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Guerra, Y., Peña-Garcia, R., Padrón-Hernández, E..  2019.  Remanence State and Coercivity in 1-D Chain of Polycrystalline Hollow Cobalt Nanospheres. IEEE Transactions on Magnetics. 55:1–5.
In this paper, we present a study about the remanence state and coercivity in 1-D chain of cobalt hollow nanospheres, by using micromagnetic simulation. The high coercivity values (Hc is determined in the range of 600-1800 Oe) and the monotonic decrease of remanence are attributed to the shape anisotropy effect due to an increase in the aspect ratio value. The configuration of magnetization in remanence showed the onion state for hollow spheres (HSs) with Re = 15 nm, whereas for Re = 30 nm, appear the curling-vortex (CV) state. Finally for a cluster of chains, constituted by cobalt HSs, with random orientations the CV state is preserved.
Coey, M., Stamenov, P. S., Venkatesan, M., Porter, S. B., Iriyama, T..  2018.  Remanence enhancement melt-spun Nitroquench Sm2Fe17N3. M.. 2018 IEEE International Magnetics Conference (INTERMAG). :1–1.
The discovery of the interstitial rare earth nitride Sm2Fe17N3 came about seven years after the discovery of the rare earth iron boride Nd2Fe [1],[2], and the nitride initially seemed to offer intrinsic magnetic properties that were superior (Curie temperature TC, magnetocrystalline anisotropy K1 or comparable (spontaneous magnetization Ms to those of its illustrious predecessor. However, the promise of the new material to seriously challenge Nd2Fe14B was not realized. The 2:17 nitride powder, prepared by a low-temperature gas-phase interstitial modification process proved difficult to orient and worse still, it lost its nitrogen at the temperatures needed to process dense sintered magnets [3]. Attempts at explosive compaction [4] or spark sintering [5] failed to yield material with good enough coercivity. Nevertheless, work continued in Japan and China to develop a coercive powder that could be used for bonded magnets. An early realization was zinc-bonded Sm2Fe17N3 [6] with an energy product of 84 kJm3 but a rather low coercivity of 480 kAm-1, less than 5 % of the anisotropy field (Ha = 2K1/Ms ≈ 11 MAm-1). The anisotropy field of Nd2Fe14B is significantly less (6 MAm-1) yet several decades of intensive development have led to higher values and continuous improvements of the coercivity, even in unsubstituted material. Historical experience with permanent magnets shows that a long period of materials development is needed to arrive at the best composition and processing conditions for a microstructure that allows the hard magnetism to be optimized. Coercivities of about 25% of the anisotropy field are ultimately achieved. Here we compare the magnetic properties of melt-spun material. Our Nitroquench powder, produced by Daido Steel, was in the form of flakes 10 μm thick and up to 100 μm in diameter. A crystal-lite size of approximately 15 nm deduced from Scherrer broadening of the X-ray reflections. Composition was checked by EDX microprobe analysis. Hysteresis loops have been measured in applied fields of up to 14 T, at room temperature and at 4 K.The material exhibits a room-temperature coercivity of 690 kAm-1 after saturation in 14 T, with a remanence of 700 kAm-1 in zero applied field and an extrapolated saturation magnetization of 1230 kAm-1. The remanence ratio Mr/Ms of 63% when the remanence is corrected to zero internal field, is reflected in a preferred orientation seen in the X-ray powder diffraction patterns and in 57Fe Mössbauer spectra of magnetized powder. Spectra obtained after saturation of an immobilized powder absorber either in-plane or perpendicular to the sample plane exhibit distinctly different relative intensities of the ΔM=0 absorption lines. The maximum energy product for the powder, assuming full density, is 162 kJm-3. The remanence enhancement is attributed to fact that the nanocrystallite size is not much greater than the exchange length. Melt-spun Sm-Fe-N powder has superior corrosion resistance and thermal stability compared to melt-spun Nd-Fe-B. The Nitroquench powder may be used to produce polymer-bonded magnets with an energy product in excess of 100 kJm-3.
Elbidweihy, H., Arrott, A. S., Provenzano, V..  2018.  Modeling the Role of the Buildup of Magnetic Charges in Low Anisotropy Polycrystalline Materials. IEEE Transactions on Magnetics. 54:1–5.

