Visible to the public Biblio

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2021-05-25
Zhu, Hong, Xia, Bing, Zhou, Dongxu, Zhang, Ming, Ma, Zhoujun.  2020.  Research on Integrated Model and Interactive Influence of Energy Internet Cyber Physical System. 2020 IEEE Sustainable Power and Energy Conference (iSPEC). :1667–1671.

Energy Internet is a typical cyber-physical system (CPS), in which the disturbance on cyber part may result in the operation risks on the physical part. In order to perform CPS assessment and research the interactive influence between cyber part and physical part, an integrated energy internet CPS model which adopts information flow matrix, energy control flow matrix and information energy hybrid flow matrix is proposed in this paper. The proposed model has a higher computational efficacy compared with simulation based approaches. Then, based on the proposed model, the influence of cyber disturbances such as data dislocation, data delay and data error on the physical part are studied. Finally, a 3 MW PET based energy internet CPS is built using PSCAD/EMTDC software. The simulation results prove the validity of the proposed model and the correctness of the interactive influence analysis.

2021-05-05
Ulrich, Jacob, McJunkin, Timothy, Rieger, Craig, Runyon, Michael.  2020.  Scalable, Physical Effects Measurable Microgrid for Cyber Resilience Analysis (SPEMMCRA). 2020 Resilience Week (RWS). :194—201.

The ability to advance the state of the art in automated cybersecurity protections for industrial control systems (ICS) has as a prerequisite of understanding the trade-off space. That is, to enable a cyber feedback loop in a control system environment you must first consider both the security mitigation available, the benefits and the impacts to the control system functionality when the mitigation is used. More damaging impacts could be precipitated that the mitigation was intended to rectify. This paper details networked ICS that controls a simulation of the frequency response represented with the swing equation. The microgrid loads and base generation can be balanced through the control of an emulated battery and power inverter. The simulated plant, which is implemented in Raspberry Pi computers, provides an inexpensive platform to realize the physical effects of cyber attacks to show the trade-offs of available mitigating actions. This network design can include a commercial ICS controller and simple plant or emulated plant to introduce real world implementation of feedback controls, and provides a scalable, physical effects measurable microgrid for cyber resilience analysis (SPEMMCRA).

