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Guirguis, Mina, Tahsini, Alireza, Siddique, Khan, Novoa, Clara, Moore, Justin, Julien, Christine, Dunstatter, Noah.  2018.  BLOC: A Game-Theoretic Approach to Orchestrate CPS against Cyber Attacks. 2018 IEEE Conference on Communications and Network Security (CNS). :1—9.

Securing Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) against cyber-attacks is challenging due to the wide range of possible attacks - from stealthy ones that seek to manipulate/drop/delay control and measurement signals to malware that infects host machines that control the physical process. This has prompted the research community to address this problem through developing targeted methods that protect and check the run-time operation of the CPS. Since protecting signals and checking for errors result in performance penalties, they must be performed within the delay bounds dictated by the control loop. Due to the large number of potential checks that can be performed, coupled with various degrees of their effectiveness to detect a wide range of attacks, strategic assignment of these checks in the control loop is a critical endeavor. To that end, this paper presents a coherent runtime framework - which we coin BLOC - for orchestrating the CPS with check blocks to secure them against cyber attacks. BLOC capitalizes on game theoretical techniques to enable the defender to find an optimal randomized use of check blocks to secure the CPS while respecting the control-loop constraints. We develop a Stackelberg game model for stateless blocks and a Markov game model for stateful ones and derive optimal policies that minimize the worst-case damage from rational adversaries. We validate our models through extensive simulations as well as a real implementation for a HVAC system.

Mace, J.C., Morisset, C., Pierce, K., Gamble, C., Maple, C., Fitzgerald, J..  2018.  A multi-modelling based approach to assessing the security of smart buildings. Living in the Internet of Things: Cybersecurity of the IoT – 2018. :1—10.

Smart buildings are controlled by multiple cyber-physical systems that provide critical services such as heating, ventilation, lighting and access control. These building systems are becoming increasingly vulnerable to both cyber and physical attacks. We introduce a multi-model methodology for assessing the security of these systems, which utilises INTO-CPS, a suite of modelling, simulation, and analysis tools for designing cyber-physical systems. Using a fan coil unit case study we show how its security can be systematically assessed when subjected to Man-in-the-Middle attacks on the data connections between system components. We suggest our methodology would enable building managers and security engineers to design attack countermeasures and refine their effectiveness.

Xiao, Jiaping, Jiang, Jianchun.  2018.  Real-time Security Evaluation for Unmanned Aircraft Systems under Data-driven Attacks*. 2018 13th World Congress on Intelligent Control and Automation (WCICA). :842—847.

With rapid advances in the fields of the Internet of Things and autonomous systems, the network security of cyber-physical systems(CPS) becomes more and more important. This paper focuses on the real-time security evaluation for unmanned aircraft systems which are cyber-physical systems relying on information communication and control system to achieve autonomous decision making. Our problem formulation is motivated by scenarios involving autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles(UAVs) working continuously under data-driven attacks when in an open, uncertain, and even hostile environment. Firstly, we investigated the state estimation method in CPS integrated with data-driven attacks model, and then proposed a real-time security scoring algorithm to evaluate the security condition of unmanned aircraft systems under different threat patterns, considering the vulnerability of the systems and consequences brought by data attacks. Our simulation in a UAV illustrated the efficiency and reliability of the algorithm.

Bovo, Cristian, Ilea, Valentin, Rolandi, Claudio.  2018.  A Security-Constrained Islanding Feasibility Optimization Model in the Presence of Renewable Energy Sources. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Environment and Electrical Engineering and 2018 IEEE Industrial and Commercial Power Systems Europe (EEEIC / I CPS Europe). :1—6.

The massive integration of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) into power systems is a major challenge but it also provides new opportunities for network operation. For example, with a large amount of RES available at HV subtransmission level, it is possible to exploit them as controlling resources in islanding conditions. Thus, a procedure for off-line evaluation of islanded operation feasibility in the presence of RES is proposed. The method finds which generators and loads remain connected after islanding to balance the island's real power maximizing the amount of supplied load and assuring the network's long-term security. For each possible islanding event, the set of optimal control actions (load/generation shedding) to apply in case of actual islanding, is found. The procedure is formulated as a Mixed Integer Non-Linear Problem (MINLP) and is solved using Genetic Algorithms (GAs). Results, including dynamic simulations, are shown for a representative HV subtransmission grid.

Lingasubramanian, Karthikeyan, Kumar, Ranveer, Gunti, Nagendra Babu, Morris, Thomas.  2018.  Study of hardware trojans based security vulnerabilities in cyber physical systems. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics (ICCE). :1—6.