A Stoner-Wohlfarth-type model is used to demonstrate the effect of the buildup of magnetic charges near the grain boundaries of low anisotropy polycrystalline materials, revealed by measuring the magnetization during positive-field warming after negative-field cooling. The remnant magnetization after negative-field cooling has two different contributions. The temperature-dependent component is modeled as an assembly of particles with thermal relaxation. The temperature-independent component is modeled as an assembly of particles overcoming variable phenomenological energy barriers corresponding to the change in susceptibility when the anisotropy constant changes its sign. The model is applicable to soft-magnetic materials where the buildup of the magnetic charges near the grain boundaries creates demagnetizing fields opposing, and comparable in magnitude to, the anisotropy field. The results of the model are in qualitative agreement with published data revealing the magneto-thermal characteristics of polycrystalline gadolinium.

Davila, Y. G., Júnior, F. A. Revoredo, Peña-Garcia, R., Padrón-Hernández, E..  2019.  Peak in Angular Dependence of Coercivity in a Hexagonal Array of Permalloy Spherical Nanocaps. IEEE Magnetics Letters. 10:1–3.

Micromagnetic simulations of coercivity as a function of external magnetic field direction were performed for a hexagonal array of hemispherical Permalloy nanocaps. The analysis was based on hysteresis loops for arrangements of nanocaps of variable thickness (5 nm and 10 nm). The angular dependence of coercivity had a maximum at about 80° with respect to the arrangement plane. An increase in coercivity with nanocap thickness is related to the magnetization reversal mechanism, where the dipole energy of individual caps generates an effective intermediate axis, locking the magnetic moments. The coercivity has maximum values of 109 Oe for 5 nm and 156 Oe for 10 nm thickness. The remanence decreases monotonically with angle. This is associated with the influence of shape anisotropy, where the demagnetizing field in the plane of the array is much smaller than the demagnetizing field perpendicular to the plane.

Maity, T., Roy*, S..  2017.  Manipulation of Magnetic Properties by Tunable Magnetic Dipoles in a Ferromagnetic Thin Film. IEEE Magnetics Letters. 8:1–4.
We demonstrate how a unique nanomodulation within a continuous ferromagnetic film can induce magnetic dipoles at predefined, submicrometer scale locations, which can tune the global magnetic properties of the film due to dipole-dipole interactions. Arrays of tunable magnetic dipoles are generated with in-plane and out-of-plane directions, which can be rotated in-plane within the three-dimensional (3-D) modulated structure of a continuous film. In-plane magnetic dipole rotation enables a methodology to control overall magnetic properties of a ferromagnetic thin film. Formation of magnetic dipoles and their tunability were studied in detail by magnetic force microscopy, high-resolution magnetic measurements, and micromagnetic simulation of a nanomodulated Ni45Fe55 alloy film. A pattern larger than a single magnetic domain would normally form a vortex in the remanent state. However, here the unique 3-D nanostructure prevents vortex formation due to the competition between in-plane and out-of-plane dipole-dipole interaction giving rise to a metastable state. Experimentally, at zero remanence, the magnetization goes through a transformation from a metastable to a stable state, where the dipole-dipole interaction depends on their geometrical arrangement. Thus, the magnetic properties of the continuous film can be varied by the proposed pattern geometry. A detail analytical study of the dipolar energy for the system agrees well with the experimental and simulated results.
White, E. M. H., Kassen, A. G., Simsek, E., Tang, W., Ott, R. T., Anderson, I. E..  2017.  Net Shape Processing of Alnico Magnets by Additive Manufacturing. IEEE Transactions on Magnetics. 53:1–6.

Alternatives to rare earth permanent magnets, such as alnico, will reduce supply instability, increase sustainability, and could decrease the cost of permanent magnets, especially for high-temperature applications, such as traction drive motors. Alnico magnets with moderate coercivity, high remanence, and relatively high-energy product are conventionally processed by directional solidification and (significant) final machining, contributing to increased costs and additional material waste. Additive manufacturing (AM) is developing as a cost effective method to build net-shape 3-D parts with minimal final machining and properties comparable to wrought parts. This paper describes initial studies of net-shape fabrication of alnico magnets by AM using a laser engineered net shaping (LENS) system. High-pressure gas atomized pre-alloyed powders of two different modified alnico “8” compositions, with high purity and sphericity, were built into cylinders using the LENS process, and followed by heat treatment. The magnetic properties showed improvement over their cast and sintered counterparts. The resulting alnico permanent magnets were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, electron backscatter diffraction, and hysteresisgraph measurements. These results display the potential for net-shape processing of alnico permanent magnets for use in next generation traction-drive motors and other applications requiring high temperatures and/or complex engineered part geometries.