2021-04-08
Venkitasubramaniam, P., Yao, J., Pradhan, P..  2015.  Information-Theoretic Security in Stochastic Control Systems. Proceedings of the IEEE. 103:1914–1931.
Infrastructural systems such as the electricity grid, healthcare, and transportation networks today rely increasingly on the joint functioning of networked information systems and physical components, in short, on cyber-physical architectures. Despite tremendous advances in cryptography, physical-layer security and authentication, information attacks, both passive such as eavesdropping, and active such as unauthorized data injection, continue to thwart the reliable functioning of networked systems. In systems with joint cyber-physical functionality, the ability of an adversary to monitor transmitted information or introduce false information can lead to sensitive user data being leaked or result in critical damages to the underlying physical system. This paper investigates two broad challenges in information security in cyber-physical systems (CPSs): preventing retrieval of internal physical system information through monitored external cyber flows, and limiting the modification of physical system functioning through compromised cyber flows. A rigorous analytical framework grounded on information-theoretic security is developed to study these challenges in a general stochastic control system abstraction-a theoretical building block for CPSs-with the objectives of quantifying the fundamental tradeoffs between information security and physical system performance, and through the process, designing provably secure controller policies. Recent results are presented that establish the theoretical basis for the framework, in addition to practical applications in timing analysis of anonymous systems, and demand response systems in a smart electricity grid.
2021-02-16
Jin, Z., Yu, P., Guo, S. Y., Feng, L., Zhou, F., Tao, M., Li, W., Qiu, X., Shi, L..  2020.  Cyber-Physical Risk Driven Routing Planning with Deep Reinforcement-Learning in Smart Grid Communication Networks. 2020 International Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing (IWCMC). :1278—1283.
In modern grid systems which is a typical cyber-physical System (CPS), information space and physical space are closely related. Once the communication link is interrupted, it will make a great damage to the power system. If the service path is too concentrated, the risk will be greatly increased. In order to solve this problem, this paper constructs a route planning algorithm that combines node load pressure, link load balance and service delay risk. At present, the existing intelligent algorithms are easy to fall into the local optimal value, so we chooses the deep reinforcement learning algorithm (DRL). Firstly, we build a risk assessment model. The node risk assessment index is established by using the node load pressure, and then the link risk assessment index is established by using the average service communication delay and link balance degree. The route planning problem is then solved by a route planning algorithm based on DRL. Finally, experiments are carried out in a simulation scenario of a power grid system. The results show that our method can find a lower risk path than the original Dijkstra algorithm and the Constraint-Dijkstra algorithm.
2021-02-08
Moormann, L., Mortel-Fronczak, J. M. van de, Fokkink, W. J., Rooda, J. E..  2020.  Exploiting Symmetry in Dependency Graphs for Model Reduction in Supervisor Synthesis. 2020 IEEE 16th International Conference on Automation Science and Engineering (CASE). :659–666.
Supervisor synthesis enables the design of supervisory controllers for large cyber-physical systems, with high guarantees for functionality and safety. The complexity of the synthesis problem, however, increases exponentially with the number of system components in the cyber-physical system and the number of models of this system, often resulting in lengthy or even unsolvable synthesis procedures. In this paper, a new method is proposed for reducing the model of the system before synthesis to decrease the required computational time and effort. The method consists of three steps for model reduction, that are mainly based on symmetry in dependency graphs of the system. Dependency graphs visualize the components in the system and the relations between these components. The proposed method is applied in a case study on the design of a supervisory controller for a road tunnel. In this case study, the model reduction steps are described, and results are shown on the effectiveness of model reduction in terms of model size and synthesis time.
Pelissero, N., Laso, P. M., Puentes, J..  2020.  Naval cyber-physical anomaly propagation analysis based on a quality assessed graph. 2020 International Conference on Cyber Situational Awareness, Data Analytics and Assessment (CyberSA). :1–8.
As any other infrastructure relying on cyber-physical systems (CPS), naval CPS are highly interconnected and collect considerable data streams, on which depend multiple command and navigation decisions. Being a data-driven decision system requiring optimized supervisory control on a permanent basis, it is critical to examine the CPS vulnerability to anomalies and their propagation. This paper presents an approach to detect CPS anomalies and estimate their propagation applying a quality assessed graph, which represents the CPS physical and digital subsystems, combined with system variables dependencies and a set of data and information quality measures vectors. Following the identification of variables dependencies and high-risk nodes in the CPS, data and information quality measures reveal how system variables are modified when an anomaly is detected, also indicating its propagation path. Taking as reference the normal state of a naval propulsion management system, four anomalies in the form of cyber-attacks - port scan, programmable logical controller stop, and man in the middle to change the motor speed and operation of a tank valve - were produced. Three anomalies were properly detected and their propagation path identified. These results suggest the feasibility of anomaly detection and estimation of propagation estimation in CPS, applying data and information quality analysis to a system graph.
2020-12-21
Cheng, Z., Chow, M.-Y..  2020.  An Augmented Bayesian Reputation Metric for Trustworthiness Evaluation in Consensus-based Distributed Microgrid Energy Management Systems with Energy Storage. 2020 2nd IEEE International Conference on Industrial Electronics for Sustainable Energy Systems (IESES). 1:215–220.
Consensus-based distributed microgrid energy management system is one of the most used distributed control strategies in the microgrid area. To improve its cybersecurity, the system needs to evaluate the trustworthiness of the participating agents in addition to the conventional cryptography efforts. This paper proposes a novel augmented reputation metric to evaluate the agents' trustworthiness in a distributed fashion. The proposed metric adopts a novel augmentation method to substantially improve the trust evaluation and attack detection performance under three typical difficult-to-detect attack patterns. The proposed metric is implemented and validated on a real-time HIL microgrid testbed.
2020-10-26
Zhang, Kewang, Zahng, Qiong.  2018.  Preserve Location Privacy for Cyber-Physical Systems with Addresses Hashing at Data Link Layer. 2018 IEEE 20th International Conference on High Performance Computing and Communications; IEEE 16th International Conference on Smart City; IEEE 4th International Conference on Data Science and Systems (HPCC/SmartCity/DSS). :1028–1032.
Due to their low complexity and robustness in nature, wireless sensor networks are a key component in cyber-physical system. The integration of wireless sensor network in cyber-physical system provides immense benefits in distributed controlled environment. However, the open nature of the wireless medium makes resource-constrained WSN vulnerable to unauthorized interception and detection. Privacy is becoming one of the major issues that jeopardize the successful deployment of WSN. In this paper, we propose a scheme named HASHA to provide location privacy. Different from previous approaches, HASHA protect nodes' location privacy at data link layer. It is well known that payload at data link layer frame is well protected through cryptosystem, but addresses at data link layer leaves unprotected. The adversaries can identify nodes in the network easily by capturing frames and check the source and destination addresses. If both addresses are well protected and unknown to the adversaries, they cannot identify nodes of the targeted networks, rendering it very difficult to launch traffic analysis and locate subjects. Simulation and analytical results demonstrate that our scheme provides stronger privacy protection and requires much less energy.
2020-10-06
Li, Zhiyi, Shahidehpour, Mohammad, Galvin, Robert W., Li, Yang.  2018.  Collaborative Cyber-Physical Restoration for Enhancing the Resilience of Power Distribution Systems. 2018 IEEE Power Energy Society General Meeting (PESGM). :1—5.