The dependability of Cyber Physical Systems (CPS) solely lies in the secure and reliable functionality of their backbone, the computing platform. Security of this platform is not only threatened by the vulnerabilities in the software peripherals, but also by the vulnerabilities in the hardware internals. Such threats can arise from malicious modifications to the integrated circuits (IC) based computing hardware, which can disable the system, leak information or produce malfunctions. Such modifications to computing hardware are made possible by the globalization of the IC industry, where a computing chip can be manufactured anywhere in the world. In the complex computing environment of CPS such modifications can be stealthier and undetectable. Under such circumstances, design of these malicious modifications, and eventually their detection, will be tied to the functionality and operation of the CPS. So it is imperative to address such threats by incorporating security awareness in the computing hardware design in a comprehensive manner taking the entire system into consideration. In this paper, we present a study in the influence of hardware Trojans on closed-loop systems, which form the basis of CPS, and establish threat models. Using these models, we perform a case study on a critical CPS application, gas pipeline based SCADA system. Through this process, we establish a completely virtual simulation platform along with a hardware-in-the-loop based simulation platform for implementation and testing.

Ni, Ming, Xue, Yusheng, Tong, Heqin, Li, Manli.  2018.  A cyber physical power system co-simulation platform. 2018 Workshop on Modeling and Simulation of Cyber-Physical Energy Systems (MSCPES). :1—5.

With the tighter integration of power system and Information and Communication Technology (ICT), power grid is becoming a typical cyber physical system (CPS). It is important to analyze the impact of the cyber event on power system, so that it is necessary to build a co-simulation system for studying the interaction between power system and ICT. In this paper, a cyber physical power system (CPPS) co-simulation platform is proposed, which includes the hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation function. By using flexible interface, various simulation software for power system and ICT can be interconnected into the platform to build co-simulation tools for various simulation purposes. To demonstrate it as a proof, one simulation framework for real life cyber-attack on power system control is introduced. In this case, the real life denial-of-service attack on a router in automatic voltage control (AVC) is simulated to demonstrate impact of cyber-attack on power system.

Ding, Yueming, Li, Kuan, Meng, Zhaoxian.  2018.  CPS Optimal Control for Interconnected Power Grid Based on Model Predictive Control. 2018 2nd IEEE Conference on Energy Internet and Energy System Integration (EI2). :1—9.

The CPS standard can be more objective to evaluate the effect of control behavior in each control area on the interconnected power grid. The CPS standard is derived from statistical methods emphasizing the long-term control performance of AGC, which is beneficial to the frequency control of the power grid by mutual support between the various power grids in the case of an accident. Moreover, CPS standard reduces the wear of the equipment caused by the frequent adjustment of the AGC unit. The key is to adjust the AGC control strategy to meet the performance of CPS standard. This paper proposed a dynamic optimal CPS control methodology for interconnected power systems based on model predictive control which can achieve optimal control under the premise of meeting the CPS standard. The effectiveness of the control strategy is verified by simulation examples.

Ma, Siyou, Yan, Yunqiang.  2018.  Simulation Testing of Fault-Tolerant CPS Based on Hierarchical Adaptive Policies. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Software Quality, Reliability and Security Companion (QRS-C). :443—449.

Cyber physical system (CPS) is often deployed at safety-critical key infrastructures and fields, fault tolerance policies are extensively applied in CPS systems to improve its credibility; the same physical backup of hardware redundancy (SPB) technology is frequently used for its simple and reliable implementation. To resolve challenges faced with in simulation test of SPB-CPS, this paper dynamically determines the test resources matched with the CPS scale by using the adaptive allocation policies, establishes the hierarchical models and inter-layer message transmission mechanism. Meanwhile, the collaborative simulation time sequence push strategy and the node activity test mechanism based on the sliding window are designed in this paper to improve execution efficiency of the simulation test. In order to validate effectiveness of the method proposed in this paper, we successfully built up a fault-tolerant CPS simulation platform. Experiments showed that it can improve the SPB-CPS simulation test efficiency.

Roth, Thomas, Burns, Martin.  2018.  A gateway to easily integrate simulation platforms for co-simulation of cyber-physical systems. 2018 Workshop on Modeling and Simulation of Cyber-Physical Energy Systems (MSCPES). :1—6.

