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Akter, S., Rahman, M. S., Mansoor, N..  2020.  An Efficient Routing Protocol for Secured Communication in Cognitive Radio Sensor Networks. 2020 IEEE Region 10 Symposium (TENSYMP). :1713–1716.
This paper introduces an efficient reactive routing protocol considering the mobility and the reliability of a node in Cognitive Radio Sensor Networks (CRSNs). The proposed protocol accommodates the dynamic behavior of the spectrum availability and selects a stable transmission path from a source node to the destination. Outlined as a weighted graph problem, the proposed protocol measures the weight for an edge the measuring the mobility patterns of the nodes and channel availability. Furthermore, the mobility pattern of a node is defined in the proposed routing protocol from the viewpoint of distance, speed, direction, and node's reliability. Besides, the spectrum awareness in the proposed protocol is measured over the number of shared common channels and the channel quality. It is anticipated that the proposed protocol shows efficient routing performance by selecting stable and secured paths from source to destination. Simulation is carried out to assess the performance of the protocol where it is witnessed that the proposed routing protocol outperforms existing ones.
Ayaida, Marwane, Messai, Nadhir, Wilhelm, Geoffrey, Najeh, Sameh.  2019.  A Novel Sybil Attack Detection Mechanism for C-ITS. 2019 15th International Wireless Communications Mobile Computing Conference (IWCMC). :913–918.

Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems (C-ITS) are expected to play an important role in our lives. They will improve the traffic safety and bring about a revolution on the driving experience. However, these benefits are counterbalanced by possible attacks that threaten not only the vehicle's security, but also passengers' lives. One of the most common attacks is the Sybil attack, which is even more dangerous than others because it could be the starting point of many other attacks in C-ITS. This paper proposes a distributed approach allowing the detection of Sybil attacks by using the traffic flow theory. The key idea here is that each vehicle will monitor its neighbourhood in order to detect an eventual Sybil attack. This is achieved by a comparison between the real accurate speed of the vehicle and the one estimated using the V2V communications with vehicles in the vicinity. The estimated speed is derived by using the traffic flow fundamental diagram of the road's portion where the vehicles are moving. This detection algorithm is validated through some extensive simulations conducted using the well-known NS3 network simulator with SUMO traffic simulator.

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Sun, M., Li, M., Gerdes, R..  2018.  Truth-Aware Optimal Decision-Making Framework with Driver Preferences for V2V Communications. 2018 IEEE Conference on Communications and Network Security (CNS). :1-9.

In Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) communications, malicious actors may spread false information to undermine the safety and efficiency of the vehicular traffic stream. Thus, vehicles must determine how to respond to the contents of messages which maybe false even though they are authenticated in the sense that receivers can verify contents were not tampered with and originated from a verifiable transmitter. Existing solutions to find appropriate actions are inadequate since they separately address trust and decision, require the honest majority (more honest ones than malicious), and do not incorporate driver preferences in the decision-making process. In this work, we propose a novel trust-aware decision-making framework without requiring an honest majority. It securely determines the likelihood of reported road events despite the presence of false data, and consequently provides the optimal decision for the vehicles. The basic idea of our framework is to leverage the implied effect of the road event to verify the consistency between each vehicle's reported data and actual behavior, and determine the data trustworthiness and event belief by integrating the Bayes' rule and Dempster Shafer Theory. The resulting belief serves as inputs to a utility maximization framework focusing on both safety and efficiency. This framework considers the two basic necessities of the Intelligent Transportation System and also incorporates drivers' preferences to decide the optimal action. Simulation results show the robustness of our framework under the multiple-vehicle attack, and different balances between safety and efficiency can be achieved via selecting appropriate human preference factors based on the driver's risk-taking willingness.

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Yao, Y., Xiao, B., Wu, G., Liu, X., Yu, Z., Zhang, K., Zhou, X..  2017.  Voiceprint: A Novel Sybil Attack Detection Method Based on RSSI for VANETs. 2017 47th Annual IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks (DSN). :591–602.

Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs) enable vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communications that bring many benefits and conveniences to improve the road safety and drive comfort in future transportation systems. Sybil attack is considered one of the most risky threats in VANETs since a Sybil attacker can generate multiple fake identities with false messages to severely impair the normal functions of safety-related applications. In this paper, we propose a novel Sybil attack detection method based on Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI), Voiceprint, to conduct a widely applicable, lightweight and full-distributed detection for VANETs. To avoid the inaccurate position estimation according to predefined radio propagation models in previous RSSI-based detection methods, Voiceprint adopts the RSSI time series as the vehicular speech and compares the similarity among all received time series. Voiceprint does not rely on any predefined radio propagation model, and conducts independent detection without the support of the centralized infrastructure. It has more accurate detection rate in different dynamic environments. Extensive simulations and real-world experiments demonstrate that the proposed Voiceprint is an effective method considering the cost, complexity and performance.