This paper sheds light on the collaborative efforts in restoring cyber and physical subsystems of a modern power distribution system after the occurrence of an extreme weather event. The extensive cyber-physical interdependencies in the operation of power distribution systems are first introduced for investigating the functionality loss of each subsystem when the dependent subsystem suffers disruptions. A resilience index is then proposed for measuring the effectiveness of restoration activities in terms of restoration rapidity. After modeling operators' decision making for economic dispatch as a second-order cone programming problem, this paper proposes a heuristic approach for prioritizing the activities for restoring both cyber and physical subsystems. In particular, the proposed heuristic approach takes into consideration of cyber-physical interdependencies for improving the operation performance. Case studies are also conducted to validate the collaborative restoration model in the 33-bus power distribution system.

2020-09-28
Chen, Yuqi, Poskitt, Christopher M., Sun, Jun.  2018.  Learning from Mutants: Using Code Mutation to Learn and Monitor Invariants of a Cyber-Physical System. 2018 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy (SP). :648–660.
Cyber-physical systems (CPS) consist of sensors, actuators, and controllers all communicating over a network; if any subset becomes compromised, an attacker could cause significant damage. With access to data logs and a model of the CPS, the physical effects of an attack could potentially be detected before any damage is done. Manually building a model that is accurate enough in practice, however, is extremely difficult. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for constructing models of CPS automatically, by applying supervised machine learning to data traces obtained after systematically seeding their software components with faults ("mutants"). We demonstrate the efficacy of this approach on the simulator of a real-world water purification plant, presenting a framework that automatically generates mutants, collects data traces, and learns an SVM-based model. Using cross-validation and statistical model checking, we show that the learnt model characterises an invariant physical property of the system. Furthermore, we demonstrate the usefulness of the invariant by subjecting the system to 55 network and code-modification attacks, and showing that it can detect 85% of them from the data logs generated at runtime.
Dcruz, Hans John, Kaliaperumal, Baskaran.  2018.  Analysis of Cyber-Physical Security in Electric Smart Grid : Survey and challenges. 2018 6th International Renewable and Sustainable Energy Conference (IRSEC). :1–6.
With the advancement in technology, inclusion of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in the conventional Electrical Power Grid has become evident. The combination of communication system with physical system makes it cyber-physical system (CPS). Though the advantages of this improvement in technology are numerous, there exist certain issues with the system. Security and privacy concerns of a CPS are a major field and research and the insight of which is content of this paper.
2020-09-08
Chen, Yu-Cheng, Mooney, Vincent, Grijalva, Santiago.  2019.  A Survey of Attack Models for Cyber-Physical Security Assessment in Electricity Grid. 2019 IFIP/IEEE 27th International Conference on Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI-SoC). :242–243.
This paper surveys some prior work regarding attack models in a cyber-physical system and discusses the potential benefits. For comparison, the full paper will model a bad data injection attack scenario in power grid using the surveyed prior work.
2020-07-16
Luo, Shaojie, Zhang, Lichen, Guo, Nannan.  2019.  Architecture of Cyber-Physical Systems Based on Cloud. 2019 IEEE 5th Intl Conference on Big Data Security on Cloud (BigDataSecurity), IEEE Intl Conference on High Performance and Smart Computing, (HPSC) and IEEE Intl Conference on Intelligent Data and Security (IDS). :251—257.

Cyber-Physical System (CPS) and Cloud Computing are emerging and important research fields in recent years. It is a current trend that CPS combines with Cloud Computing. Compared with traditional CPS, Cloud can improve its performance, but Cloud failures occur occasionally. The existing cloud-based CPS architectures rely too much on the Cloud, ignoring the risk and problems caused by Cloud failures, thus making the reliability of CPS not guaranteed. In order to solve the risk and problems above, spare parts are involved based on the research of cloud-based CPS. An architecture of cloud-based CPS with spare parts is proposed and two solutions for spare parts are designed. Agricultural intelligent temperature control system is used as an example to model and simulate the proposed architecture and solutions using Simulink. The simulation results prove the effectiveness of the proposed architecture and solutions, which enhance the reliability of cloud-based CPS.