Cyber-physical systems (CPS) research leverages the expertise of researchers from multiple domains to engineer complex systems of interacting physical and computational components. An approach called co-simulation is often used in CPS conceptual design to integrate the specialized tools and simulators from each of these domains into a joint simulation for the evaluation of design decisions. Many co-simulation platforms are being developed to expedite CPS conceptualization and realization, but most use intrusive modeling and communication libraries that require researchers to either abandon their existing models or spend considerable effort to integrate them into the platform. A significant number of these co-simulation platforms use the High Level Architecture (HLA) standard that provides a rich set of services to facilitate distributed simulation. This paper introduces a simple gateway that can be readily implemented without co-simulation expertise to adapt existing models and research infrastructure for use in HLA. An open-source implementation of the gateway has been developed for the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) co-simulation platform called the Universal CPS Environment for Federation (UCEF).

Koumidis, K., Kolios, P., Ellinas, G., Panayiotou, C. G..  2019.  Secure Event Logging Using a Blockchain of Heterogeneous Computing Resources. 2019 IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM). :1—6.

Secure logging is essential for the integrity and accountability of cyber-physical systems (CPS). To prevent modification of log files the integrity of data must be ensured. In this work, we propose a solution for secure event in cyberphysical systems logging based on the blockchain technology, by encapsulating event data in blocks. The proposed solution considers the real-time application constraints that are inherent in CPS monitoring and control functions by optimizing the heterogeneous resources governing blockchain computations. In doing so, the proposed blockchain mechanism manages to deliver events in hard-to-tamper ledger blocks that can be accessed and utilized by the various functions and components of the system. Performance analysis of the proposed solution is conducted through extensive simulation, demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed approach in delivering blocks of events on time using the minimum computational resources.

Farivar, Faezeh, Haghighi, Mohammad Sayad, Barchinezhad, Soheila, Jolfaei, Alireza.  2019.  Detection and Compensation of Covert Service-Degrading Intrusions in Cyber Physical Systems through Intelligent Adaptive Control. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology (ICIT). :1143—1148.

Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) are playing important roles in the critical infrastructure now. A prominent family of CPSs are networked control systems in which the control and feedback signals are carried over computer networks like the Internet. Communication over insecure networks make system vulnerable to cyber attacks. In this article, we design an intrusion detection and compensation framework based on system/plant identification to fight covert attacks. We collect error statistics of the output estimation during the learning phase of system operation and after that, monitor the system behavior to see if it significantly deviates from the expected outputs. A compensating controller is further designed to intervene and replace the classic controller once the attack is detected. The proposed model is tested on a DC motor as the plant and is put against a deception signal amplification attack over the forward link. Simulation results show that the detection algorithm well detects the intrusion and the compensator is also successful in alleviating the attack effects.

Rudolph, Hendryk, Lan, Tian, Strehl, Konrad, He, Qinwei, Lan, Yuanliang.  2019.  Simulating the Efficiency of Thermoelectrical Generators for Sensor Nodes. 2019 4th IEEE Workshop on the Electronic Grid (eGRID). :1—6.

In order to be more environmentally friendly, a lot of parts and aspects of life become electrified to reduce the usage of fossil fuels. This can be seen in the increased number of electrical vehicles in everyday life. This of course only makes a positive impact on the environment, if the electricity is produced environmentally friendly and comes from renewable sources. But when the green electrical power is produced, it still needs to be transported to where it's needed, which is not necessarily near the production site. In China, one of the ways to do this transport is to use High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) technology. This of course means, that the current has to be converted to DC before being transported to the end user. That implies that the converter stations are of great importance for the grid security. Therefore, a precise monitoring of the stations is necessary. Ideally, this could be accomplished with wireless sensor nodes with an autarkic energy supply. A role in this energy supply could be played by a thermoelectrical generator (TEG). But to assess the power generated in the specific environment, a simulation would be highly desirable, to evaluate the power gained from the temperature difference in the converter station. This paper proposes a method to simulate the generated power by combining a model for the generator with a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model converter.

Luo, Shaojie, Zhang, Lichen, Guo, Nannan.  2019.  Architecture of Cyber-Physical Systems Based on Cloud. 2019 IEEE 5th Intl Conference on Big Data Security on Cloud (BigDataSecurity), IEEE Intl Conference on High Performance and Smart Computing, (HPSC) and IEEE Intl Conference on Intelligent Data and Security (IDS). :251—257.

Cyber-Physical System (CPS) and Cloud Computing are emerging and important research fields in recent years. It is a current trend that CPS combines with Cloud Computing. Compared with traditional CPS, Cloud can improve its performance, but Cloud failures occur occasionally. The existing cloud-based CPS architectures rely too much on the Cloud, ignoring the risk and problems caused by Cloud failures, thus making the reliability of CPS not guaranteed. In order to solve the risk and problems above, spare parts are involved based on the research of cloud-based CPS. An architecture of cloud-based CPS with spare parts is proposed and two solutions for spare parts are designed. Agricultural intelligent temperature control system is used as an example to model and simulate the proposed architecture and solutions using Simulink. The simulation results prove the effectiveness of the proposed architecture and solutions, which enhance the reliability of cloud-based CPS.

