A trust-based routing scheme is suggested to ensure secure routing. This routing scheme is divided into two stages, i.e., the Data retrieval (DR), to identify and preserve each node data transfer mechanism in a routing environment and route development stage, to predict a safe path to transmit a data packet to the target node.
Li, T., Ma, J., Pei, Q., Song, H., Shen, Y., Sun, C..  2019.  DAPV: Diagnosing Anomalies in MANETs Routing With Provenance and Verification. IEEE Access. 7:35302–35316.
Routing security plays an important role in the mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). Despite many attempts to improve its security, the routing mechanism of MANETs remains vulnerable to attacks. Unlike most existing solutions that prevent the specific problems, our approach tends to detect the misbehavior and identify the anomalous nodes in MANETs automatically. The existing approaches offer support for detecting attacks or debugging in different routing phases, but many of them cannot answer the absence of an event. Besides, without considering the privacy of the nodes, these methods depend on the central control program or a third party to supervise the whole network. In this paper, we present a system called DAPV that can find single or collaborative malicious nodes and the paralyzed nodes which behave abnormally. DAPV can detect both direct and indirect attacks launched during the routing phase. To detect malicious or abnormal nodes, DAPV relies on two main techniques. First, the provenance tracking enables the hosts to deduce the expected log information of the peers with the known log entries. Second, the privacy-preserving verification uses Merkle Hash Tree to verify the logs without revealing any privacy of the nodes. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach by applying DAPV to three scenarios: 1) detecting injected malicious intermediated routers which commit active and passive attacks in MANETs; 2) resisting the collaborative black-hole attack of the AODV protocol, and; 3) detecting paralyzed routers in university campus networks. Our experimental results show that our approach can detect the malicious and paralyzed nodes, and the overhead of DAPV is moderate.
Otoum, S., Kantarci, B., Mouftah, H. T..  2017.  Hierarchical Trust-Based Black-Hole Detection in WSN-Based Smart Grid Monitoring. 2017 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC). :1–6.

Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have been widely adopted to monitor various ambient conditions including critical infrastructures. Since power grid is considered as a critical infrastructure, and the smart grid has appeared as a viable technology to introduce more reliability, efficiency, controllability, and safety to the traditional power grid, WSNs have been envisioned as potential tools to monitor the smart grid. The motivation behind smart grid monitoring is to improve its emergency preparedness and resilience. Despite their effectiveness in monitoring critical infrastructures, WSNs also introduce various security vulnerabilities due to their open nature and unreliable wireless links. In this paper, we focus on the, Black-Hole (B-H) attack. To cope with this, we propose a hierarchical trust-based WSN monitoring model for the smart grid equipment in order to detect the B-H attacks. Malicious nodes have been detected by testing the trade-off between trust and dropped packet ratios for each Cluster Head (CH). We select different thresholds for the Packets Dropped Ratio (PDR) in order to test the network behaviour with them. We set four different thresholds (20%, 30%, 40%, and 50%). Threshold of 50% has been shown to reach the system stability in early periods with the least number of re-clustering operations.

Saurabh, V. K., Sharma, R., Itare, R., Singh, U..  2017.  Cluster-based technique for detection and prevention of black-hole attack in MANETs. 2017 International conference of Electronics, Communication and Aerospace Technology (ICECA). 2:489–494.

Secure routing in the field of mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is one of the most flourishing areas of research. Devising a trustworthy security protocol for ad hoc routing is a challenging task due to the unique network characteristics such as lack of central authority, rapid node mobility, frequent topology changes, insecure operational environment, and confined availability of resources. Due to low configuration and quick deployment, MANETs are well-suited for emergency situations like natural disasters or military applications. Therefore, data transfer between two nodes should necessarily involve security. A black-hole attack in the mobile ad-hoc network (MANET) is an offense occurring due to malicious nodes, which attract the data packets by incorrectly publicizing a fresh route to the destination. A clustering direction in AODV routing protocol for the detection and prevention of black-hole attack in MANET has been put forward. Every member of the unit will ping once to the cluster head, to detect the exclusive difference between the number of data packets received and forwarded by the particular node. If the fault is perceived, all the nodes will obscure the contagious nodes from the network. The reading of the system performance has been done in terms of packet delivery ratio (PDR), end to end delay (ETD) throughput and Energy simulation inferences are recorded using ns2 simulator.

Wu, X., Xiao, J., Shao, J..  2017.  Trust-Based Protocol for Securing Routing in Opportunistic Networks. 2017 13th IEEE Conference on Automation Science and Engineering (CASE). :434–439.

It is hard to set up an end-to-end connection between source and destination in Opportunistic Networks, due to dynamic network topology and the lack of infrastructure. Instead, the store-carry-forward mechanism is used to achieve communication. Namely, communication in Opportunistic Networks relies on the cooperation among nodes. Correspondingly, Opportunistic Networks have some issues like long delays, packet loss and so on, which lead to many challenges in Opportunistic Networks. However, malicious nodes do not follow the routing rules, or refuse to cooperate with benign nodes. Some misbehaviors like black-hole attack, gray-hole attack may arbitrarily bloat their delivery competency to intercept and drop data. Selfishness in Opportunistic Networks will also drop some data from other nodes. These misbehaviors will seriously affect network performance like the delivery success ratio. In this paper, we design a Trust-based Routing Protocol (TRP), combined with various utility algorithms, to more comprehensively evaluate the competency of a candidate node and effectively reduce negative effects by malicious nodes. In simulation, we compare TRP with other protocols, and shows that our protocol is effective for misbehaviors.