Balduccini, Marcello, Griffor, Edward, Huth, Michael, Vishik, Claire, Wollman, David, Kamongi, Patrick.  2019.  Decision Support for Smart Grid: Using Reasoning to Contextualize Complex Decision Making. 2019 7th Workshop on Modeling and Simulation of Cyber-Physical Energy Systems (MSCPES). :1—6.

The smart grid is a complex cyber-physical system (CPS) that poses challenges related to scale, integration, interoperability, processes, governance, and human elements. The US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and its government, university and industry collaborators, developed an approach, called CPS Framework, to reasoning about CPS across multiple levels of concern and competency, including trustworthiness, privacy, reliability, and regulatory. The approach uses ontology and reasoning techniques to achieve a greater understanding of the interdependencies among the elements of the CPS Framework model applied to use cases. This paper demonstrates that the approach extends naturally to automated and manual decision-making for smart grids: we apply it to smart grid use cases, and illustrate how it can be used to analyze grid topologies and address concerns about the smart grid. Smart grid stakeholders, whose decision making may be assisted by this approach, include planners, designers and operators.

2020-07-06
Evgeny, Pavlenko, Dmitry, Zegzhda, Anna, Shtyrkina.  2019.  Estimating the sustainability of cyber-physical systems based on spectral graph theory. 2019 IEEE International Black Sea Conference on Communications and Networking (BlackSeaCom). :1–5.
Paper proposed an approach to estimating the sustainability of cyber-physical systems based on system state analysis. Authors suggested that sustainability is the system ability to reconfigure for recovering from attacking influences. Proposed a new criterion for cyber-physical systems sustainability assessment based on spectral graph theory. Numerical calculation of the criterion is based on distribution properties of the graph spectrum - the set of eigenvalues of the adjacency matrix corresponding to the graph. Experimental results have shown dependency of change in Δσ, difference between initial value of σstart and final σstop, on working route length, and on graph connectivity was revealed. This parameter is proposed to use as a criterion for CPS sustainability.
2020-03-02
Bhat, Sriharsha, Stenius, Ivan, Bore, Nils, Severholt, Josefine, Ljung, Carl, Torroba Balmori, Ignacio.  2019.  Towards a Cyber-Physical System for Hydrobatic AUVs. OCEANS 2019 - Marseille. :1–7.
Cyber-physical systems (CPSs) encompass a network of sensors and actuators that are monitored, controlled and integrated by a computing and communication core. As autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) become more intelligent and connected, new use cases in ocean production, security and environmental monitoring become feasible. Swarms of small, affordable and hydrobatic AUVs can be beneficial in substance cloud tracking and algae farming, and a CPS linking the AUVs with multi-fidelity simulations can improve performance while reducing risks and costs. In this paper, we present a CPS concept tightly linking the AUV network in ROS to virtual validation using Simulink and Gazebo. A robust hardware-software interface using the open-source UAVCAN-ROS bridge is described for enabling hardware-in-the-loop validation. Hardware features of the hydrobatic SAM AUV are described, with a focus on subsystem integration. Results presented include pre-tuning of controllers, validation of mission plans in simulation and real time subsystem performance in tank tests. These first results demonstrate the interconnection between different system elements and offer a proof of concept.
2020-01-27
Shang, Chengya, Bao, Xianqiang, Fu, Lijun, Xia, Li, Xu, Xinghua, Xu, Chengcheng.  2019.  A Novel Key-Value Based Real-Time Data Management Framework for Ship Integrated Power Cyber-Physical System. 2019 IEEE Innovative Smart Grid Technologies - Asia (ISGT Asia). :854–858.
The new generation ship integrated power system (IPS) realizes high level informatization for various physical equipments, and gradually develops to a cyber-physical system (CPS). The future trend is collecting ship big data to achieve data-driven intelligence for IPS. However, traditional relational data management framework becomes inefficient to handle the real-time data processing in ship integrated power cyber-physics system. In order to process the large-scale real-time data that collected from numerous sensors by field bus of IPS devices within acceptable latency, especially for handling the semi-structured and non-structured data. This paper proposes a novel key-value data model based real-time data management framework, which enables batch processing and distributed deployment to acquire time-efficiency as well as system scalable. We implement a real-time data management prototype system based on an open source in-memory key-value store. Finally, the evaluation results from the prototype verify the advantages of novel framework compared with traditional solution.
2019-12-17
Medury, Aditya Sankar, Kansal, Harshit.  2019.  Quantum Confinement Effects and Electrostatics of Planar Nano-Scale Symmetric Double-Gate SOI MOSFETs. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Electron Devices and Solid-State Circuits (EDSSC). :1-3.