Yuan, Haoxuan, Li, Fang, Huang, Xin.  2019.  A Formal Modeling and Verification Framework for Service Oriented Intelligent Production Line Design. 2019 IEEE/ACIS 18th International Conference on Computer and Information Science (ICIS). :173—178.

The intelligent production line is a complex application with a large number of independent equipment network integration. In view of the characteristics of CPS, the existing modeling methods cannot well meet the application requirements of large scale high-performance system. a formal simulation verification framework and verification method are designed for the performance constraints such as the real-time and security of the intelligent production line based on soft bus. A model-based service-oriented integration approach is employed, which adopts a model-centric way to automate the development course of the entire software life cycle. Developing experience indicate that the proposed approach based on the formal modeling and verification framework in this paper can improve the performance of the system, which is also helpful to achieve the balance of the production line and maintain the reasonable use rate of the processing equipment.

Balduccini, Marcello, Griffor, Edward, Huth, Michael, Vishik, Claire, Wollman, David, Kamongi, Patrick.  2019.  Decision Support for Smart Grid: Using Reasoning to Contextualize Complex Decision Making. 2019 7th Workshop on Modeling and Simulation of Cyber-Physical Energy Systems (MSCPES). :1—6.

The smart grid is a complex cyber-physical system (CPS) that poses challenges related to scale, integration, interoperability, processes, governance, and human elements. The US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and its government, university and industry collaborators, developed an approach, called CPS Framework, to reasoning about CPS across multiple levels of concern and competency, including trustworthiness, privacy, reliability, and regulatory. The approach uses ontology and reasoning techniques to achieve a greater understanding of the interdependencies among the elements of the CPS Framework model applied to use cases. This paper demonstrates that the approach extends naturally to automated and manual decision-making for smart grids: we apply it to smart grid use cases, and illustrate how it can be used to analyze grid topologies and address concerns about the smart grid. Smart grid stakeholders, whose decision making may be assisted by this approach, include planners, designers and operators.

Hasani, Abbas, Haghjoo, Farhad, Bak, Claus Leth, Faria da Silva, Filipe.  2019.  Performance Evaluation of Some Industrial Loss of Field Protection Schemes Using a Realistic Model in The RTDS. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Environment and Electrical Engineering and 2019 IEEE Industrial and Commercial Power Systems Europe (EEEIC / I CPS Europe). :1—5.

Loss of field (LOF) relay, with ANSI code 40, is one of the most important protection functions for synchronous generators in power plants. Although many LOF protection schemes have been presented in the literature during the last decades, a few numbers of them such as impedance and admittance based schemes are accepted by the industry. This paper explores and compares the performances of some industrial LOF protection schemes through simulation studies and from speed, reliability and security viewpoints. The simulation studies are carried out in the real-time-digital-simulator, where a realistic power generation unit is developed by employing the phase domain model of synchronous generator. Using such a realistic system, various types of LOF events can be simulated in accordance with IEEE Standard C37.102-2006, so that the performance of any method can be evaluated through careful LOF studies.

Kërçi, Taulant, Milano, Federico.  2019.  A Framework to embed the Unit Commitment Problem into Time Domain Simulations. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Environment and Electrical Engineering and 2019 IEEE Industrial and Commercial Power Systems Europe (EEEIC / I CPS Europe). :1—5.

This paper proposes a software framework to embed the unit commitment problem into a power system dynamic simulator. A sub-hourly, mixed-integer linear programming Security Constrained Unit Commitment (SCUC) with a rolling horizon is utilized to account for the variations of the net load of the system. The SCUC is then included into time domain simulations to study the impact of the net-load variability and uncertainty on the dynamic behavior of the system using different scheduling time periods. A case study based on the 39-bus system illustrates the features of the proposed software framework.

Singh, Vivek Kumar, Govindarasu, Manimaran, Porschet, Donald, Shaffer, Edward, Berman, Morris.  2019.  Distributed Power System Simulation using Cyber-Physical Testbed Federation: Architecture, Modeling, and Evaluation. 2019 Resilience Week (RWS). 1:26—32.

