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Machida, H., Fujiwara, T., Fujimoto, C., Kanamori, Y., Tanaka, J., Takezawa, M..  2019.  Magnetic Domain Structures and Magnetic Properties of Lightly Nd-Doped Sm–Co Magnets With High Squareness and High Heat Resistance. IEEE Transactions on Magnetics. 55:1–4.
The relationship between magnetic domain structures and magnetic properties of Nd-doped Sm(Fe, Cu, Zr, Co)7.5 was investigated. In the preparation process, slow cooling between sintering and solution treatment was employed to promote homogenization of microstructures. The developed magnet achieved a maximum energy product, [BH]m, of 33.8 MGOe and coercivity, Hcb, of 11.2 kOe at 25 °C, respectively. Moreover, B-H line at 150 °C was linear, which means that irreversible demagnetization does not occur even at 150 °C. Temperature coefficients of remanent magnetic flux density, Br, and intrinsic coercivity, Hcj, were 0.035%/K and 0.24%/K, respectively, as usual the conventional Sm-Co magnet. Magnetic domain structures were observed with a Kerr effect microscope with a magnetic field applied from 0 to -20 kOe, and then reverse magnetic domains were generated evenly from grain boundaries. Microstructures referred to as “cell structures” were observed with a scanning transmission electron microscope. Fe and Cu were separated to 2-17 and 1-5 phases, respectively. Moreover, without producing impurity phases, Nd showed the same composition behavior with Sm in a cell structure.
Coey, M., Stamenov, P. S., Venkatesan, M., Porter, S. B., Iriyama, T..  2018.  Remanence enhancement melt-spun Nitroquench Sm2Fe17N3. M.. 2018 IEEE International Magnetics Conference (INTERMAG). :1–1.
The discovery of the interstitial rare earth nitride Sm2Fe17N3 came about seven years after the discovery of the rare earth iron boride Nd2Fe [1],[2], and the nitride initially seemed to offer intrinsic magnetic properties that were superior (Curie temperature TC, magnetocrystalline anisotropy K1 or comparable (spontaneous magnetization Ms to those of its illustrious predecessor. However, the promise of the new material to seriously challenge Nd2Fe14B was not realized. The 2:17 nitride powder, prepared by a low-temperature gas-phase interstitial modification process proved difficult to orient and worse still, it lost its nitrogen at the temperatures needed to process dense sintered magnets [3]. Attempts at explosive compaction [4] or spark sintering [5] failed to yield material with good enough coercivity. Nevertheless, work continued in Japan and China to develop a coercive powder that could be used for bonded magnets. An early realization was zinc-bonded Sm2Fe17N3 [6] with an energy product of 84 kJm3 but a rather low coercivity of 480 kAm-1, less than 5 % of the anisotropy field (Ha = 2K1/Ms ≈ 11 MAm-1). The anisotropy field of Nd2Fe14B is significantly less (6 MAm-1) yet several decades of intensive development have led to higher values and continuous improvements of the coercivity, even in unsubstituted material. Historical experience with permanent magnets shows that a long period of materials development is needed to arrive at the best composition and processing conditions for a microstructure that allows the hard magnetism to be optimized. Coercivities of about 25% of the anisotropy field are ultimately achieved. Here we compare the magnetic properties of melt-spun material. Our Nitroquench powder, produced by Daido Steel, was in the form of flakes 10 μm thick and up to 100 μm in diameter. A crystal-lite size of approximately 15 nm deduced from Scherrer broadening of the X-ray reflections. Composition was checked by EDX microprobe analysis. Hysteresis loops have been measured in applied fields of up to 14 T, at room temperature and at 4 K.The material exhibits a room-temperature coercivity of 690 kAm-1 after saturation in 14 T, with a remanence of 700 kAm-1 in zero applied field and an extrapolated saturation magnetization of 1230 kAm-1. The remanence ratio Mr/Ms of 63% when the remanence is corrected to zero internal field, is reflected in a preferred orientation seen in the X-ray powder diffraction patterns and in 57Fe Mössbauer spectra of magnetized powder. Spectra obtained after saturation of an immobilized powder absorber either in-plane or perpendicular to the sample plane exhibit distinctly different relative intensities of the ΔM=0 absorption lines. The maximum energy product for the powder, assuming full density, is 162 kJm-3. The remanence enhancement is attributed to fact that the nanocrystallite size is not much greater than the exchange length. Melt-spun Sm-Fe-N powder has superior corrosion resistance and thermal stability compared to melt-spun Nd-Fe-B. The Nitroquench powder may be used to produce polymer-bonded magnets with an energy product in excess of 100 kJm-3.
Codescu, M. M., Kappel, W., Chitanu, E., Manta, E..  2017.  Exchange hardened ferrimagnetic nanocomposites. 2017 10th International Symposium on Advanced Topics in Electrical Engineering (ATEE). :444–447.

Having significant role in the storing, delivering and conversion of the energy, the permanent magnets are key elements in the actual technology. In many applications, the gap between ferrites and rare earths (RE) based sintered permanent magnets is nowadays filled by RE bonded magnets, used in more applications, below their magnetic performances. Therewith, the recent trends in the RE market concerning their scarcity, impose EU to consider alternative magnets (without RE) to fill such gap. The paper presents the chemical synthesis of the exchange coupled SrFe12O19/CoFe2O4 nanocomposites, based on nanoferrites. The appropriate annealing leads to the increasing of the main magnetic characteristics, saturation magnetization MS and intrinsic coercivity Hc, in the range of 49 - 53 emu/g, respectively 126.5 - 306 kA/m. The value reached for the ratio between remanent magnetization and saturation magnetization is higher than 0.5, fact that proved that between the two magnetic phases occurred exchange interaction.