The effects of quantum confinement on the charge distribution in planar Double-Gate (DG) SOI (Siliconon-Insulator) MOSFETs were examined, for sub-10 nm SOI film thicknesses (tsi $łeq$ 10 nm), by modeling the potential experienced by the charge carriers as that of an an-harmonic oscillator potential, consistent with the inherent structural symmetry of nanoscale symmetric DGSOI MOSFETs. By solving the 1-D Poisson's equation using this potential, the results obtained were validated through comparisons with TCAD simulations. The present model satisfactorily predicted the electron density and channel charge density for a wide range of SOI channel thicknesses and gate voltages.

Li, Wei, Belling, Samuel W..  2018.  Symmetric Eigen-Wavefunctions of Quantum Dot Bound States Resulting from Geometric Confinement. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Electro/Information Technology (EIT). :0266-0270.

Self-assembled semiconductor quantum dots possess an intrinsic geometric symmetry due to the crystal periodic structure. In order to systematically analyze the symmetric properties of quantum dots' bound states resulting only from geometric confinement, we apply group representation theory. We label each bound state for two kinds of popular quantum dot shapes: pyramid and half ellipsoid with the irreducible representation of the corresponding symmetric groups, i.e., C4v and C2v, respectively. Our study completes all the possible irreducible representation cases of groups C4v and C2v. Using the character theory of point groups, we predict the selection rule for electric dipole induced transitions. We also investigate the impact of quantum dot aspect ratio on the symmetric properties of the state wavefunction. This research provides a solid foundation to continue exploring quantum dot symmetry reduction or broken phenomena because of strain, band-mixing and shape irregularity. The results will benefit the researchers who are interested in quantum dot symmetry related effects such as absorption or emission spectra, or those who are studying quantum dots using analytical or numerical simulation approaches.

Barry, Ibrahima Djenabou, Yokota, Mitsuhiro, Razak, Angger Abdul.  2018.  Design of a New Type of Square Lattice Photonic Crystal Fiber with Flattened Dispersion and Low Confinement Loss. 2018 Electrical Power, Electronics, Communications, Controls and Informatics Seminar (EECCIS). :229-233.

A new kind of Square Lattice Photonic Crystal Fiber (SLPCF) is proposed, the first ring is formed by elliptical holes filled with ethanol. To regulate the dispersion and the confinement loss we put a circular air-holes with small diameters into the third ring of the cladding area. The diameter of the core is arranged as d2=2*A-d, where A is the pitch and d diameter of the air-holes. After simulations, we got a dispersion low as 0.0494 (ps/Km. nm) and a confinement loss also low as 2.6×10-7(dB/m) at a wavelength of 1.55 $μ$m. At 0.8 $μ$m we obtained a nonlinearity high as 60.95 (1/km. w) and a strong guiding light. Also, we compare the filled ethanol elliptical holes with the air filled elliptical holes of our proposed square lattice photonic crystal fiber. We use as a simulation method in this manuscript the two-dimensional FDTD method. The utilization of the proposed fiber is in the telecommunication transmission because of its low dispersion and low loss at the c-band and in the nonlinear applications.

Huang, Hsiang-Hung, Toprasertpong, Kasidit, Delamarre, Amaury, Watanabe, Kentaroh, Sugiyama, Masakazu, Nakano, Yoshiaki.  2019.  Numerical Demonstration of Trade-off between Carrier Confinement Effect and Carrier Transport for Multiple-Quantum-Well Based High-Efficiency InGaP Solar Cells. 2019 Compound Semiconductor Week (CSW). :1-2.

To promote InGaP solar cell efficiency toward the theoretical limit, one promising approach is to incorporate multiple quantum wells (MQWs) into the InGaP host and improve its open-circuit voltage by facilitating radiative carrier recombination owing to carrier confinement. In this research, we demonstrate numerically that a strain-balanced (SB) In1-xGaxP/In1-yGayP MQW enhances confined carrier density while degrades the effective carrier mobility. However, a smart design of the MQW structure is possible by considering quantitatively the trade-off between carrier confinement effect and carrier transport, and MQW can be advantageous over the InGaP bulk material for boosting photovoltaic efficiency.