Development of an attack-resilient smart grid depends heavily on the availability of a representative environment, such as a Cyber Physical Security (CPS) testbed, to accelerate the transition of state-of-the-art research work to industry deployment by experimental testing and validation. There is an ongoing initiative to develop an interconnected federated testbed to build advanced computing systems and integrated data sharing networks. In this paper, we present a distributed simulation for power system using federated testbed in the context of Wide Area Monitoring System (WAMS) cyber-physical security. In particular, we have applied the transmission line modeling (TLM) technique to split a first order two-bus system into two subsystems: source and load subsystems, which are running in geographically dispersed simulators, while exchanging system variables over the internet. We have leveraged the resources available at Iowa State University's Power Cyber Laboratory (ISU PCL) and the US Army Research Laboratory (US ARL) to perform the distributed simulation, emulate substation and control center networks, and further implement a data integrity attack and physical disturbances targeting WAMS application. Our experimental results reveal the computed wide-area network latency; and model validation errors. Further, we also discuss the high-level conceptual architecture, inspired by NASPInet, necessary for developing the CPS testbed federation.

Ma, Siyou, Feng, Gao, Yan, Yunqiang.  2019.  Study on Hybrid Collaborative Simulation Testing Method Towards CPS. 2019 IEEE 19th International Conference on Software Quality, Reliability and Security Companion (QRS-C). :51—56.

CPS is generally complex to study, analyze, and design, as an important means to ensure the correctness of design and implementation of CPS system, simulation test is difficult to fully test, verify and evaluate the components or subsystems in the CPS system due to the inconsistent development progress of the com-ponents or subsystems in the CPS system. To address this prob-lem, we designed a hybrid P2P based collaborative simulation test framework composed of full physical nodes, hardware in the loop(HIL) nodes and full digital nodes to simulate the compo-nents or subsystems in the CPS system of different development progress, based on the framework, we then proposed collabora-tive simulation control strategy comprising sliding window based clock synchronization, dynamic adaptive time advancement and multi-priority task scheduling with preemptive time threshold. Experiments showed that the hybrid collaborative simulation testing method proposed in this paper can fully test CPS more effectively.

Demir, Mehmet özgÜn, Alp Topal, Ozan, Dartmann, Guido, Schmeink, Anke, Ascheid, Gerd, Kurt, GüneŞ, Pusane, Ali Emre.  2019.  Using Perfect Codes in Relay Aided Networks: A Security Analysis. 2019 International Conference on Wireless and Mobile Computing, Networking and Communications (WiMob). :1—6.

Cyber-physical systems (CPS) are state-of-the-art communication environments that offer various applications with distinct requirements. However, security in CPS is a nonnegotiable concept, since without a proper security mechanism the applications of CPS may risk human lives, the privacy of individuals, and system operations. In this paper, we focus on PHY-layer security approaches in CPS to prevent passive eavesdropping attacks, and we propose an integration of physical layer operations to enhance security. Thanks to the McEliece cryptosystem, error injection is firstly applied to information bits, which are encoded with the forward error correction (FEC) schemes. Golay and Hamming codes are selected as FEC schemes to satisfy power and computational efficiency. Then obtained codewords are transmitted across reliable intermediate relays to the legitimate receiver. As a performance metric, the decoding frame error rate of the eavesdropper is analytically obtained for the fragmentary existence of significant noise between relays and Eve. The simulation results validate the analytical calculations, and the obtained results show that the number of low-quality channels and the selected FEC scheme affects the performance of the proposed model.

Yang, Yi, Xu, Wei, Wang, Sixin, Wei, Kunlun.  2018.  Modeling and Analysis of CPS Availability Based on the Object-oriented Timed Petri Nets. 2018 37th Chinese Control Conference (CCC). :6172—6177.

Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) is mostly deployed in security-critical applications where their failures can cause serious consequences, and therefore it is critical to evaluate its availability. In this paper, an architecture model of CPS is established from the perspective of object-oriented system. The system is a unified whole formed by various independent objects (including sensors, controllers and actuators) through communication connection. Then the paper presents the Object-oriented Timed Petri Net to model the system. The modeling method can be used to describe the whole system and the characteristics of the object. At the same time, the availability analysis of the system is carried out by using the mathematical analysis method and simulation tool of Petri net. Finally, a concrete case is given to verify the feasibility of the modeling method in CPS availability analysis.

Promyslov, Vitaly, Jharko, Elena, Semenkov, Kirill.  2019.  Principles of Physical and Information Model Integration for Cybersecurity Provision to a Nuclear Power Plant. 2019 Twelfth International Conference "Management of large-scale system development" (MLSD). :1–3.
For complex technical objects the research of cybersecurity problems should take into account both physical and information properties of the object. The paper considers a hybrid model that unifies information and physical models and may be used as a tool for countering cyber threats and for cybersecurity risk assessment at the design and operational stage of an object's lifecycle.