Chowdhury, Mokter M., Fan, Harrison D. E., Chang, Mike, Dridi, Kais, Voon, Kevin, Sawatzky, George A., Nojeh, Alireza.  2018.  The Role of Lateral Confinement in the Localized Heating of Thermionic Emitters Based on Carbon Nanotube Forests. 2018 31st International Vacuum Nanoelectronics Conference (IVNC). :1-2.

When vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays (CNT forests) are heated by optical, electrical, or any other means, heat confinement in the lateral directions (i.e. perpendicular to the CNTs' axes), which stems from the anisotropic structure of the forest, is expected to play an important role. It has been found that, in spite of being primarily conductive along the CNTs' axes, focusing a laser beam on the sidewall of a CNT forest can lead to a highly localized hot region-an effect known as ``Heat Trap''-and efficient thermionic emission. This unusual heat confinement phenomenon has applications where the spread of heat has to be minimized, but electrical conduction is required, notably in energy conversion (e.g. vacuum thermionics and thermoelectrics). However, despite its strong scientific and practical importance, the existence and role of the lateral heat confinement in the Heat Trap effect have so far been elusive. In this work, for the first time, by using a rotating elliptical laser beam, we directly observe the existence of this lateral heat confinement and its corresponding effects on the unusual temperature rise during the Heat Trap effect.

Gritti, Clémentine, Molva, Refik, Önen, Melek.  2018.  Lightweight Secure Bootstrap and Message Attestation in the Internet of Things. Proceedings of the 33rd Annual ACM Symposium on Applied Computing. :775-782.

Internet of Things (IoT) offers new opportunities for business, technology and science but it also raises new challenges in terms of security and privacy, mainly because of the inherent characteristics of this environment: IoT devices come from a variety of manufacturers and operators and these devices suffer from constrained resources in terms of computation, communication and storage. In this paper, we address the problem of trust establishment for IoT and propose a security solution that consists of a secure bootstrap mechanism for device identification as well as a message attestation mechanism for aggregate response validation. To achieve both security requirements, we approach the problem in a confined environment, named SubNets of Things (SNoT), where various devices depend on it. In this context, devices are uniquely and securely identified thanks to their environment and their role within it. Additionally, the underlying message authentication technique features signature aggregation and hence, generates one compact response on behalf of all devices in the subnet.

Iordanou, Costas, Smaragdakis, Georgios, Poese, Ingmar, Laoutaris, Nikolaos.  2018.  Tracing Cross Border Web Tracking. Proceedings of the Internet Measurement Conference 2018. :329-342.

A tracking flow is a flow between an end user and a Web tracking service. We develop an extensive measurement methodology for quantifying at scale the amount of tracking flows that cross data protection borders, be it national or international, such as the EU28 border within which the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) applies. Our methodology uses a browser extension to fully render advertising and tracking code, various lists and heuristics to extract well known trackers, passive DNS replication to get all the IP ranges of trackers, and state-of-the art geolocation. We employ our methodology on a dataset from 350 real users of the browser extension over a period of more than four months, and then generalize our results by analyzing billions of web tracking flows from more than 60 million broadband and mobile users from 4 large European ISPs. We show that the majority of tracking flows cross national borders in Europe but, unlike popular belief, are pretty well confined within the larger GDPR jurisdiction. Simple DNS redirection and PoP mirroring can increase national confinement while sealing almost all tracking flows within Europe. Last, we show that cross boarder tracking is prevalent even in sensitive and hence protected data categories and groups including health, sexual orientation, minors, and others.

Jog, Suraj, Wang, Jiaming, Hassanieh, Haitham, Choudhury, Romit Roy.  2018.  Enabling Dense Spatial Reuse in mmWave Networks. Proceedings of the ACM SIGCOMM 2018 Conference on Posters and Demos. :18-20.

Millimeter Wave (mmWave) networks can deliver multi-Gbps wireless links that use extremely narrow directional beams. This provides us with a new way to exploit spatial reuse in order to scale network throughput. In this work, we present MilliNet, the first millimeter wave network that can exploit dense spatial reuse to allow many links to operate in parallel in a confined space and scale the wireless throughput with the number of clients. Results from a 60 GHz testbed show that MilliNet can deliver a total wireless network data rate of more than 38 Gbps for 10 clients which is 5.8× higher than current 802.11 mmWave standards.